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and any horticulturist or florist visiting Wash- to begin with in the early season, before the ington can readily discover that the Botanical grass is sufficient to turn out on; then after harGarden is an interesting and useful institution. vest, during the dry weather, when the pasturage.

The Experimental Grounds are likewise inter- becomes short, Hungarian grass, to be followed esting and worthy of a more extended notice with corn sowed in drills for fodder, which cut than I can now give them. Here I saw over one morning and evening, and fed to the stock whilst hundred varieties of wheat growing—from 2 to milking, fills them twice a day and, with the pas31 inches high, the latter a Russian variety, - ture, makes them all that is required. During the also including Alsike, Chinese, and many others last season, whilst it was necessary to soil with

-curious and interesting. The grounds also Hungarian grass and corn for fodder, we have embrace plots comprising different varieties of also fed two quarts of ship stuff each night and peas, roots, cucumbers, and other vegetables, morning, as we feel satisfied that, although the sorghum, &c., many of them rare, and likely to Hungarian grass and green corn will keep up the prove of value to the farmers and gardeners of yield of milk, yet they will not alone make as the country.

much butter as a full supply of pasture or the

natural grasses. Philadelphia Butter Dairy. I look upon a cow as similar to a steam boil

er; no matter how good they may be, unless the A Philadelphia merchant who keeps a large

boiler is well supplied with water and good fuel, butter dairy in the noble land of Chester, relates

also well attended the supply of steam will be short, his views on the same to friend Morris of the

or it will be in proportion to the fuel and attenPractical Farmer.

tion. So also with the cow: no matter how Early in the season when the cows are first good she may be, if she is nat well and plentifully turned to pasture the grass is watery, and tends

fed and cared for, her product will be shortened. to make the cows scour very much; and although it will in that state increase the flow of milk and

Another important matter with cows is that also the quantity of butter, yet it will be at the

they should be protected from storms and bad expense of the condition of the cow, reducing

weather. They should be fed and kept under her in flesh, and telling upon her the whole sea

shelter when the nights are wet and inclement; sou. At this time I consider it important that

this more particularly in the early season, when the cow should be fe:d with ship stuff or bran and

the cow is fresh and full of milk : one exposure

to a cold wet night has frequently reduced the cob meal, mixed night and morning. This not only assists in preventing scouring, but by keep

milk one-half. Also in the fall when the nights ing up the condition of the stock, increases the

become frosty, never let them remain out; be

particular to stable them: and in the morning quantity of the butter to a very considerable ex

never turn them out on the pasture until the tent. My opinion is, that meal fed at this time pays better, certainly as well as at any other

frost is melted off by the sun, as nothing, pertime during the season, not excepting in mid

haps, dries a cow or reduces her milk more than winter.

eating grass with the frost on it. To many of I am well satisfied that the condition of the

these requirements the generality of farmers pay

no attention whatever. In the early season, as cow, in order to obtain from her a full yield, or one that will be profitable, must at all times be

soon as there is any pasture whatever, the cow looked to. She must be well wintered and fed, i

is turned out of the barn.yard, to eat what she so that when she comes out of the barn yard in

she may find, and to remain day and night until the spring after having calved, she is in good flesh

the winter comes; there is also nothing grown showing her keep and care taken of her, and not

or fed to eke out the scanty supply of pasturage like what is too much the custom of the country,

that almost invariably occurs at some time in viz: dry cows, wintered on straw, and no shelter

each season. except it be the lea side of the barn-yard, until My cows are principally pure and grade Alderthe calf is dropped, when it is too late for the neys, with a few good grade or common cows. poor in flesh cow to yield her full capacity. I I have never kept any but a pure Jersey bull.

A cow should at all times, when milking be in another year I do not expect to have any but fully supplied with meal; not stimulated to excess, pure blood and grade Alderneys, as, from actual however, for that would certainly produce reac- trial and experience, let what will be said to the tion afterwards; but she must have a full and contrary by others, I am well satisfied the Alderplentiful supply at all times of good food and ney and its crosses are the most profitable stuck water. For that purpose I have grown early rze' for the butter dairy.

The American farmer.

