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understand. Never attempt to harness or mount becomes heated and the fruit sickly. Apple trees a colt suddenly the first time, for it will surely should not be trained high-the storms have less frighted him and you will lose his confidence. effect, the rays of the sun will not lay on the Horses are made vicious by bad usage, and the trunk, and the fruit will be fairer. In the month man who can abuse a noble and confiding horse, of August the apple makes its main growth. and spoil his disposition, should be the only one Then it is that it most needs that moisture and to suffer from the teeth and hoofs of the same sap which the field crop is lavis) rol ng it of. animal.-P. Farmer.

Your Baldwins and Newton Pippins are both small and dwarfish, and you wonder why so

many are drooping and dropping. Orchard Culture,

We know that this matter of cropping orchards The orchard should be just as much a subject is a mooted question; that while grain crops are for cultivation as any other part of the farm. By generally acknowledged to be injurious, many cultivating an orchard we do not mean the grow- consider root crops to be beneficial. Probably ing of crops in it; but on the contrary, the the reason the latter are beneficial, is because giving up of the soil exclusively to the trees, and they require so much manure to make them profiyearly top-dressing it with muck, leaf-mold and

table. We would like to hear from some of our carbonaceous matter generally.

correspondents on this question, as our remarks To select a favorable site, to thoroughly pre- have been made with that view as much as any pare the soil, to purchase none but the best of other.- Furm and Fireside. trees, to plant them in the most careful and approved manner, together with pruning, training and low-branching, are necessary requisites ;

Soiling vs. Pasturing. but the subsequent enriching of the soil at inter Let me recite the experience and practice of a vals must not be neglected. Fruit trees draw friend of mine. Coming into possession of about their nourishment from the soil, and it is just as nine acres of land in the neighborhood of a good necessary to the perfection of fruit to keep up the market, made by the demands of a large literary supply of nourishing elements in the soil of the institution, he cast about as to what was to be done. orchard as it is necessary in the soil of the field. Two cows and a horse was the stock in trade, for

In our estimation, the raising of field crops neat cattle. He was obliged to pay per season, in the orchard is an absurd and injurious fallacy. men for pasturage, what they thougbt it was No man likes to do double physical duty; and worth, and at the same time it was no small job to attempt to make a given acre yield a crop of to drive his cows back and forth. That deterapples and a crop of corn or wheat, in the same mined him to keep his cows in the barn. The year, whilst not directly in opposition to the law greatest trouble was the rapid accumulation of in physics that two things cannot occupy the manure. By good husbandry he properly sesame space at the same time, is an attempt at cured that-he kept feeding it to bis crops. something almost like it so far as the elements Finding his crops increasing, he added another of plant life are concerned. It will invariably cow. Another cow only made more manure. be a failure, resulting in one or both of the crops More manure husbanded in the same way made falling short in quantity and quality. Why do more crops, and the third year he added another we assiduously try to keep our strawberry beds cow. Now began another serious difficulty. His free from weeds ? Because we are afraid the barn was too small. Still, at the end of the weeds will rob the strawberries of the elements fourth year, he put in another cow, and set himnecessary to fruit perfection. Why then crop self to work to get up a new barn, and when I our orchards and look for a full yield of ripe, last saw him he had a new barn with modern delicious apples? It is folly to expect it. We improvements, of good size, a horse, a pair of have changed the direction of the eliminative cattle, and five cows, and yet had no thought of power. As well might we cram our heads with buying more land, but wanted one more cow. the "learned lumber of pedantry" by taking Now people who do not want a large accumulaout our brains to make room for it.

tion of manure, and a gradual increase of crops, The trees are barked by the plow or team; should not adopt that style. But it seems to me they are more liable to be blown over or to lean that in our towns, where homesteads are in "deviously.” In order to get under the trees small lots, and not easily procured, no better with the horses, they are trimmed "up higher;" course could be pursued than soiling the cows, and when the trunks of apple trees are high and and, at the same time, fattening the soil.— New exposed to the scorching rays of the sun, the sap | England Homestead.

