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The So-Called Cashmere Goat.
animal was quite different from the other CashThe beautiful and costly fabrics known as
mere goat, which is identical with the Angora, Cashmere shawls have long had a world-wide whose fleece is long and silky, but without any fame. They are wrought in the valley of Cash- appreciable quantity of the short cotton-like mere, and perhaps in other parts of Northern fibre produced by the other variety. The latter, India. The material of which they are com
he said, was covered outwardly with ratber pored is said to be the hair or pile of a goat. coarse, stiff hair, with which, next to the skin, Europeans and Americans have endeavored to
was mixed the fine fibre. ascertain precisely the kind of animal which,
Nothing is more certain than that the longyields this valuable staple. For a long time this baired goat introduced by Dr. Davis and generobject was beset with various difficulties. It was ally advertised over the country as the Cashmere, said that the people who make these articles de- is really the Angora. After Mr. Peters bought sired to keep the process of manufacture a secret. Dr. Davis's stock, he (Mr. P.) made an imporGoats were from time to time purchased and tation of Angora goats, which were shipped at taken- to France, England and America, under Smyrna for Boston, where they were landed just tbe expectation that they produced the coveted
at the breaking out of the late rebellion. All inmaterial; but such expectations were not rea
tercourse with the South was cut off and the ani. lized. No thousand dollar shawls were made mals never reached their destination. They were from their hair, nor did the hair seem capable precisely like the so-called Cashmere goats which of producing such fabrics.
Dr. Davis introduced, as the writer can testify In 1849, Dr. J. B. Davis, of South Carolina,
from personal observation. returned from an extensive tour in Asia, and
The Angora goat was introduced into France brought with him from that country a collection many years ago, and is now well acclimated, of animals, among which was what he called and is bred there to a considerable extent. After the Cashmere goat. They soon increased con
the failure of various attempts to manufacture siderably, and being widely advertised under the its fleece, success has been attained. Under the above name, with the accompanying statement
name of "mohair" it is combined with silk and that their fleece or hair was worth eight dollars also with cotton in the production of light, thin
fabrics for ladies' wear. per pound in France, some of them were sold at very high prices. Dr. Davis finally sold his The speculators in these so-called Cashmere entire stock of these animals to Richard Peters, goats, in this country, have led some of their then residing at Atlanta, Georgia.
dupes in the “rural districts" to believe that Dr. Davis stated to the writer of this article they could sell their goats' hair at a very high in 1854 that he procured these animals in the price-seven dollars per pound in New York. district of Cashmere, and that he thought he was
A person who had a quantity of the article on thus justified in calling them Cashmere goats, hand, a year or two ago, requested a friend in although he admitted that they were identical New York to ascertain what it was worth, and with what had long been known in Europe as
received for an answer "there is no sale for it." the Angora Goat, and also admitted that the
Probably it might be sold in France, but at no celebrated Cashmere shawls were not, probably, such price as that above mentioned, and unless made from the fleece of this goat, but from
a late demand has sprung up for it, very little if another variety inbabiting the same region in any has ever been sold in this country. Asia. Dr. D. had with bim a piece of what he
These remarks have been prompted by an artisaid was a genuine Cashmere shawl. By un
cle lately going the rounds that is calculated to raveling it, the material of which it was com
mislead the credulous and unwary.-S. H. in posed was found to be quite different from the
Lansing Republican. hair of the goat which be called Cashmere; but was a more cotton-like substance, of short fibre, RENOVATING WORN-OUT LAND. ---At a recent very fine and soft. Dr. D. exhibited a sample agricultural meeting in Boston, one of the speakof the fleece of another kind of goat which he ers remarked that 'on a tract of land which was found in Casbmere, the samples having a close overrun with wood-box, briars and other shrubs, resemblance to the material of which the piece he turned 150 sheep. At that time a cow could of shawl alluded to was composed ; and he said not have lived on the whole tract. The sheep he reg:irded this latter variety of goat as that were kept there several years, and so killed out from which the material for the genuine Cash- the wild growth that the tract now affords good mere shawls was obtained. He stated that the pasture for 15 cows."