1

80.00

pleasure in giving a place to, at our Agricoltoral College.

A Attention is called to the advertisement Baltimore, August 1, 1867.

of the Agricultural College. With the advan

tages of a thoroughly liberal course of instracTERMS OF THE AMERICAN FARMER.

tion, as well as of that pertaining to its specialty,

its pleasant and convenient location, and its very SUBSCRIPTION TWO DOLLARS PER ANNUM. comfortable accommodations, this Institution of

fers peculiar attractions to students.
RATES OF ADVERTISING :
Eight lines of small type constitute a square.

Manure.
1 Mo. | 3 Mo. 6 Mo. 1 Year. The word manure, the etymologists tell us, in

its original signification, means to work with One Square..... $2.00 $5.00 $10.00 $15.00 Half Column...

8.50
20.00
35.00

the hands." He who dug his ground with spade Half Page..... 15.00 35.00 60.00 110.00 One Page.... 25.00 60.00 110.00

or hoe manured it. Now, he only manures w bo 200.00

dresses it with dung, or other fertilizers. It PUBLISHED BY

would be a matter of some interest to trace the WORTHINGTON & LEWIS.

steps by which this change has come about. It Office, 52 S. Gay street,

would seemn that the use of fertilizers was so Near Exchange Place.

highly esteemed by our ancestors that when one BALTIMORE.

should use them properly, he was thought to SUBSCRIPTIONS.–Our thanks are due to have done everything that good tillage required: friends who have so promptly complied with our or rather, perhaps, that he who wonld incur the terms by their remittances during the past month. | labor and expense of gathering and scattering From the large number of letters received, it is fertilizers was sure to do all else that was regratifying to be able to say, that we have not a quisite; this being done was an assurance that word except of kindness and encouragement. the ground was indeed manured (worked.) We are well assured that the Farmer is appreci- The philosophy of this last idea is apparent. ated, and is doing its work efficiently. It has If a man lays out five hundred dollars in liming not been our policy by strained efforts to get a a fifty acre field, he will probably work that subscription list of reluctant contributors, But field better than if he puts nothing at all upon to have our Journal stand upon its merits, what-it. The fact that he is willing to spend so much ever tliey may be. The class of men whose money shows that his mind is in the right frame nimes are on our books, are, we have reason to for something further. The expenditure begets think, of the very best which the Agricultural an interest wbich creates the desire to realize the community of the Middle and Southern States utmost from his investment, orges him to have contains, and they have subscribed for the Farmer his plowing done in the best manner; to haronly because they want it.

row, to roll, to open surface drains at least, for

surplus water, and suggests many little attenTed F. G. F., Raleigh, North Carolina, speak tions which would otherwise bave been orering of fruit cnltivation in North Carolina, and looked. We do not doubt that the observation valuable native varieties, says: "Would you of many will bear us out in saying, that wherlike to see some of our fine seedlings? "Thevis,' ever lime, guano, or other costly fertilizers bare the 'Sally Grey,' Wyndham's Red,' and · Cat been introduced, the improvement bas been Head' apples; "June Pear,' 'Foster's Prolific' | greater than what was due to the manure. Plum, a native seedling; 'Scuppernong' and ' Possibly the mechanical effect of the use of * Weller's Halifax' Grapes, all No. 1. If so, I dung, straw, &c., bad something to do with the will try and and send some of each in their sea- change in the meaning of the word. In the sons if I can do 80 cheaply. If you like the stubborn clays so prevalent in old England, the fruit, I will send some small trees in the fall, if effect of such substances in ameliorating and reacceptable."