The Profits of Market Gardening. much to a family, and cannot be obtained for

On the above subject, we find many useful nothing. A small garden that can be worked hints in a work briefly noticed in our last issue, without hiring help, or a good-sized place on and entitled “Gardening for Profit." The first which the business of market gardening is carchapter describes the men fitted for the business ried on, and in the management and working of of gardening. They must be such as can stand which the owner's own time and energy count, laborious out-door employment-active, working these are profitable; while a piece of ground men; possessed of good sense, energy, and per- kept partly for the display of taste, and the enseverance. Retired city merchants and men of joyment of nice grounds, &c., will cost the probusiness wbo get a place near town, bire a gar- prietor more or less according to the pains taken dener, and expect to reap a large profit, reckon with it. without their host, and usually find their gar

Our author puts the average profits of well dens costly luxuries instead of paying invest- cultivated market gardens, in the vicinity of New ments. Many golden dreams of this kind are

York, at $300 per acre for the past fifteen years. mercilessly dissipated every year. Personal at

This is for the products of open gardens only, tention, labor, superintendence, watchfulness,

not of frames or forcing pits. Competition is must be given, or such a business will be any- very keen in the New York market, and for this thing but profitable.

reason it is thought market gardening might pay In regard to the amount of capital required to

better in smaller towns, and even villages. But work a market garden effectively, the opinion is

if the competition be keen in a city like New given that, for anything less than ten acres, $300 York, the demand is great; there is no difficulty per acre is required. This will startle many.

in working off large quantities of produce; Judging by the small amount of capital per

whereas often, in smaller places, the market is so acre necessary to farm, there are many who readily glutted, that any overplus of production make sad mistakes about gardening. Gardening not have gardens, whereas in a town or village,

is a dead loss. Moreover, in a city, people canis concentrated farming. If the space tilled be

on quite small plots of ground, families can smaller, the culture is higher, and the amount of labor bestowed on a given quantity of land far grow enough for their own consumption of just

such articles perhaps as yield the market gargreater. Not only does the work referred to maintain that $300 per acre is needed as capital,

dener his best prices. but it holds out the not very encouraging pros

The moral of it all is, that market gardening pect that the first season will not more than pay

is not a sure fortune, or an easily worked gold current expenses, and cites many cases of failure mine, out of which wealth is certain to come, arising out of the attempt to garden with insuf- but a business requiring management, industry, ficient means, and under the delusive idea that and many qualities rarely possessed by those who the first year's crop would be highly remunera

enter on it. There is no royal road to success in tive. The attempt to cultivate too much land, this world, even among the pathways of a garwith small means, is a fruitful cause of disap

den. Honest work, with mind or muscle, or pointment and loss in gardening as in farming.

both, is indispensable in every sphere; and he

who expects to find anywhere a smooth, easy As to the working force per acre, a market garden of ten acres, within three miles of mar

road to wealth, is under a great mistake.-Can

ada Farmer. ket, will, if planted in close crop, require on an average seven men. A less quantity land will require more working force in proportion. For

The Yield of Cotton in Egypt. a small area, one man per acre will be needed. The British consul at Alexandria has made an This labor estimate will take not a few by sur official report on the present condition of Egyptiprise. There are many persons who own about an agriculture. He says the agricultural indusan acre of land, part shrubbery and part gar- try of the country has been so entirely diverted den, who are dismayed to find, after a short from the rotation of crops in its normal state, trial, that it requires all the time of one man to that any person now going through the country take care of such a place. They complain that to take a view of the produce of the soil would it does not pay; and certainly, if the money be altogether misled. The enormous profits which value of the products grown be all that is were reealized by the growth of cotton during counted, it will not be easy to make it pay. A the American war have caused this. When the liberal allowance must be made for health, beau-Cotton-Supply Association sent out their secrety, space for exercise, &c. These are worth | tary, Dr. Forbes, to India, those gentlemen were

bearers of a memorial to the late viceroy, Said

Canning Fruits. Pasha, praying his highness to use every possible

First-can the fruit the same day it is gathered. effort to encourage the cultivation of cotton.

More tban balf the secret of having fine preserved The reply was characteristic, and evinced a correct impression and almost a prophetic dread of fruit lies in this simple direction. the revolution that would be produced by an im

Second-Never can fruit without adding as moderately enhanced price for corton. He said, much sugar to it as you would to prepare it for “Prices alone will prove a sufficient stimulus the table. This is imperative, else your fruit without any effort on my part; but God forbid will inevitable be leathery; cook it in, I should that I should ever see the abandonment of the say, at the rate of one-quarter of a pound to every ordinary succession of crops for the production pound of fruit at least; but taste and try, as I of cotton, to the exclusion of those products on did, and when it suits your palate cease from all which we subsist.

saccharine matter. "Within a short period from that time Egypt, And now for the modus operandi :-pare and which had ever been a large exporter of grain, extract the pit; cut into halves and plunge into of beans, &c., had to seek food from other coun- cold water until ready to cook, else your peaches tries, and became an extensive importer. Grain will be black; this, of course does not apply to was considerably dearer in the interior than at other kinds of fruit. Place your cans in any Alexandria. In some places absolute famine en vessel where they can stand at least half way up sued. An undesirable change was wrought, the in boiling hot water, which keep so until sealed. recovery from which will be as slow as its ac- I usually take a large dripping-pan and put it complishment was rapid.