Value of Different Kinds of Vegetable Food. whose percentage of water and nitrogen had
been ascertained ; because theoretical equivalents An extensive series of experiments, which hai for their object the determination of the relative have been employed in conditions equally suited values of the different kinds of vegetable food, fresh or prepared for easy digestion, yields un
to digestion. The same food, coarse or fine, based upon their amount of nitrogen, bave been made under the direction of Professor Liebig, in equal measures of nitrogen; because the condithe Geissen Laboratory. The method of Var- tions, whether exposed to the open air or pro
tected in stalls, whether subjected to labor of rentrap and Nill for determining nitrogen has
uniform severity, or allowed the free range of been followest, being considered to afford more accurate results than that of Dumas' employed pastures, have not been made alike. Finally by Boussingault. By comparing the results with
because some animals differ greatly from others each other, and with those previously known,
in the facility with which their fat and muscles Dumas' and Coubor's, Boussingault's, &c., the
are developed even when circumstances are prefollowing conclusions have been arrived at: That
cisely the same. the same species of cereal grain on different soils may yield unequal percentage of nitrogen ; that
About Dogs. one-seventh of fresh ripe cereal grain is moisture,
Few persons are aware of the value and rariwhich may be expelled at the temperature of 100°ety of dogs, varying, as they do, in weight from C. (212° F.); that wheat and rye flour, which, one hundred and eighty pounds to less than one to the eye and sense of feeling, are undistinguishi- | pound, and in value from about five hundred able from each other, may differ by from one to dollars to less than nothing. A description of the three-tenths of their whole quantity of nitrogen ; | different varieties may not be uninteresting : The that root crops grown on different soils may Siberian bloodhound weighs about one hundred yield unequal percentages of nitrogen; that the and sixty pounds, measures forty inches in girth, percentage of moisture in edible roots of the and is worth nearly five hundred dollars. The same species is, in the fresh condition, a constant St. Bernard dog, which is of a buff or light red quantity; that beets, carrots and turnips have a
color, is very large and valuable. The Newfoundlarger percentage of moisture than potatoes; that land dog, when pure, is entirely black, and its the nutritive values of peas, beans or lentils cor pups are worth from ten to twenty dollars. The respond with each other; that more aliment is shepherd dog, or Scotch colly, is wonderful for contained in a given weight of peas, beans or its patience, fidelity and bravery. It is worth lentils than in an equal weight of any other from fifty to one bundred dollars. The English kind of vegetable feed analyzed; that in several mastiff, a good watch dog, is worth from fifteen of the grains and roots analyzed there are or to twenty-five dollars. Of terriers, the black and ganic bodies beside those identical in composi- tan is most admired. It varies in weight from tion, and gluten, and starch; that the ashes of one pound to twenty-fivè pounds, increasing in carrots, beets, turnips and potatoes, as Professor value as it decreases in weight A member of the Von Liebig has already remarked, contàin car
bar in a neighboring city has one which weighs bonates; that iron is present in the ashes of all
less than a pound, and is the smallest we hare the grains and roots analyzed ; that the differ
ever seen. It could not be bought for $150. ence between the theoretical equivalents, as esti- | Terriers are often crossed with the Italian graymated from the percentage of nitrogen, and those hound, producing ą very delicate, but extremely ascertained by the experiments of stock growers, useless dog. The Scotcb terrier is the hardiest of and particularly the differences between the re- dogs, and is very courageous, and is worth from sults of the different stock growers, may be at ten to thirty dollars. The Scotch deerhound is tributed to the following reasons : Because the
the rarest and most valuable of hunting dogs. percentages of nitrogen and carbon in fodder | They are very rare, and are owned principally grown on different soils are unequal; because by the nobility of England. They are worth one the prominent test has been the increase or dimi- | bundred dollars each. The beagle is the smallest nution in weight of the animal fed.
of the bound kind of superior scent and enduIncrease in weight may arise from secretion of rance, and is the best sort of rabbit hunter. Engfat, derived from the sugar and starch of the lish grayhounds, the fleetest of dogs, are worth plants. Diminution in weight may follow un from twenty-five to one hundred dollars. The usual activity, increasing the consumption of fat | Italian grayhound is merely a parlour dog. The already present; because the experiments, in but pure breed is rare and valuable, a fine one being few instances, were undertaken with substances worth one hundred and fifty dollars.
