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does not get readily away, and even a sandy sur enter upon a highly profitable and pleasing unface soil is kept too wet for the good of growing dertaking, and this without having to pay the plants. In such a case, draining is the proper usual heavy penalties of experimenting.'' remedy.
THE SOUTHERN REVIEW.- The July number of It is well, however, to know that this remedy this Quarterly is received. The contents aremay often be applied at much less cost than if it Ireland and her Miseries. The Atlantic Cable. were necessary to seek an outlet in some low
John Stuart Mill and Dr. Lieber on Liberty. ground at a considerable distance from the land
The Maid. The North and the South. Picaresco to be drained. If there be wet and dry places Romances. Xantippe and Socrates. Causes of in the same field, we may be assured that a bed
Sectional Discontent. Davis and Lee. Book of clay or other impervious earth lies beneath
Notices. the wet, and a porous subsoil beneath the dry places. A drain of sufficient depth opened and sition it took on its first appearance. It should
This very able Review maintains the high pofilled nearly to the surface with stones or loose
be the pride of Baltimoreans to sustain a publigravel from the wet to the dry places, will ren
cation of such character, and to give it the most der the whole dry. A very short drain will
liberal support. Bledsoe & Browne, publishers. sometimes effect this quite as well as one made
$5 per annum, in advance. at four times the cost to convey the water to a stream or a ravine.
BLACKWOOD, FOR JUNE.—The contents of this
number are-Brownlow's Part VI. The Reigo Book Table.
of Law. My Hunt of the Silver Fox. Was
George III. a Constitutional King? Strikes and We have from the publishers, A. Williams % Trades Unions. Dante in English Terza Rima. Co., Boston, ChemistUY OF THE FARM AND THE The Reform Bill. Clause III. and M. Lowe. Sea, by Jas. R. Nichols, M. D., editor of “Bos- Blackwood and the four leading British Reviews ton Journal of Chemistry and Pharmacy." In
are re-published at the very low price of $15 for 1 vol. 12mo., elegantly bound in cloth. Price all--for Blackwood alone $4—by the Leonard $1.25.
Scott Publishing Co., 140 Fulton street, N. York. The aim of this little work is "to present scientific facts and principles in a familiar way, THE WESTMINSTER Review, Quarterly, for April. so as to interest and instruct those not specially Contents—Italy and the War of 1866. The Paacquainted with matters of science.” The topics pal Drama. Thomas Hobbes. Contemporary treated in these essays are Chem. of the Farm-Music and Musical Literature. New America. of the Sea-of a Bowl of Milk-of the Dwelling Mr. Swinburne's Poetry. The Hopes and Fears -of a Kernel of Corn-of the Sun, fc. It is an of Reformers. Contemporary Literature. attractive little volume, which we have not yet,
" Turf, Field and Farm.”—This publication however, sufficiently looked into, to do it full
comes to us enlarged and improved, and we take justice.
pleasure in its evident prosperity. While the Also from the same publishers we have Geye
“Sports of the Turf and the Field” are its leadLin Poultry BREEDING IN A Commercial Point | ing feature, this Journal bas taken a decided of View, with an introduction by Charles L. stand for morality and elevated principles. There Flint, Secretary Mass. State Board of Agricul
are such things as legitimate sports, which have I vol. 12mo., with 27 illustrations. Price been brought into disrepute by the rascalities $1.25. As carried out by the National Poultry and evil practices which commonly accompany Company, limited, Bromley, Kent; Natural and them. The Journalist who clearly distinguishes Artificial Hatchery, Rearing and Fattening on between the principal and its adjuncts, and while entirely new and scientific principles, with all be advocates the former, discourages and conthe necessary Plans, Elevations, Sections and de- demns the latter, does a good service to the comtails, and a notice of the poultry establishments munity, and a special service to those who love in France by Geo. Kennedy, C. E.
true sport. The author says in his preface, "I have con We noticed with gratification, that when nearly fined myself exclusively to giving publicity to all the leading dailys and weeklys had their such facts as I have proved by actual experience : columns burdened with the disgusting details of and I firmly believe that this treatise on poultry the brutal mill between Collyer and Aaron, the breeding, in a purely commercial point of view, is “Turf, Field and Farm” treated the infamous the only one ever published, in this or any other exhibition with only such denunciation as it country, from which the public can learn how to merited.
