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a bird, and that, if left to herself, she prefers to such a natural life, will be healthier and better live upon insects, and that she is in the greatest layers than those cooped up in courts, or restricvigour and enjoyment when wandering about ted in their rambles to a field or two in the riin the fields during the spring and summer cinity of the farmhouse. They will derour immonths, picking up a worm here and a grub mense multitudes of noxious insects, and pick up there? If the agriculturist grant M. Giot this large quantities of grain which escape the notice position, he must surrender at discretion, give up of even the most careful gleaners. It is also to his ancient aversion to fowls, and furnish them be borne in mind that their droppings go at once with the means of conveyance to all parts of his to enrich the soil. farm, to the amazement of his delighted spouse, We have already mentioned that M. Giot has rejoicing in basket!uls of eggs, costing next to simplified his system. Instead of one large manothing, seeing that foraging fowls get no corn, chine he now prefers two portable hen-houses, save on Sundays and festivals, or, as in Scotland each containing two or three hundred fowls. they are termed, fast days. And having surren As they do not follow the plough for more dered, he will listen with due reverence to M. Giot than 300 yards, he finds it better to limit the when thus holding forth :
number of fowls in proportion to the ground over “This discovery will explain to you why the which they have to travel, and to form them into crops are generally better in the vicinity of farms two bands rather than into one great flock. The than in the open country; and, reflecting, you care of them, when in the fields, is neither trouwill come to think it a sin to allow insects to blesome nor costly. A ploughman is charged devour what a gracious God intends for human with the duty of carrying a barrel of water, and beings, and you will come thoroughly to approve a basket to collect the eggs for the day; he opens of my portable hen-house, transported from field | the doors of the hen-house in the morning, shuts to field during the fine weather, protecting them them at night, and brings home the eggs. And against the periodical attacks of insects, and anything on wheels, however roughly the planks taken back to the farmyard during the cold sca may be put together, will answer the purpose. son of threshing, wbich is also the time for M. Giot had for a while to submit to be laughed housing fed animals, in order that the fowls may at; but his zeal and patience have converted depick up in the straw and the dung heap lost risive opponents into admiring friends, so that grain and stationary vermin. It is in the fields his system is now lauded by editors of agriculthat we get the best eggs. It is, therefore, in the tural journals, who accepted his invitation to open air, and almost without spending a penny, take a run by rail from Paris to Chevry, in order that we should rear our fowis ; and here is the that by personal observation they might satisfy way to proceed : As soon as spring returns, the themselves as to the usefulness of bis system in portable hen-bouse should desert the farm and keeping down the white-worm, as the French encamp among the young wheat which the grub term the grub of Melolontha vulgaris, or cockis destroying, and among the ploughed land, in- chafer. M. Giot had previously informed them stead of women gathering, at a great price, grubs of the peculiarities of his agricultural position. behind the plough, as is the present way; tben Commencing farming in 1844, he found his land among the sowings in March, the colza, &c. which mostly in fallow, and not much infested with are devoured by worms and other creatures ; and white-worm, which does not thrive on a hard then, further on, at the approach of the time of fallow. But now that the land is thoroughly culthe plants flowering the caterpillars, the spiders, tivated on the flat by means of the Brabant plongh the aphides, the beetles of all sorts, afford plenty the softer condition of the soil so favoured the of food to the fowls, which they also find in the development of this insect pest, that in self-denatural and artificial grasses after the first cut- fence he was obliged to think of attacking it by ting. To these immense natural resources must be an auxiliary which he believed might be found added the occasional invasions of larvæ, grass-in his fowls, if permitted and encouraged to grathoppers, butterflies, cockcbafers, crickets, locusts, ify their instincts instead of being restricted to fieldmice, shrewmice, toads, lizards, snakes, even, the limited bounds of a farmyard. M. Joigneoux &c., as well as the dead animals of the farm." accompanied by two editorial colleagues, has