ducing the soil, must have been early apparent, We have to say in reply, that we should be and led to the conviction that only to dress glad to have specimens of these fruits for trial, with these was to "manure" or give them their but our usual experience in getting such is, tbat proper working. they spoil before reaching us. The trees recom- But the chemical effect produced by the action mended by our correspondent, we should take of fertilizers may have had a still more effectual

control. Lime has been long known and used,

Texture of Soils. as an improver of the soil. Yet no one supposes The quality of soils is very various, particuthat its value is due to its supply of an ingredi-larly as to texture and consistency, and no quality ent of the food of plants. There is not perhaps has more influence upon the well-being of plants one acre in ten thousand that does not contain than this. All the operations of spading, diglime enough for this purpose. Its greatest effect ging, ploughing, trenching and draining have for as a fertilizer has been observed on what are their object the production and preservation of known as lime stone lands, and is due, without that condition which will allow all excess of doubt, to its chemical action—to its effecting in a water to pass freely away, and admit as freely, short time that change in the condition of the seve fresh supplies of atmospheric air. While hural mineral constituents of the soil which is brought midity is necessary, and too loose a texture makes about in longer time by the laborious operation too dry a soil, excess of moisture is a great evil, of ploughing. The technical term “weathering” and must be corrected by whatever means is aprepresents the process by which these changes are plicable. When the soil is saturated with water produced ; that is by exposure of the surface to the access of the genial air and the gaseous prothe action of the weather, frost being here a very perties is excluded. The soil is kept too low in active agent.

temperature by constant evaporation at the surAll our ordinary manures, those especially | face, and by exclusion of the sun's rays; plants which we consider most valuable, act very proba- are deprived of the supplies of food which new bly in the same way. They supply directly the supplies of air would constantly afford; and the food of plants, but they act mechanically in delicate fibres are imprisoned and choked, and opening soils of close texture to the influence of drowned out in greater or less degree, in proporthe elements, and chemically, by ammonia and tion to the extent of the evil. carbonic acid, in cooking, so to speak, the raw When air and rain can permeate freely, a coningredients of the soil, and presenting tbem as fit stant supply of both gaseous and aqueous pourfood for growing plants. This is the very effect ishment is afforded, independently altogether of produced by weathering, and weathering is made the richness of the soil, whether natural or artimost effectunl by constant digging and plough- / ficial. On the other hand, if the soil be coming, so that new surfaces may be continually pre- pact, or baked hard by drought, in consequence sented to the influence of air and rain, which op- of its natural condition, or of its having been erate by means of oxygen, carbonic acid and previously worked and stirred when too wet, no ammonia. The effect of manual labor and fer- plant can flourish. tilizers being so nearly identical in this respect, Sandy soils are never liable to these conditions, and the latter acting with so much more prompt- unless when they have a clay stratum lying unness, it may well be said, that he only manures derneath, very near the surface. All the water in the original sense of the word who makes a they absorb sinks deep into the subsoil, and far proper use of fertilizers.

below the roots of corn or any agricultural plant

on the surface. Such a soil needs neither drainCatalogues.

ing nor subsoil ploughing. Neither does it ever Catalogue of Pure Bred Webb South-Down | require to be exposed to the frosts of winter, or Sheep.This is a catalogue of the flock of South- any kind of treatment by implements, for its downs of the late James C. Taylor, of N. J., physical amelioration. It is almost always in such imported and bred by him. For catalogue, ad an open, friable state, that it may be ploughed dress Wm. G. C. Taylor, Holmdel, New Jersey. and sown at any season. The cultivation is

easy, and executed at moderate expense, and We have also Catalogue and Price List of J., with moderate care and judgment in their manC. Cox & Co., Breeders of Thoroughbred Stock, agement their fertility is easily main tained. For Domestic and Ornamental Fowls, &c. P. 0. these reasons we have several times urged that Osborne, Greene county, Ohio.

lands of this character are not sufficiently appre

ciated, for we find them in many parts of the From George A. Deitz, Importer and Grower country thrown out of cultivation and lying of Seed Wheat and Grass Seed, Chambersburg, waste. Pa., we have his circular, descriptive of varieties In such descriptions of land, however, it often of wheat offered for sale in small or large par- happens that beds of clay lie alternately with cels. Mr. D. presents to those who wish to those of sand, at different depths, beneath the change their seed, a favorable opportunity of do- surface. These beds not unfrequently crop out, ing so. [See advertisement.]

or approach so near the surface that the water

does not get readily away, and even a sandy sur- enter upon a highly profitable and pleasing us face soil is kept too wet for the good of growing dertaking, and this without having to pay the plants. In such a case, draining is the proper usual heavy penalties of experimenting." remedy.