Seed Bed for Wheat.
understratum, though somewhat compacted in The importance to the farmer of understanding comparison with the loose surface soil, is so enthe habits and peculiar characteristics of the livened by the former breaking up, that the tenplants he cultivates, as well as the nature and der rootlets take firm hold and keep their place. quality of his soil, is frequently illustrated. The advantage of this comparative firmness Let us take the wheat plant for instance, and we of the substratum is apparent in the practice, find, by almost common consent, it is best pro now so common, of seeding corn land to wheat, vided for in a shallow seed bed. Very deep without any plowing beyond what has been plowing is thought to be, not only unnecessary, given to the corn. The action of the tines of the but absolutely injurious. The young plant seems wheat drill, or any such scratching of the surto need a firm understratum not far from the face as will give the seeds a slight covering, is surface to imbed its roots in, and with this found to answer all necessary purposes even on advantage withstands the "throwing out,” pro- tolerably tenacious clays. It is insisted, indeed, duced hy alternate thawings and freezings, bet- after much experience, that this is the most sucter than when the soil has been recently stirred cessful practice for corn land seeding. to a very considerable depth. No one at this time of day can overlook, or be
Take Care of the Tools. ignorant of the great advantages to the soil gen There is no use in trying to carry on a farm, erally, of deep ploughing. Ist. It opens a much or to do anything else well, without system and larger amount of soil to the range of roots, giv- order. And the care of tools is an important ing much more liberal pasturage than they could part of that system. One cannot accomplish otherwise get.
much without a set of tools, larger or smaller2d. It increases very largely the supply of nu as for borrowing them unnecessarily, that should triment, by allowing the access of air, and by be regarded as next to stealing them. And the the process of weathering, acting upon the purchase of tools should be followed up by a mineral elements of the soil.
scrupulous care of them. A tool room is a great 3d. It preserves an equal quantity of moisture convenience. It may be an apartment by itself in the soil. We seldom have a rain so great as in the carriage house or wood house. to produce an unhealthy stagnation of water Here let there be a row of pegs for saws; there about the roots of plants set in a soil seven or is the bench for planes; yonder is a drawer, with eight inches deep, and, on the contrary, we sel separate compartments, for screws, washers, nuts, dom have a drought of so long continuance as rivets, etc. Here is a place for bolts, there for to extract all the moisture to that depth.
The hammers, chisels, screw driver, auThese, and other known advantages from deep ger, broad axe, adz, files—all have their appointed ploughing, we mightdwell upon; and, apart from locality, and are kept there and nowhere else. the well known fact above alluded to, it would The law should be laid down and enforced, that hardly be supposed that any crop, of whatever whoever uses a tool must put it back, so that it character, would be exempted from the good in can always be found at a moment's notice; nay, fluences of the practice.
even if it be in the dark. We must make a proper distinction, however, And this care of tools should lead and will between a natural subsoil, indurated and rendered lead on to system with regard to other things impervious to the action of the air by centuries about the premises. Here is a corner for extra of rest—its orignal hardness and impenetrability plough handles, and there a box for plough aggravated by a long course of continuous trend points; there are bolts of all sizes, ready in case ing, in plougbing the surface soil—and that firm, of a break down; yonder are hooks with extra mellow body of earth, which is produced by deep pieces of harness. Notice, too, the crow bar, cultivation.
beetle and wedges, and log chains, the grindstone It is this firm, yet generous subsoil, which always in its place, and always in order; the forms so valuable a matrix for the roots of the scythes, hoes, spades, shovels, forks, rakes and wheat plant, and enables them to resist the what not have so long been kept in their resloosening effects of alternate frosts and thaws pective places that they would almost cry out if during winter. This important distinction, it carelessly left in an unaccustomed spot. will be observed, allows nothing to be detracted The time spent in carrying back tools is not from the argument in favor of deep ploughing. lost. If tools are not carried back, they would It is only when the previous working has been, many of them be lost. And the moral influence indeed, most thorough, that the wheat reaps a of system and order is almost beyond computadve advantage from the shallow ploughing. The tion.- American Agriculturist.