There is no doubt that fowls reckon these crea- published an account of what he saw. tures, a dainty dish to set before' a hen, and that He begins by mollifying M. Giot by the confowls having them in abundance in the fields fession that he had wronged him by his sceptiwill enjoy such a fete champetre, lasting in cism as to the value of his system, and by comFrance, at all events, nine months of the year ; plimenting him on his courage in breaking and it is eqnally undeniable that fowls, living through the trammels of routine, and persevering
in opposition to the sorry jokes of the increilulous. tion. It is not so with the white-worms, which He then proceeds : 'We do not laugh now; we are swallowed alive and vigorous, and which, have just seen the 400 hens of two portable houses therefore, do not produce the same results. To advancing in the furrows along with the plough, enable us to form an opinion on this point, we and so thoroughly ridding them of white-worms requested Madame Giot to give us at breakfast and other insects that none can be discovered two lots of eggs boiled in their shells, the one where the fowls have been. The fields are long; from the portable hen-house, the other from the the population of the two hen-bouses form two farm. We must say that the guests found the camps—here the common fowls, there the Hou- eggs from the farm the more delicate, but that dan. Each troop has its assigned space, and the others were excellent, and that tbe shade of works in it as if the matter had been regulated difference was hardly perceptible when the two by special compact. One of the houses was on sorts were presentd in a dish or in an omelette. the old model, as exhibited in the district shows, M. Giot also directed attention to the circumbut the waichman and his dog are now dispensed stance that the yolks of those from the field henwith as needless. The other is an old omnibus houses were much superior to the others, and that bought in Paris, with the seats removed, and re one was equal to at least three of these for maplaced by nests and perches for its present occu- king sauces. We must not, then, be repelled by pants, the Houdans. The houses are placed across the notion that eggs so obtained are bad. One the furrows, and the doors are open. When in not made aware of it would not observe the difthe way of the plough they are shifted ; and when ference; and very often have we eaten worse eggs the field is finished, two horses are yoked to each in Paris. of them, and they are taken to another place. As to the flesh of the fowl, we need not troue
The fowls work all the year, and are only ble vurself about that ; for even if it acquired a brought back to the farm in winter. There is no peculiar favour, or lost its delicacy, this could difficulty in managing them. As to food, there be remedied by the fowl being treated to a speis no occasion to be troubled about it unless du- cial diet for a few days before it was eaten. We ring continued rain, which rarely happens. The cannot too earnestly advise farmers to procure fowls of M. Giot, thus reared in the open air, are portable hen-houses, of sizes proportioned to the hardy, lively, and free from all the diseases of extent of their lands.' those living almost in a state of captivity. They Having thus furnished our farming friends give plenty of eggs, and furnish a considerable with a new foreign notion, we pray them to requantity of manure, which is carefully collected member that in France the gain from poultry and in a box under the hen-houses. Our readers will eggs goes far to pay the farmer's rent, and that understand that brood-hens cannot in it receive the aggregate value Jf these productions, so largeproper attention, and that they are removed to ly imported into this country, figures conspicuthe farm."
ously in the statistics of French agriculture. Equally satisfactory is the report of M. A. De
D, E. Lavalette, who seems to have paid particular attention to the effect of insect diet upon the Inying
The Department. power of the bens, and upon the quality of the Mr. Moore, of the Rural New Yorker, recently eggs. He estimates that 400 fowls may daily de visited Washington, and says : stroy 200,000 white-worms, which, becoming so One of my first visits, after calling upon Com. many cockchafers, ravage beautiful trees, and missioner of Agriculture Newton, was to the lay eggs which will become a host of white-Government Botanical Garden, of which Mr. worms. And, he exclaims, 'we are astonished at Wm. Saunders is the capable Superintendent, these creatures destroying our crops !' The por- (under Com. Newton,) and the Experimental table hen-house is thus of importance in an econ Grounds, also an adjunct of the Ag'l Depart. omical point of view. Supposing 400 hens to lay ment, superintended by Isaac Newton, Jr. The 200 eggs daily, this is a gain of 12 to 15 francs, Garden bas been greatly improved since my last realised without expense; and, on the other hand visit, two years ago, and is a credit to Mr. Saunthe fowls grow, gain more flesh, and so become ders and the Department. The fruit and orna. more valuable. Ifit be objected that the eggs of mental trees, shrubs, grape vines, green-house fowls fed on white-worms must be bad, like thos. plants, flowers, &c., are numerous and most laid by fowls which eal silkworms, we say, let healthy and flourishing—many exotics, but in us first make a distinction. Silkworms given to fine condition. Wbatever pay be said of the fowls are generally those wbich have died from Ag’l Department, I am of the opinion that Mr. disease, or are sometimes in a state of putrefac- ! Saunders is "the right man in the right place,"
