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Fruits in the North State.
| --their situation completely excluding them from
gaining the assistance of any onemereu to the RALEIGH, N. C., June 29, 1867.
milking of their cows twice a day. The husMessrs. Worthington f Lewis :
band, at the beginning of the war, was one of GENTLEMEN : The promise made yon some time our staunch Union men, and by his efforts, since to furnish you an occasional article for the mainly, the vote at his precinct was carried "Farmer," has not been as fully complied with against secession in February, 1861, and Union as I desired, on account of the general situation candidates elected to the convention in the folof our still beloved land. You who live in your lowing May. Does Mercy see their situation or wonted circumstances and know nothing of want hear their daily cries? These are not exceptional and misery, of poverty and wide-spread desola- cases, sirs, for I could take yon up this road and tion, cannot possibly form an idea of the state down that, and show you weighbour Jones, or of matters away off here; and even we, situated Smith, or Dick, or Harry, and tell you of their at some distance from the main track of the late wants and misfortunes, of their sleepless nights armies, are as little able, I think, to conceive of of anxiety and solicitude for their toiling famithe still worse condition of those whose situation | lies. I could show you neighbour C's estimable rendered their lot so much the worse. Ours is widow, with her interesting family, dependent bad enough! God help the worse!! Can you on powerless charity for their support, while imagine yourself with a wife and cbildren de- their brave father's body lies on the soil of your pendent on your unaccustomed hands for a liv- own dative State. I could tell you of D., who ing, with taxes at their top notch, articles of was hurried to a premature grave, while eager necessity high, a feeling of insecurity rampant expectants grasped the remaining mite of his in the land, suspicion lurking in the bosom of hard earningsmand of many others, but I know those who were once counted as friends, the sight your hearts are already sick at these tales of sufof blood still divested of its once terrible hor- fering and woe, still you can join me in the rors, your real estate cumbrous and labor scarce prayer : God help the poor and suffering thouand almost entirely irresponsible and indepen- sands of our brothers in the South ! dent, your bank stock gone, your State bonds below par and repudiation in favor, the labor of! We are in the midst of the wheat harvest, and yourself and fathers scattered to the four winds, the heavy rains, that look as if they would never and in debt, with the cries of clamorous debtors cease, are ruining hundreds of bushels. With ringing in your ears? If you can, you can im- flour at its present prices, what will the pressing agine the situation of tens of thousands of our demand hereafter carry it to! We have had rains best citizens. Let me give you a few instances : |-heavy beating rains for the last three weeks. Neighbour A., once a subscriber to your maga Corn crops are sorry, grassy and almost "drownzine, one of our best farmers, and, a few years ed to death." No one is ploughing, for it is useago, worth $200,000, was hurried to his grave less when you sink shoe-deep in mire all over the by the sad misfortunes of the late contest, lear: fields. I don't know what we will all do if our ing behind a family possessed of property to the wet spell continues much longer. Famine looks value of about $20,000, about half of which is as if she would be satisfied with nothing less alone available. Could you guess the situation than adding her miseries to our already heavy of that household? Then there is neighbour B., misfortunes. also a farmer by profession, and an intimate Our crop of fruit is very fine; many trees friend of your contributor, at the beginning of breaking under their heavy loads. But I believe the war was wealthy. He was young, and had this is confined to a limited section, or rather been in active life only some ten or twelve years, what the physlcians would term "cademical." with a most estimable lady for his wife (and of For eighteen or twenty days we have been luxuone of our best families), and a family of five or rinting in May and June apples. (I wish I could six children. That household was once happy. | set a basket full of them in your sanctum, with Plenty and peace once smiled in their midst. "our compliments." The Foust, Smith's Cider, Charity extended her hands from his door, and Hunger, Winter Horse, Greenskin, Yellow Horse, the poor were fed, clothed and well cared for Early Harvest, Magnum Bonum, Matamuskeet, from the abundance God had lent. Now see the Romanite, and many other kinds seem to be change! His lands are not cultivated, and, I am trying to show what they can do. So with the confident, he has not twenty dollars in the world Catawba, Diana, Yellow Provence, Concord, Welwith which to hire labor. His wife cooks, washes, | ler's Halifax, and