THE SOUTHERN Review.—The July pumber of It is well, however, to know that this remedy

this Quarterly is received. The contents are may often be applied at much less cost than if it

Ireland and her Miseries. The Atlantic Cable. were necessary to seek an outlet in some low

John Stuart Mill and Dr. Lieber on Liberty. ground at a considerable distance from the land

The Maid. The North and the South. Picaresco to be drained. If there be wet and dry places

Romances. Xantippe and Socrates. Causes of in the same field, we may be assured that a bed

Sectional Discontent. Davis and Lee Book of clay or other impervious earth lies beneath

Notices. the wet, and a porous subsoil beneath the dry

This very able Review maintains the high poplaces. A drain of sufficient depth opened and

sition it took on its first appearance. It should filled nearly to the surface with stones or loose

be the pride of Baltimoreans to sustain a pobligravel from the wet to the dry places, will ren

cation of such character, and to give it the most der the whole dry. A very short drain will

liberal support. Bledsoe & Browne, publishers. sometimes effect this quite as well as one made

$5 per annum, in advance. at four times the cost to convey the water to a stream or a ravine.

BLACKWOOD, FOR JUNE.—The contents of this

number are-Brownlow's Part VI. The Reigo Book Table.

of Law. My Hunt of the Silver Fox. Was

George III. a Constitutional King? Strikes and We have from the publishers, A. Williams & Trades Unions. Dante in English Terza Rima. Co., Boston, CHEMISTYY OF THE FARM AND THE

The Reform Bill. Clause III. and M. Lowe. Sea, by Jas. R. Nichols, M. D., editor of "Bos

Blackwood and the four leading British Reviews ton Journal of Chemistry and Pharmacy." In

are re-published at the very low price of $15 for 1 vol. 12mo., elegantly bound in cloth. Price

all--for Blackwood alone $4-by the Leonard $1.25.

Scott Publishing Co., 140 Fulton street, N. York. The aim of this little work is "to present scientific facts and principles in a familiar way,

THE WESTMINSTER REVIEW, Quarterly, for April. so as to interest and instruct those not specially Contents-Italy and the War of 1866. The Paacquainted with matters of science." The topics pal Drama. Thomas Hobbes. Contemporary treated in these essays are Chem. of the Farm- | Music and Musical Literature. New Amer of the Sea-of a Bowl of Milk-of the Dwelling

Mr. Swinburne's Poetry. The Hopes and Fears -of a Kernel of Cornof the Sun, fe. It is an of Reformers. Coutemporary Literature. attractive little volume, which we have not yet, "Turf. FIELD AND FARM.'_This publication however, sufficiently looked into, to do it full

comes to us enlarged and improved, and we take justice.

pleasure in its evident prosperity. While the Also from the same publishers we have GEYE

"Sports of the Turf and the Field” are its leadLIN POULTRY BREEDING IN A COMMERCIAL Point

ing feature, this Journal has taken a decided OF View, with an introduction by Charles L.

stand for morality and elevated principles. There Flint, Secretary Mass. State Board of Agricul

are such things as legitimate sports, which have ture. 1 vol. 12mo., with 27 illustrations. Price

been brought into disrepute by the rascalities $1.25. As carried out by the National Poultry

and evil practices which commonly accompany Company, limited, Bromley, Kent; Natural and them. The Journalist who clearly distinguishes Artificial Hatchery, Rearing and Fattening on between the principal and its adjuncts, and while entirely new and scientific principles, with all he advocates the former, discourages and conthe necessary Plans, Elevations, Sections and de

demns the latter, does a good service to the comtails, and a notice of the poultry establishments

munity, and a special service to those who love in France by Geo. Kennedy, C. E.

true sport. The author says in his preface, "I have con- ! We noticed with gratification, that when nearly fined myself exclusively to giving publicity to all the leading dailys and weeklys had their such facts as I have proved by actual experience: columns burdened with the disgusting details of and I firmly believe that this treatise on poultry the brutal mill between Collyer and Aaron, the breeding, in a purely commercial point of view, is "Turf, Field and Farm” treated the infamous the only one ever published, in this or any other exhibition with only such denunciation as it country, from which the public can learn how to 1 merited.