and any horticulturist or florist visiting Wash to begin with in the early season, before the ington can readily discover that the Botanical grass is sufficient to turn out on; then after barGarden is an interesting and useful institution. vest, during the dry weather, when the pasturage,
The Experimental Grounds are likewise inter- becomes short, Hungarian grass, to be followed esting and worthy of a more extended notice with corn sowed in drills for fodder, which cut than I can now give them. Here I saw over one morning and evening, and fed to the stock whilst hundred varieties of wheat growing—from 2 to milking, fills them twice a day and, with the pas31 inches high, the latter a Russian variety,– ture, makes them all that is required. During the also including ‘Alsike, Chinese, and many others last seasou, whilst it was necessary to soil with -curious and interesting. The grounds also Hungarian grass and corn for fodder, we have embrace plots comprising different varieties of also fed two quarts of ship stuff each night and peas, roots, cucumbers, and other vegetables, morning, as we feel satisfied that, although the sorghum, &c., many of them rare, and likely to Hungarian grass and green corn will keep up the prove of value to the farmers and gardeners of yield of milk, yet they will not alone make as the country.
much butter as a full supply of pasture or the
natural grasses. Philadelphia Butter Dairy. I look upon a cow as similar to a steam boilA Philadelphia merchant who keeps a large boiler is well supplied with water and good fuel,
er; no matter how good they may be, unless the butter dairy in the noble land of Chester, relates also well attended the supply of steam will be short, bis views on the same to friend Morris of the
or it will be in proportion to the fuel and attenPractical Farmer.
tion. So also with the cow: no matter how Early in the season when the cows are first good she may be, if she is not well and plentifully turned to pasture the grass is watery, and tends fed and cared for, her product will be shortened. to make the cows scour very much; and although it will in that state increase the flow of milk and
Another important matter with cows is that also the quantity of butter, yet it will be at the they shoulil be protected from storms and bad expense of the condition of the cow, reducing weather. They should be fed and kept under
shelter when the nights are wet and inclement; her in flesh, and telling upon her the whole seasou. At this time I consider it important that
this more particularly in the early season, when
the cow is fresh and full of milk : one exposure the cow should be fe:1 with ship stuff or bran and cob meal, mixed night and morning. This not
to a cold wet night has frequently reduced the only assists in preventing scouring, but by keep milk one-half. Also in the fall when the nights ing up the condition of the stock, increases the become frosty, never let them remain out; be quantity of the butter to a very considerable ex- particular to stable them: and in the morving tent. My opinion is, that meal fed at this time
never turn them out on the pasture until the pays better, certainly as well as at any other frost is melted off by the sun, as nothing, pero time during the season, not excepting in mid- haps, dries a cow or reduces her milk more than winter.
eating grass with the frost on it. To many of I am well satisfied that the condition of the
these requirements the generality of farmers pay cow, in order to obtain from her a full yield, or
no attention whatever. In the early season, as one that will be profitable, must at all times be
soon as there is any pasture whatever, the cow looked to. She must be well wintered and fed, is turned out of the baru-yard, to eat what she so that when she comes out of the barn yard in
she may find, and to remain day and night until
the winter comes; there is also nothing grown the spring after having calved, she is in good hesh
or fed to eke out the scanty supply of pasturage showing her keep and care taken of her, and not like what is too much the custom of the country,
that almost invariably occurs at some time in
each season. viz: dry cows, wintered on straw, and no shelter except it be the lea side of the barn-yard, until
My cows are principally pure and grade Alderthe calf is dropped, when it is too late for the neys, with a few good grade or common cows. poor in flesh cow to yield her full capacity. I have never kept any but a pure Jersey bull.