Scuppernong grapes. (Did irons, cleans up the house and minds the children ' you ever eat any of the latter? How can I send you some when ripe?) My plums are yet too and developing them, mankind soon became betyoung to bear, save the Magnum Bonum, Co ter dressed, particular in the warmest climates lumbia, Imperial Gage and Foster's Prolific--the where it chiefly grows. latter a native seedling, very large, of a rich per- Not long since, in commenting upon the rapid fumed flavor, and immensely productive. Turn improvement of manufactured tissues and the betfrom them and see our pears! There is the Bart- ter style and material of clothing, as one of the dett, Duchess d'Angouleme, Belle Lucrative, accompaniments of advancing civilization, we Sickel, Beurre Brown, Summer Butter, and a referred to the great increase of silk production, dozen other, skowing you their redening fruit and argued therefrom the possibility of its one at every breath of the wind, while around stand day replacing the stuffs that are now worn in fifty other varieties, forming their bloom buds common, as fine cotton goods replaced the infeall thick along their limbs and giving promise rior textures that preceded them. A discovery of early fruitfulness. These are the relic of for has just been made in Peru which may serve to mer years, and while they remind you of times make our theory a real matter of every day busigone by, they certainly give a pleasure which ness much earlier than we had imagined. It none can appreciate but the true lover of fruit. seems that news has been received by the departCould you be with us when they repay the ment of State at Washington, througł the Ameri"weary hand of toi!' with their luscious fruit, can Consul at Lambayaque, in Peru, of the existyou would certainly please
ence of the silk plant in that country and its PHIL WOODLEY, Esq. adaptation to the finest uses. The Indian natives,
by whom the discovery is elaimed, have woven
specimens of its fibre, the texture and brilliancy Novelties in Silk Culture.
of the fabric surpassing expectation. Parties Just as our ad vices from the East bring us word
have already made arrangements to cultivate and that the native silk merchants at Shanghai, grow manufacture it on an important scale. ing gradually distrustful of their barbarian cus
The description given of the plant, makes it a tomers, have requested the foreign Consuls to
shrub some three or four feet in height and bearnotify their countrymen chat in future silk pur
ing a great number of pods enclosing the raw chases will be effected for cash only, a memorial
silk, which is declared to be fuer and better than has appeared with the Emperor's favor and sanc
the cocoon of the silk worm. But to this advantion, advocating the general instruction of Chinese
tage the plant adds another precious quality. Its youth in European arts and languages. The first
stems produce a long and shining fibre that, in item of news would indicate greater difficulty and
strength and beauty, exceeds the handsomest linen higher expense in procuring raw silk ihan hereto
thread. The plant is a perennial, growing wild fore, while the second promises the coming at a
with a small sized seed easily separated from time within the lifetime of a generation, when
the fibre. the introduction of more diversified knowledge
| Such is the substance of the brief statement and taste into the Chinese Empire would vastly
thus far made public by the State Department, augment the production of all the articles of
but there is enough in it to open the way to a luxury raised there, and silk prominently among
new branch of culture, which, from a comparison them.
of soil and climate, might evidently be introduIt has been frequently alleged that if the methods
ced to advantage in many parts of this country. practiced in Southera France and in Italy could be introduced on a large scale into China, the
The silk worm was not a native of the counpeculiar kinds of silk there manufactured could
tries that now produce it in the greatest abunbe brought out in quantities sufficient to admit
dance and are celebrated for their silk manufacof its introduction as an almost universal article
ture. There are portions of our south western
territories that possess a temperature, exposure of apparel. Without stopping, at this time to inquire whether such extensive results could be
and other requisites very analogous to those of
the Peruvian district where the plant is found, attained, we may remind the reader that it is within a comparatively brief period only that the
and it might well repay the cost of experiment finer textures of cotton even, not to mention woo!
to try it there.- Mer. Journal.
ony and linen, bave been worn by the bulk of the human race. The discovery and abundant cul- feat The currycomb should not be neglected; ture of the cotten plant, date back for only a its use on all kinds of neat stock and horses is fraction of the centuries covered by our authentic a great preventive of disease and vermin, and is bistorical records. After finding out its virtues productive of health.