There is a great variety of pointers, setters, English Shepherd's Dog. and spaniels. The Prince Charles variety is the
Having occasion to call on a friend a few miles most valuable of spaniels. He is supposed to have from Winchester, I descended at that station, originated in Japan, where a similar breed exists. and proceeded on foot across the country. DuHe has a round head, short nose, long curly ring my walk, I had to pass through a very large ears, large, full eyes, black and tan color, and field-one-balf of which I observed was seed never weighs over ten pounds. They have been
crop, the other being pasture on which were feedsold at auction in England and have brought as
ing some hundred or more South Downs. My high as $2,600 each. The coach dog is from attention was shortly attracted to the faithful Denmark, and is not of much value. Some Arc- dog, who was walking, with sentinel-like punctic dogs and Esquimaux dogs were brought here tuality, up and down the boundary line of the by Dr. Kane. One was kept for a long time at
two crops, close to which some of his trust were the United States Hospital at West Philadelphia. browsing. Upon the slightest attempt of any of They are fox-like in shape, remarkable for ac
them to infringe on the seed, he immediately tivity and vigilance, and have an acuter sense of drove them back ; but the extent of his beat behearing than any other dog. Most of the dogs ing very long, he was sometimes sorely put to about our streets are spurious, and not even half- it, and had to hurry backwards and forwards in breeds.-- American Stock Journal.
rather a laughable manner. Collecting his energy, he finished by driving the whole flock to
the extremity of the pasture. Then satisfied Working Bulls.
with the altered position of affairs, he returned I have one or Emery's endless chain powers to to the boundary line, and lay down with the asdrive my hay cutter. My bull is an Alderney,
surance that they must now feed up to him.two years old, weighing a little over 900 lbs. Four hours afterwards, on recrossing the field, I put on the brake and had him led into the all was as it should be, and the guardian of the power, where he had a small feed of oats given limited liability still reposed undisturbed, in him. While he ate these he was groomed and media res. I was greatly gratified at such an caressed. This was repeated two or three days admirable display of canine sagacity. in succession. Then, while he was eating, the
The following is even more extraordinary :brake was slackened a little; and as the floor moved down, (slowly, so as not to alarm him,) shire, possesses a remarkably intelligent sheep
Mr. Scott, a farmer near, Bishopstoke, in Hamphe stepped up to keep his muzzle at the oats: At the fourth lesson, he walked an hour, and cut dog of the English breed. Not long since, he hay enough to last my stock (some 18 head in accompanied him to Appleshaw Fair, where he
purchased a lot of sheep-upwards of two hunall) two or three days.
dred and fifty. At night, in bringing them We have not had the slightest trouble, and so home, they were turned into some meadow land much does he appear to like the exercise, and the with several otber droves ; they, consequently, pleasant remembrance of the reward of good be
soon all became mixed together. The next mornhavior, that I shall not be surprised if, when he ing, without making a single mistake, the dog happens to find the door open, he should go in picked out the whole of his master's sheep from and "run the macbine" on his own account.
amongst the others, almost unaided, and although intend to put up a circular saw and let him cut
he had been so short a time acquainted with my fire-wood.
them-after which he drove them to their destiNow for the advantages. The pampering and nation single-handed. This feat Mr. Scott may confinement which makes a horse run away, well be proud of repeating, as it has seldom or will, in time, make a bull devilish. The work i ever been equaled, never surpassed, for brilliant give him requires no barnessing; it is only an intelligence and canine observation. hour's walk up a hill of 13 deg. eleration. It
There are certain peculiarities of character begives him an outlet for his superflous spirits, it longing to the sheep dog well worthy of note. keeps him “in hand” and gentle, it wears away He is a remarkably small eater, and is the least the growth of his hoofs, developes bis muscle, greedy of all the entire race; in fact, it is quite and improves his health. Have I not a right to astonishing how many hours he will remain true expect my herd to be benefitted by such man
to his post without indulging his appetite; he agement? I thought so before I knew Professor apparently suffers but little from hunger or thirst. Agassiz's opinion.- Correspondence of Country He is of a pensive, melancholy disposition, and Gentleman.