Fruits in the North State.
-their situation completely excluding them from
gaining the assistance of any one—even to the RALEIGH, N. C., June 29, 1867.
milking of their cows twice a day. The husMessrs. Worthington f Lewis :
band, at the beginning of the war, was one of GENTLEMEN : The promise made yon some time our staunch Union men, and by his efforts, since to furnish you an occasional article for the mainly, the vote at his precinct was carried "Farmer," has not been as fully complied with against secession in February, 1861, and Union as I desired, on account of the general situation candidates elected to the convention in the folof our still beloved land. You who live in your lowing May. Does Mercy see their situation or wonted circumstances and know nothing of want hear their daily cries? These are not exceptional and misery, of poverty and wide-spread desola- cases, sirs, for I could take you up this road and tion, cannot possibly form an idea of the state down that, and show you veighbour Jones, or of matters away off here; and even we, situated Smith, or Dick, or Harry, and tell you of their at some distance from the main track of the late wants and misfortunes, of their sleepless nights armies, are as little able, I think, to conceive of of anxiety and solicitude for their toiling famithe still worse condition of those whose situation lies. I could show you neighbour C's estimable rendered their lot so much the worse. Ours is widow, with her interesting family, dependent bad enough! God help the worse !! Can you on powerless charity for their support, while imagine yourself with a wife and cbildren de their brave father's body lies on the soil of your pendent on your unaccustomed hands for a lir
own native State. I could tell you of D., who ing, with taxes at their top notch, articles of was hurried to a premature grave, while eager necessity bigh, a feeling of insecurity rampant expectants grasped the remaining mite of his in the land, suspicion lurking in the bosom of hard earnings—and of many others, but I know those who were once counted as friends, the sight your hearts are already sick at these tales of sufof blood still divested of its once terrible hor- fering and woe, still you can join me in the rors, your real estate cumbrous and labor scarce
prayer : God help the poor and suffering thouand almost entirely irresponsible and indepen- sands of our brothers in the South ! dent, your bank stock gone, your State bonds below par and repudiation in favor, the labor of We are in the midst of the wheat harvest, and yourself and fathers scattered to the four winds, the heavy rains, that look as if they would never and in debt, with the cries of clamorous debtors cease, are ruining hundreds of bushels. With ringing in your ears? If you can, you can im- flour at its present prices, what will the pressing agine the situation of tens of thousands of our demand hereafter carry it to! We have had rains best citizens. Let me give you a few instances : -heavy beating rains—for the last three weeks. Neighbour A., once a subscriber to your maga-Corn crops are sorry, grassy and almost "drownzine, one of our best farmers, and, a few years ed to death." No one is ploughing, for it is useago, worth $200,000, was hurried to his grave less when you sink shoe-deep in mire all over the by the sad misfortunes of the late contest, leav. fields. I don't know what we will all do if our ing behind a family possessed of property to the wet spell continues much longer. Famine looks value of about $20,000, about half of wbich is as if she would be satisfied with nothing less alone available. Could you guess the situation than adding her miseries to our already heavy of that household? Then there is neighbour B., misfortunes. also a farmer by profession, and an intimate Our crop of fruit is very fine; many trees friend of your contributor, at the beginning of brenking under their heavy londs. But I believe the war was wealthy. Ile was young, and had this is confined to a limited section, or rather been in active life only some ten or twelve years, what the physlcians would term "endemical.” with a most estimable lady for his wife (and of For eighteen or twenty days we have beea luxuone of our best families), and a family of five or riating in May and June apples. (I wish I could six children. That household was once happy. set a basket full of them in your sanctum, with Plenty and peace once smiled in their midst. "our compliments.” The Foust, Smith's Cider, Charity extended her hands from his door, and Hunger, Winter Horse, Greenskin, Yellow Horse, the poor were fed, clothed and well cared for Early Harvest, Magnum Bonum, Matamuskeet, from the abundance God had lent. Now see the Romanite, and many other kinds seem to be change! His lands are not cultivated, and, I am trying to show what they can do. So with the confident, he has not twenty dollars in the world Catawba, Diana, Yellow Provence, Concord, Welwith which to hire labor. His wife cooks, washes, ler's Halifax, and Scuppernong grapes. (Did irons, cleans up the house and minds the children you ever eat any of the latter? How can I send