For the “ American Farmer."
mouth over, and that he himself will relish with
his bacon and cabbage, as well as could be done Grape Growing and Wine Making.
at a Chateau Margeau dinner. Let every farmer There is at present a very proper and laudable then, and all others who have a small space of spirit manifested throughout the country, on the of ground, plant as many vines of some approved subject of growing grapes and making wine; / kind for wine or table use, as they can find time and, as a stimulus to increase and accelerate this to attend to, and make their own wine, which spirit amongst our people, numerous statements they can do at little or no expense, and a very are published, showing the enormous profits small cost of labor or loss of time. arising therefrom; and also urging it upon the Moorsfield, Va.
I. G. Mask. owners of land and farmers generally, to go extensively into the business, as a sure investment of money and labor, and which will return
Swindling larger profits than the cultivation of any other
From different parts of the country we receive crops. That this is all true, there is now no
reports of farmers being swindled by dealers in cause to doubt. But there are thousands of far- patent rights or in patented machines. The mers, who from their isolated locations, remote most extensive operations have been in the New ness from a ready market, and want of facilities
England States and New York, although many for transportation, are unable to avail themselves
farmers have been victimized in Illinois, Michiof it, or go into the business upon a seale that | gan, lowu and other Western States. It seems would be necessary to success. Tbey are thus strange that such a scheme as the following should unable to grow grapes and make wine as an ar. succeed, yet it is said that hundreds of thousands ticle of commerce; and, therefore, after reading of dollars have been made by it: these glowing accounts of the success of others, A party shows the model of an implement. which, from their authenticity, they have no It has happened that a hay-rake or bay-fork has reason to doubt, they lay them aside as inappli- generally been the one used and proposes to cable to themselves, and take no further heed of make the farmer to whom it is shown an agent, grapes. Let us, therefore, consider the matter in selling him the right for $100. As a security, another, and, perhaps to them, a more important he is assured that he will not be required to pay than commercial light. Let us put the matter of anything until he has realized $200 profits, and growing grapes and making wipe upon a dif- is also told that the retail price of the implement ferent footing, and urge upon every farmer in will be more tban twice the wholesale price. A the land the propriety of making wine for family certificate of the receipt of $100, with printed use, which can be done independent of railroad signature, with an unsigned agreement that no facilities, and irrespective of location, and with money is to be collected until $200 profits has out in any way interfering with other farming been realized is then given, and the farmer is operations. What farmer but would relish his asked to sign wbat is really a'promissory note to glass of good wine at dinner, or who more than pay the $100 in one year. It is stated, however, he would experience greater pleasure in offering that this is simply to show that the party is an to a visiting friend a glass of his own make in agent; and if objection still be made, a condition social intercourse. In order to secure this, he is written on the margin of the bote, similar to has only to plant from fifty to a bundred vines, the other agreemept. The condition is afterward which will in a short time afford him the above torn off and the note sold at a discount to an inluxury. They will take up but a small space; pocent purchaser, in whose hands it can be coland, after becoming once established, will re- | lected. quire but little of his attention. From this! In other localities machines of different kinds number of vines he will be enabled to make a have been sold to be delivered at a future time, sufficient quantity of wine to serve his own and notes taken. These notes would be sold to family a whole year at least. The manufacture innocent purchasers, and be good against the of wine is so simple that any farmers' wife can girer, although the machines would never be des make it who knows how to make a barrel of livered. sauer-kraut, or boil a kettle of apple-butter; all! These are only samples of various means used he has to do is to furnish her with the requisite to secure money without giving a fair equivalent. number of vessels (barrels), and with the aid of It is certainly surprising that schemes so utterly her family wash-tubs, and a hand to pick the at a variance with the ordinary rules of business grapes and do the heavy work, she will get him should have proved so largely successful. Westup a wine that an epicure would smack bis I ern Rural,
The So-Called Cashmere Goat.