A cow should at all times, when milking be in another year I do not expect to have any but fully supplied with meal; not stimulated to excess, pure blood and grade Alderneys, as, from actual however, for that would certainly produce reac- trial and experience, let what will be said to the tion afterwards; but she must have a full and contrary by others, I am well satisfied the Alderplentiful supply at all times of good food and ney and its crosses are the most profitable stuck water. For that purpose I have grown early ryc' for the butter dairy.
The American Farwer.
pleasure in giving a place to, at our Agricoltural College.
J Attention is called to the advertisement Baltimore, August 1, 1867.
of the Agricultural College. With the advan
tages of a thoroughly liberal course of instrucTERMS OF THE AMERICAN FARMER. tion, as well as of that pertaining to its specialty,
its pleasant and convenient location, and its very comfortable accommodations, this Institution offers peculiar attractions to students.
SUBSCRIPTION TWO DOLLARS PER ANNUM.
RATES OF ADVERTISING:
8.50 15.00 25.00
20.00 35.00 60.00
35.00 60.00 110.00
60.00 110.00 200.00
Eight lines of small type constítute a square.
Manure. 1 Year. The word manure, the etymologists tell us, in
its original signification, means "to work with One Square.. $2.00 $5.00 $10.00 $15.00
the hands." He who dug his ground with spade llalf Page
or hoe manured it. Now, he only manures who dresses it with dung, or other fertilizers. It
would be a matter some interest to trace the WORTHINGTON & LEWIS.
steps by which this change has come about. It Office, 52 S. Gay street,
would seem that the use of fertilizers was so Near Exchange Place.
highly esteemed by our ancestors that when one
should use them properly, he was thought to JSUBSCRIPTIONS.-Our thanks are due to have done everything that good tillage required; friends who have so promptly complied with our or rather, perhaps, that he who would incur the terms by their remittances during the past month. labor and expense of gathering and scattering From the large number of letters received, it is fertilizers was sure to do all else that was regratifying to be able to say, that we have not a quisite; this being done was an assurance that word except of kindness and encouragement. | the ground was indeed manured (worked.) We are well assured that the Farmer is appreci The philosophy of this last idea is apparent. ated, and is doing its work efficiently. It has | If a man lays out five hundred dollars in liming not been our policy by strained efforts to get a a fifty acre field, he will probably work that snbscription list of reluctant contributors, But field better than if he puts nothing at all upon to have our Journal stand upon its merits, what it. The fact that be is willing to spend so much ever tliey may be. The class of men whose money shows that his mind is in the right frame nimes are on our books, are, we have reason to for something further. The expenditure begets think, of the very best which the Agricultural an interest which creates the desire to realize the community of the Middle and Southern States utmost from his investment, urges him to have contains, and they have subscribed for the Farmer his plowing done in the best manner; to haronly because they want it.
row, to roll, to open surface drains at least, for
surplus water, and suggests many little aitenF. G. F., Raleigh, North Carolina, speak- tions which would otherwise have been overing of fruit cultivation in North Carolina, and looked. We do not doubt that the observation valuable native varieties, says : "Would you of many will bear us out in saying, that wherlike to see some of our fine seedlings? 'Thevis,' ever lime, guano, or other costly fertilizers bare the ‘Sally Grey,' .Wyndham's Red,' and 'Cat been introduced, the improvement bas been Head' apples; “June Pear,' 'Foster's Prolific' greater than what was due to the manure. Plum, a native seedling ; 'Scuppernong' and Possibly the mechanical effect of the use of • Weller's Halifax' Grapes, all No. 1. If so, Idung, straw, &c., had something to do with the will try and and send some of each in their sea change in the meaning of the word. In the sons if I can do so cheaply. If you like the stubborn clays so prevalent in old England, the fruit, I will send some small trees in the fall, if effect of such substances in ameliorating and reacceptable.”