Seed Bed for Wheat.

understratum, though somewhat compacted in The importance to the farmer of understanding comparison with the loose surface soil, is so enthe habits and peculiar characteristics of the livened by the former breaking up, that the tenplants he cultivates, as well as the nature and der rootlets take firm hold and keep their place. quality of his soil, is frequently illustrated. The advantage of this comparative firmness Let us take the wheat plant for instance, and we of the substratum is apparent in the practice, find, by almost common consent, it is best pro- now so common, of seeding corn land to wheat, vided for in a shallow seed bed. Very deep without any plowing beyond what has been plowing is thought to be, not only unnecessary, 1 given to the corn. The action of the tines of the but absolutely injurious. The young plant seems wheat drill, or any such scratching of the surto need a firm understratum not far from the face as will give the seeds a slight covering, is surface to imbed its roots in, and with this found to answer all necessary purposes even on advantage withstands the “throwing out,” pro- tolerably tenacious clays. It is insisted, indeed, duced hy alternate thawings and freezings, bet-after much experience, that this is the most sucter than when the soil has been recently stirred cessful practice for corn land seeding. to a very considerable depth. No one at this time of day can overlook, or be

Take Care of the Tools. ignorant of the great advantages to the soil gen- There is no use in trying to carry on a farm, erally, of deep ploughing. Ist. It opens a much or to do anything else well, without system and larger amount of soil to the range of roots, give order. And the care of tools is an important ing much more liberal pasturage than they could part of that system. One cannot accomplish otherwise get.

| much without a set of tools, larger or smaller2d. It increases very largely the supply of nu- as for borrowing them unnecessarily, that sbould triment, by allowing the access of air, and by be regarded as next to stealing them. And the the process of weathering, acting upon the purchase of tools should be followed up by a mineral elements of the soil.

scrupulous care of them. A tool room is a great 3d. It preserves an equal quantity of moisture conrenience. It may be an apartment by itself in the soil. We seldom have a rain so great as in the carriage house or wood house. to produce an unhealthy stagnation of water Here let there be a row of pegs for saws; there about the roots of plants set in a soil seven or is the bench for planes; yonder is a drawer, with eight inches deep, and, on the contrary, we sel- separate compartments, for screws, washers, nuts, dom have a drought of so long continuance as rivets, etc. Here is a place for bolts, there for to extract all the moisture to that depth. screws. The hammers, chisels, screw driver, au

These, and other known advantages from deep ger, broad axe, adz, files—all have their appointed ploughing, we might dwell upon; and, apart from locality, and are kept there and nowhere else. the well known fact above alluded to, it would The law should be laid down and enforced, that hardly be supposed that any crop, of whatever whoever uses a tool must put it back, so that it character, would be exempted from the good in- can always be found at a moment's notice; nay, fluences of the practice.

even if it be in the dark. We must make a proper distinction, however, And this care of tools should lead and will between a natural subsoil, indurated and rendered lead on to system with regard to other things impervious to the action of the air by centuries about the premises. Here is a corner for extra of rest-its orignal hardness and impenetrability plough handles, and there a box for plough aggravated by a long course of continuous tread- points; there are bolts of all sizes, ready in case ing, in plougbing the surface soil—and that firm, of a break down; yonder are hooks with extra mellow body of earth, which is produced by deep pieces of harness. Notice, too, the crow bar, cultivation.

beetle and wedges, and log chains, the grindstone It is this firm, yet generous subsoil, which always in its place, and always in order; the forms so valuable a matrix for the roots of the scythes, hoes, spades, shovels, forks, rakes and wheat plant, and enables them to resist the what not have so long been kept in their resloosening effects of alternate frosts and thaws pective places that they would almost cry out if during winter. This important distinction, it carelessly left in an unaccustomed spot. will be observed, allows nothing to be detracted The time spent in carrying back tools is not from the argument in favor of deep ploughing. lost. If tools are not carried back, they would It is only when the previous working has been, many of them be lost. And the moral influence indeed, most thorough, that the wheat reaps a of system and order is almost beyond computa. duc advantage from the shallow ploughing. The tion.- American Agriculturist.

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