rarely condescends to join a romp, or enjoy that
playful dalliance which belongs to other ani- and for beef, and thought his success chiefly mals. At the same time his affections are true owing to breeding from that cow coupled with and unalterable to his master, and his faithful-judicious crossing. He believed that it was full ness, under the most trying circumstances, is
as important to have excellent qualities in the staunch even to death; and if we should seek in dam as in the sire. The cow to which he owed the canine family' for talents and qualities espe- his success in breeding was of vigorous constitucially human, our convictions unhesitatingly tion, active, possessed of a full bright eye, of point towards the sheep-dog.–Farmer, Edin- kindly disposition, deep in the ribs, thin and burgh, Scotland.
light in the shoulders, and swelling out full
towards the hind quarters. She was large, regThe Selection of Dairy Cows, &c.
ularly formed, covered with close, silkly hair.
She was good for milk. He always crossed his In selecting cows for a dairy, or for family use,
cows with the very best pure blood male, generwe contend that the best are the cheapest in the ally Durham. He thought every farmer could end, as it costs no more to keep a good cow than
from good selections from native stock thus raise a poor one.
animals superior for beef, for work, and for milk. In order to judge of the qualities of a good
The best cows, probably, that dairymen can milch cow, the shape and size of the animal in obtain, for general use, are grade animals, and whole and detail should be considered, the tem
crossed with especial reference to milk-producing perament and disposition, also the strength of properties ; but it is not easy to say exactly how the constitution. If these points are well devel- these grade cows shall be produced ; that is, oped, the cow will generally prove to be a first
what proportion of foreign blood, and what class milker.
blooded bulls are most desirable; but, in onr Blood is desirable in all kinds of stock, but is
own case, we should prefer the Alderney:- Am. really of little account without proper care and Stock Journal. management. That is to say, blood stock cannot be kept up to a given standard if it is ne
Floods and Revenue. glected and keep upon unsuitable food, or in The Planters' (La.) Banner thus specuunsuitable quantities. All stock will deteriorate lates upon the consequences to the revenue of the under imprudent management. Cows that "han- United States from the inundation of the country dle well” are always to be preferred for the bordering on the lower Mississippi : dairy, as it indicates a good milker in a cow, "It is estimated that the Government of the whose skin is somewhat loose, and that will | United States will lose fully ten millions of dolspring when pinched with the fore finger and lars, in the next year alone, from the devastation thumb. The thigh veins should be large, easily caused by the overflows that have occurred, this felt with the hands, and the udder should be ca- loss being the difference between what might pacious.
have been collected for taxes, and the amount Cows are now selling in this State, and we may that probably will be received. This is a hard, say, in all the Eastern States at from $50 to $125; practical and stubborn argument against the petand some extra fine animals at higher rates. ty tyranny toward the South, which led Cone
If a farmer has not got the money to buy as gress to refuse all aid to internal improvements, many as he wants at the higher prices, let him and especially that of refusing assistance in rebuy half the number at the higher figures, that pairing the levees. The subject is receiving attenhe would at the lesser rates, and he will make tion at the North, where the folly of utterly desmore money in the end by so doing, and he will troying the resources and productiveness of even be able to raise a supply for himself, equal per an enemy's country, is beginning to be appreciahaps to the parent stock, when in the case of ted. A light is beginning to dawn upon them, purchasing the lower priced animals, the increase and they see that if our people have no incomes in calves might not be worth raising; and in no they cannot contribute much to the support of case would it be much, if any, superior to the the Government, that they cannot pay old debts, parentage.
nor buy fresh supplies. All these things turn At a recent meeting of a farmers' club in Ver- and a more enlightened and liberal course is be
back upon the merchants and people of the North, mont, one of the members stated that he had ing urged. It would be wrong, in view of their reared an excellent berd of cattle, all bred pri- actions during the past two vears, to say that marily from a cow of superb quality. The
charitable feelings actuated them. It is not that, breed was mainly Durham. He had marketed pockets
, that they are killing the "goose that
but they begin to feel that it touches their own many excellent animals from his herd for work laid the golden egg.