ducing the soil, must have been early apparent, We have to say in reply, that we should be and led to the conviction that only to dress glad to have specimens of these fruits for trial, with these was to "manure" or give them their but our usual experience in getting such is, that proper working. they spoil before reaching us. The trees recom But the chemical effect produced by the action mended by our correspondent, we should take of fertilizers may have had a still more effectual
control. Lime has been long known and used,
Texture of Soils. as an improver of the soil. Yet no one supposes The quality of soils is very various, particuthat its value is due to its supply of an ingredi-larly as to texture and consistency, and no quality ent of the food of plants. There is not perhaps has more influence upon the well-being of plants one acre in ten thousand that does not contain than this. All the operations of spading, diglime enough for this purpose. Its greatest effect ging, ploughing, trenching and draining have for as a fertilizer has been observed on what are their object the production and preservation of known as lime stone lands, and is due, without that condition which will allow all excess of doubt, to its chemical action—to its effecting in a water to pass freely away, and admit as freely, short time that change in the condition of the seve- fresh supplies of atmospheric air. While hural mineral constituents of the soil which is brought midity is necessary, and too loose a texture makes about in longer time by the laborious operation too dry a soil, excess of moisture is a great evil, of ploughing. The technical term "weathering and must be corrected by whatever means is aprepresents the process by which these changes are plicable. When the soil is saturated with water produced ; that is by exposure of the surface to the access of the genial air and the gaseous prothe action of the weather, frost being here a very perties is excluded. The soil is kept too low in active agent.
temperature by constant evaporation at the surAll our ordinary manures, those especially face, and by exclusion of the sun's rays; plants which we consider most valuable, act very proba- are deprived of the supplies of food which new bly in the same way. They supply directiy the supplies of air would constantly afford; and the food of plants, but they act mechanically in delicate fibres are imprisoned and choked, and opening soils of close texture to the influence of drowned out in greater or less degree, in proporthe elements, and chemically, by ammonia and tion to the extent of the evil. carbonic acid, in cooking, so to speak, the raw
When air and rain can permeate freely, a coningredients of the soil, and presenting tbem as fit stant supply of both gaseous and aqueous pourfood for growing plants. This is the very effect ishment is afforded, independently altogether of produced by weathering, and weathering is made the richness of the soil, whether natural or artimost effectual by constant digging and plough- ficial. On the other hand, if the soil be coming, so that new surfaces may be continually pre- pact, or baked hard by drought, in consequence sented to the influence of air and rain, which op- of its natural condition, or of its having been erate by means of oxygen, carbonic acid and previously worked and stirred when too wet, no ammonia. The effect of manual labor and fer- plant can flourish. tilizers being so nearly identical in this respect, Sandy soils are never liable to these conditions, and the latter acting with so much more prompt- unless when they have a clay stratum lying unness, it may well be said, that he only manures derneath, very near the surface. All the water in the original sense of the word who makes a they absorb sinks deep into the subsoil, and far proper use of fertilizers.
below the roots of corn or any agricultural plant
on the surface. Such a soil needs neither drainCatalogues.
ing nor subsoil ploughing. Neither does it ever Catalogue of Pure Bred Webb South-Down require to be exposed to the frosts of winter, or Sheep.—This is a catalogue of the fluck of South- any kind of treatment by implements, for its downs of the late James C. Taylor, of N. J., physical amelioration. It is almost always in such imported and bred by him. For catalogue, ad an open, friable state, that it may be ploughed dress Wm. G. C. Taylor, Holmdel, New Jersey. and sown at any season. The cultivation is
easy, and executed at moderate expense, and We have also Catalogue and Price List of J. with moderate care and judgment in their manC. Cox & Co., Breeders of Thoroughbred Stock, agement their fertility is easily maintained. For Domestic and Ornamental Fowls, &c. P. 0. these reasons we bare several times urged that Osborne, Greene county, Ohio.
lands of this character are not sufficiently appre
ciated, for we find them in many parts of the From George A. Deitz, Importer and Grower country thrown out of cultivation and lying of Seed Wheat and Grass Seed, Chambersburg, waste. Pa., we have his circular, descriptive of varieties In such descriptions of land, however, it often of wheat offered for sale in small or large par- happens that beds of clay lie alternately with cels. Mr. D. presents to those who wish to those of sand, at different depths, beneath the change their seed, a favorable opportunity of do- surface. These beds not unfrequently crop out, ing so. [See advertisement.]
or approach so near the surface that the water