animal was quite different from the other CashThe beautiful and costly fabrics known as
mere goat, which is identical with the Angora, Cashmere shawls have long had a world-wide
whose fleece is long and silky, but without any fame. They are wrought in the valley of Cash
appreciable quantity of the short cotton-like mere, and perhaps in other parts of Northern
fibre produced by the other variety. The latter, India. The material of which they are com
he said, was covered outwardly with rather posed is said to be the hair or pile of a goat.
coarse, stiff hair, with which, next to the skin,
was mixed the fine fibre. Europeans and Americans have endeavored to ascertain precisely the kind of animal which
Nothing is more certain than that the long
haired goat introduced by Dr. Davis and generyields this valuable staple. For a long time this object was beset with various difficulties. It was
ally ad vertised over the country as the Cashmere, said that the people who make these articles de
is really the Angora. After Mr. Peters bought sired to keep the process of manufacture a secret.
Dr. Davis's stock, he (Mr. P.) made an imporGoats were from time to time purchased and
tation of Angora goats, which were shipped at taken- to France, England and America, under
Smyrna for Boston, where they were landed just the expectation that they produced the coveted
at the breaking out of the late rebellion. All inmaterial; but such expectations were not rea
tercourse with the South was cut off and the ani. lized. No thousand dollar shawls were made
mals never reached their destination. They were from their bair, nor did the hair seem capable
precisely like the so-called Cashmere goats which
Dr. Davis introduced, as the writer can testify of producing such fabrics.
from personal observation. In 1849, Dr. J. B. Davis, of South Carolina,
The Angora goat was introduced into France returned from an extensive tour in Asia, and brought with him from that country a collection
many years ago, and is now well acclimated, of animals, among which was what be called
and is bred there to a considerable extent. After
the failure of various attempts to manufacture the Cashmere goat. They soon increased considerably, and being widely advertised under the
its fleece, success bas been attained. Under the above name, with the accompanying statement
name of "mohair" it is combined with silk and that their fleece or hair was worth eight dollars
also with cotton in the production of light, thin per pound in France, some of them were sold at
fabrics for ladies' wear. very high prices. Dr. Davis finally sold his The speculators in these so-called Cashmere entire stock of these animals to Richard Peters, goats, in this country, have led some of their then residing at Atlanta, Georgia.
dupes in the “rural districts" to believe that Dr. Davis stated to the writer of this article
they could sell their goats' hair at a very high in 1854 that he procured these animals in the
price-seven dollars per pound in New York, district of Cashmere, and that he thought he was
A person wbo had a quantity of the article on thus justified in calling them Cashmere goats,
hand, a year or two ago, requested a friend in although he admitted that they were identical
New York to ascertain what it was worth, and with what had long been known in Europe as
received for an answer "there is no sale for it.” the Angora Goat, and also admitted that the
Probably it might be sold in France, but at no celebrated Cashmere shawls were not, probably,
such price as that above mentioned, and unless made from the fleece of this goot, but from
a late demand has sprung up for it, very little if another variety inbabiting the same region in
any has ever been sold in this country.
These remarks have been prompted by an artiAsia. Dr. D. had with him a piece of what he said was a genuine Cashmere shawl. By un
cle lately going the rounds that is calculated to
mislead the credulous and unwary.-S. H. in raveling it, the material of which it was com
Lansing Republican. posed was found to be qaite different from the hair of the goat which he called Cashmere; but was a more cotton-like substance, of short fibre, / RENOVATING WORN-OUT LAND.--At a recept very fine and soft. Dr. D. exhibited a sample agricultural meeting in Boston, one of the speakof the fleece of another kind of goat which he ers remarked that "'on a tract of land which was found in Cashmere, the samples having a close overrun with wood-box, briars and other shrubs, resemblance to the material of which the piece he turned 150 sheep. At that time a cow could of shawl alluded to was composed ; and he said not have lived on the whole tract. The sheep he reg:irded this latter variety of gont as that were kept there several years, and so killed out from which the material for the genuine Cash- the wild growth that the tract now affords good mere shawls was obtained. He stated that the pasture for 15 cows."