or between the rows. To show that the variety Dr. John A. WARDER, President of the Ohio of grapes wbich we chiefly cultivate love a clay Pomological Society, has, in the report of the soil, an instance is given of the vineyard of Mr. Society, made some very interesting remarks on Buchanan, of Cincinnati, where a pit was opened grape soils, from which it appears that grapes among the vines in the hard clay below the may be grown on almost every variety of soil in
trenched soil. The clay was so hard as to be in suitable climate, but that each soil has its loosened with difficulty with the pick, and yet peculiar kind of grape, which is better adapted after reaching a depth of four feet an abundance to it than to any other situation.
of grape roots were found forcing their way into It follows, therefore, that the great secret of the unpromising soil. success in grape culture, is to select those varieties
These facts are interesting and suggestive to best adapted to the peculiar soil on which it is those who are looking forward to the culture of destined to plant, and this must be decided by the vine._Utica Herald. the rigid test of experiment.
"Geologically," he says, "these plants appear The Horse-His Nature and Disposition. to be equally diverse in their selection, for they I assume that no horse is naturally vicious, are found upon the granites of Arkansas; upon and think it can be proven; and again, it is open the trappean rocks of Europe and Asia ; upon for investigation, that there never was a vicious the modern volcanic scoria of Italy, and of the horse that was not made so by mismanagement. Western Islands; upon all limestone formations Suppose we take a wild colt from the pasture; of whatever age and character ; upon the shales
if we come within reach, he kicks in self-defence ; and sandstone of the coal measures ; upon the we get a rope on him, drag him about till he chalk prairies of the Southern States : upon the yields, but does that cure him from using his tertiary sands and clays of the Atlantic coast, as heels ? No! it makes him worse ; it halterwell as those of the great western plains, and breaks him, but that natural fear is increased, upon the half formed tufaceous rocks, gravels and and the next time we approach him, he will show sands and clay diluvians, also have their grape fight in earnest, and we shun bis heels, and he vines."
knows it. He keeps his head from us and is masThe Catawba, Diana, Iona, &c., are adapted ter of the field; whips and clubs will only subto clays, and the majority of the vine planters due him. Now I ask, why should we attribute upon the lake shore prefer stiff clays. No mat- this to his vicious disposition, natural and inherter how stiff no matter how close, even if it be poor ent? Suppose we had taken altogether a different bard white clay, the successful cultivators in this
course, and enticed him into the yard, and then region pronounce it good grape land, needing alone, quietly commence his education ; when he only thorough drainage to grow abundant crops, | finds himself alone with his enemy, he will watch especially of the Catawba variety.
very narrowly all our motions; slowly and cauThe Doctor remarks, that it is the very common tiously we approach him; soon we see by his opinion after many years experience, of those restless eye that he is afraid ; we stop awhile, then who have been eminently successful in the cul- | again proceed, being very careful to go slow that ture of the vine, that the clay cannot be too hard bis eye will show no fear; when within his reach and compact for the roots of the grape to pene we carefully put out our hand towards him, he traté. Among the plants which are an indication reaches out his head and smells; we then comof good grape lands is the blue grass or Poa mence to pat and smooth bim on the nose and compressa, which always takes possession of such neck, which he is as fond of as a cat; step away clays, particularly if they contain lime.
from him, and to our wonder he follows us; we He says that the pioneer planter of the lake gently caress him again, and we soon find he will region, even declares, that those vineyards which follow us anywhere. were prepared in the most thorough manner by Then we put on a halter and find that he is altrenching, always heretofore recommended, are ready halter-broken ; you may handle him as the most unsatisfactory in their results, and that familiarly as you choose, and he will not kick or the best and most productive are heavy soils, that bite, and if you take the same careful, gentle were merely plowed, and the roots were placed course in his after education, you will never in holes dug into the hard and previously andis know him to resist any demand which he underturbed clay, and then firmly trodden in at plant- stands. Having once established our friendship ing. Drainage, however, is necessary, it being in his mind, we should never frighten bim by atpreferred that the tiles be laid sixteen feet apart, I tempting to make him do anything he does not