you some when ripe?) My plums are yet too and developing them, mankind soon became betyoung to bear, save the Magnum Bonum, Co- ter dressed, particular in the warmest climates lumbia, Imperial Gage and Foster's Prolific—the where it chiefly grows. latter a native seedling, very large, of a rich per
Not long since, in commenting upon the rapid fumed flavor, and immensely productive. Turn improvement of manufactured tissues and the betfrom them and see our pears! There is the Bart ter style and material of clothing, as one of the dett, Duchess d'Angouleme, Belle Lucrative, accompaniments of advancing civilization, we Sickel, Beurre Brown, Summer Butter, and a referred to the great increase of silk production, dozen other, skowing you their redenirg fruit and argued therefrom the possibility of its one at every breath of the wind, while around stand dny replacing the stuffs that are now worn in fifty other varieties, forming their bloom buds common, as fine cotton goods replaced the infeall thick along their limbs and giving promise rior textures that preceded them. A discovery of early fruitfulness. These are the relic of for- has just been made in Peru which may serve to mer years, and while they remind you of times make our theory a real matter of every day busigone by, they certainly give a pleasure which ness much earlier than we had imagined. It none can appreciate but the true lover of fruit. seems that news has been received by the departCould you be with us when they repay the ment of State at Washington, through the Amerisweary band of toil” with their luscious fruit, can Consul at Lamba yaque, in Peru, of the existyou would certainly please
ence of the silk plant in that country and its PAL WOODLEY, Esq. adaptation to the finest uses. The Indian natives,
by whom the discovery is claimed, have woven
specimens of its fibre, the texture and brilliancy Novelties in Silk Culture.
of the fabric surpassing expectation. Parties Just as our advices from the East bring us word
have already made arrangements to cultivate and that the native silk merchants at Shanghai, growo manufacture it on an inportant scale. ing gradually distrustful of their barbarian cus
The description given of the plant, makes it a tomers, have requested the foreign Consuls to
shrub some three or four feet in height and bearnotify their countrymen that in future silk pur- ing a great number of pods enclosing the raw chases will be effected for cash only, a memorial
silk, which is declared to be fiuer and better than has appeared with the Emperor's favor and sanc
the cocoon of the silk worm. But to this advantion, advocating the general instruction of Chinese youth in European arts and languages. The first tage the plant adds another precious quality. Its
stems produce a long and shining fibre that, in item of news would indicate greater difficulty and strength and beauty, exceeds the handsomest linen higher expense in procuring raw silk ihan hereto
thread. The plant is a perennial, growing wild fore, while the second promises the coming at a
with a small sized seed easily separated from time within the lifetime of a generation, when
the fibre. the introduction of more diversified knowledge
Such is the substance of the brief statement and taste into the Chinese Empire would vastly, thus far made public by the State Department, augment the production of all the articles of
but there is enough in it to open the way to a Juxury raised there, and silk prominently among
new branch of culture, which, from a comparisou them. It has been frequently alleged that if the methods ced to advantage in many parts of this country.
of soil and climate, migut evidently be introdupracticed in Southern France and in Italy could
The silk worm was not a native of the counbe introduced on a large scale into China, the peculiar kinds of silk there manufactured could
tries that now produce it in the greatest abunbe brought out in quantities sufficient to admit dance and are celebrated for their silk manufacof its introduction as an almost universal article
ture. There are portions of our southwestern of apparel. Without stopping, at this time to
territories that possess a temperature, exposure inquire whether such extensive results could be
and other requisites very analogous to those of attained, we may remind the reader that it is
the Peruvian district where the plant is found, within a comparatively brief period only that the and it might well repay the cost of experiment fner textures of cotton even, not to mention wool
to try it there.- Mer. Journal. and linen, bave been worn by the bulk of the human race. The discovery and abundant cul fleet The currycomb should not be neglected; ture of the cotten plant, date back for only a its use on all kinds of neat stock and horses is fraction of the centuries covered by our authentic a great preventive of disease and vermin, and is historical records. After finding out its virtues productive of health.