Value of Different kinds of Vegetable Food. whose percentage of water and nitrogen had
been ascertained ; because theoretical equivalents An extensive series of experiments, which had
have been employed in conditions equally suite] for their object the determination of the relative
to digestion. The same food, coarse or fice, values of the different kinds of vegetable food,
fresh or prepared for easy digestion, yields anbased upon their amount of nitrogen, bave been
equal measures of nitrogen; because the condimade under the direction of Professor Liebig, in
tions, whether exposed to the open air or prothe Geissen Laboratory. The method of Varrentrap and Nill for determining nitrogen has
tected in stalls, whether subjected to labor of been followest, being considered to afford more
uniform severity, or allowed the free range of accurate results than that of Dumas' employed
-pastures, have not been made alike. Finally
because some animals differ greatly from others by Boussingault. By comparing the results with
in the facility with which their fat and muscles each other, and with those previously known, Dumas' and Coubor's, Boussingault's, &c., the
| are developed even when circumstances are pre. following conclusions have been arrived at: That
cisely the same. the same species of cereal grain on different soils may yield unequal percentage of nitrogen ; that
About Dogs. one-seventh of fresh ripe cereal grain is moisture,
Few persons are aware of the value and varie which may be expelled at the temperature of 100° ety of dogs, varying, as they do, in weight from C. (212° F.); that wheat and rye flour, which, one hundred and eigbty pounds to less than one to the eye and sense of feeling, are undistinguish
pound, and in value from about five hundred able from each other, may differ by from one to dollars to less than nothing. A description of the three-tenths of their whole quantity of nitrogen; different varieties may not be uninteresting: The that root crops grown on different soils may | Siberian bloodhound weighs about one hundred yield unequal percentages of nitrogen; that the
and sixty pounds, measures forty inches in girth, percentage of moisture in edible roots of the
and is worth nearly five hundred dollars. The same species is, in the fresh condition, a constant
St. Bernard dog, which is of a buff or light red quantity ; that beets, carrots and turnips have a
color, is very large and valuable. The Newfoundlarger percentage of moisture than potatoes; that land dog, when pure, is entirely black, and its the nutritive values of peas, beans or lentils cor pups are worth from ten to twenty dollars. The respond with each other; that more aliment is shepherd dog, or Scotch colly, is wonderful for contained in a given weight of peas, beans or its patience, fidelity and bravery. It is worth lentils than in an equal weight of any other from fifty to one hundred dollars. The English kind of vegetable feed analyzed ; that in several mastiff, a good watch dog, is worth from fifteen of the grains and roots analyzed there are or to twenty-five dollars. Of terriers, the black and ganic bodies beside those identical in composi
tan is most admired. It varies in weight from tion, and gluten, and starch; that the ashes of
one pound to twenty-five pounds, increasing in carrots, beets, turnips and potatoes, as Professor value as it decreases in weight A member of the Von Liebig has already reniarked, contain car bar in a neighboring city has one which weighs bonates ; that iron is present in the ashes of all less than a pound, and is the smallest we have the grains and roots analyzed ; that the differ ever seen. It could not be bought for $150. ence between the theoretical equivalents, as esti Terriers are often crossed with the Italian gray. mated from the percentage of nitrogen, and those hound, producingą very delicate, but extremely ascertained by the experiments of stock growers,
useless dog. The Scotcb terrier is tbe hardiest of and particularly the differences between the re
dogs, and is very courageous, and is worth from sults of the different stock growers, may be at
ten to thirty dollars. The Scotch deerbound is tributed to the following reasons : Because the
the rarest and most valuable of hunting dogs. percentages of nitrogen and carbon in fodder They are very rare, and are owned principally grown on different soils are unequal; because
by the nobility of England. They are worth one the prominent test has been the increase or dimi.
bundred dollars each. The beagle is the smallest nution in weight of the animal fed.
of the bound kind of superior scent and endoIncrease in weight may arise from secretion of rance, and is the best sort of rabbit hunter. Eng. fat, derived from the sugar and starch of the lish grayhounds, the feetest of dogs, are worth plants. Diminution in weight may follow un- from twenty-five to one hundred dollars. The usual activity, increasing the consumption of fat | Italian grayhound is merely a parlour dog. The already present; because the experiments, in but pure breed is rare and valuable, a fine one being few instances, were undertaken with substances worth one bundred and fifty dollars.