For the “ American Farmer."
mouth over, and that he himself will relish with Grape Growing and Wine Making.
his bacon and cabbage, as well as could be done
at a Chateau Margeau dinner. Let every farmer There is at present a very proper and laudable then, and all others who have a small space of spirit manifested throughout the country, on the of ground, plant as many vines of some approved subject of growing grapes and making wine; | kind for wine or table use, as they can find time and, as a stimulus to increase and accelerate this to attend to, and make their own wine, which spirit amongst our people, numerous statements they can do at little or no expense, and a very are published, showing the enormous profits small cost of labor or loss of time. arising therefrom; and also urging it upon the Moorsfield, Va.
1. G. Mask. owners of land and farmers generally, to go extensively into the business, as a sure investment of money and labor, and which will return
Swindling. larger profits than the cultivation of any other Frora different parts of the country we receive crops. That this is all true, there is now no reports of farmers being swindled by dealers in cause to doubt. But there are thousands of far- patent rights or in patented machines. The mers, who from their isolated locations, remote
most extensive operations have been in the New com a ready market, and want of facilities England States and New York, although many for transportation, are unable to avail themselves farmers have been victimized in Mlinois, Michiof it, or go into the business upon a seale that gan, lowu and other Western States. It seems would be necessary to success. They are thus strange that such a scheme as the following should unable to grow grapes and make wine as an ar succeed, yet it is said that hundreds of tbousands ticle of commerce; and, therefore, after reading of dollars have been made by it: these glowing accounts of the success of others, A party shows the model of an implement. which, from their authenticity, they have no It has happened that a hay-rake or bay-fork has reason to doubt, they lay them aside as inappli- generally been the one used and proposes to cable to themselves, and take no further beed of make the farmer to whom it is shown an agent, grapes. Let us, therefore, consider she matter in selling him the right for $100. As a security, another, and, perhaps to them, a more important he is assured that he will not be required to pay than commercial light. Let us put the matter of anything until he has realized $200 profits, and growing grapes and making wine upon a dif- is also told that the retail price of the implement ferent footing, and urge upon every farmer in will be more than twice the wholesale price. A the land the propriety of making wine for family certificate of the receipt of $100, with printed use, which can be done independent of railroad signature, with an unsigned agreement that no facilities, and irrespective of location, and with money is to be collected until $200 profits has out in any way interfering with other farming been realized is then given, and the farmer is operations. What farmer but would relish his asked to sign what is really a promissory note to glass of good wine at dinner, or who more than pay the $100 in one year. It is stated, however, he would experience greater pleasure in offering that this is simply to show that the party is an to a visiting friend a glass of his owo make in agent; and if objection still be made, a condition social intercourse. In order to secure this, he is written on the margin of the pote, similar to has only to plant from fifty to a bundred vines, the other agreement. The condition is afterward which will in a short time afford him the above torn off and the note sold at a discount to an inluxury. They will take up but a small space; pocent purchaser, in whose hands it can be coland, after becoming once established, will re lected. quire but little of his attention. From this
In other localities machines of different kinds number of vines he will be enabled to make a have been sold to be delivered at a future time, sufficient quantity of wine to serve his own and notes taken. These notes would be sold to family a whole year at least. The manufacture innocent purchasers, and be good against the of wine is so simple that any farmers' wife can giver, although the machines would never be de make it who knows how to make a barrel of livered. sauer-kraut, or boil a kettle of apple-butter; all These are only samples of various means used he has to do is to furnish her with the requisite to secure money without giving a fair equivalent. number of vessels (barrels), and with the aid of It is certainly surprising that schemes so utterly her family wash-tubs, and a hand to pick the at a variance with the ordinary rules of business grapes and do the heavy work, she will get him should have proved so largely successful. Westup a wine that an epicure would smack his I ern Rural.