The value of land was on top of the stove at one side, while my prequadrupled ; wages rose in an equal ratio ; la- serving kettle is on the other. Make your sirup borers earned so easily sufficient for their wants and when it comes to a boil, put in your peaches that they became indolent; an excessive luxury and let them cook (if clings) until you can pierce sprang up, and that not of a nature to benefit with a piece of broom corn; if freestones, when the commercial world, being displayed in a de- the sirup boils up over them the first time, skim mand for white slave girls, costly pipes, and such out and put into the cans. When the latter are other appliances wbich, the consul remarks, do full of the peaches, fill up with boiling hoi sirup, not much benefit the industrious world without. wipe off the tops with a rag wet with cold water,

“Meanwhile the land, from the constant crops being careful that no juice remains on them, of cotton in succession, has become impoverished. then put on the covers, remove from the water Cotton, howerer, bas long been, and must con to the stove hearth, and seal. tinue to be, the most important production of Everything must be hot from the beginning Egypt. It is sown in March or April, and ar to the end-hot sirup, hot cans, hot fruit, hot rives at maturity in August or September. An sealing wax, and harder than all, hot and blowzy average yield in good summers is three hundred hands and faces just when the thermometer is at pounds to the acre; the New Orleans variety has blood heat in the shade! been found to yield eight hundred pounds per All small fruits are subject to the same process, acre; but it is found ununarketable, and is, there except that the rule for them is simply to allow fore, little cultivated. Cotton seed has become them to come to a boil, and not remain longer an important source of profit. In 1858, the ar

in the cirup. Strawberries, to retain their color deb of two hundred and seventy pounds sold for and flavors, require more sugar, and to be put twenty-five tariff piastres; now it sells for from into glass, stone, earthen, or anything but tin. sixty-five to serenty-five piastres. Formerly it The same is true of blackberries.—Tomatoes I was not of sufficient value to justify its being scald, peel, and then bring to a boil again, with sent to Alexandria, and it was used as fuel; now

a little salt added, when I put them in new tin, it is all shipped to Europe, and from it is pressed and seal. I have never been fortunate with an excellent oil, and from the refuse a cake is glass or earthen. If sione jars are used be sure made which is said to be more nutritious than

that you buy dark colored, well baked and linseed cake. The cattle murrain, which com

glazed ones, not the yellow.-Farmers' Adrermenced in Egypt before it proved so severe a

tiser. scourge in England, destroyed, the first year, eight hundred thousand head of horned cattle. In lower Egypt almost every animal was de

As Cows should always be milked regularly stroyed, and it will take years to restore the num- and clean. ber of animals.”

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OCTOBER.

and opinion here has been always favourable to

early planting in this regard, but the objection "Thine, Autumn, is unwelcome lore-

to it is the poor turn-out. These Harrison's, To tell the world its pomp is o'er;

Goodrich's, and others, may allow of the earliest To whisper in the rose's ear,

planting, and still give very productive crops. That all her beauty is no more.

Ours could as well have been planted on the first "The lily's sword is broken now,

of March as of Vay, and been off the ground by That was so bright and keen before And not a blast can blow, but strews

first of August, giving place to turnips or any With leaf of gold, the earth's dark floor." fall or winter crop. We will bear in mind, how

ever, that this season is exceptional; it is not Editorial Gossip from the Farm.

often there is one so favourable throughout to

the growth of this crop, but if these new potaWeather, Polato Rot, Grapes, Cheval Gras, fc. from rot, Mr. Goodrich will have proved himself,

toes shall give us respectable early crops, safe Dear FARMER: It was said long ago of us

indeed, a benefactor. country people, “their talk is of bullocks ;" let

Of grapes, let it be said that notwithstanding it be acknowledged, that our thoughts are now

hot suns and continued moisture, the Concords raised above the old theme, when we have them

are ripening with very little loss. Mr. William always on the clouds, or on the sunshine as it Griffith, whose article is found on another page, occasionally peers through them. "Wet weather, claims that his Lake Shore region is the Canaan sir." "A foggy morning, sir.” “Very hot sun

of grape growers, where Delawares, lonas, and to-day.” So we greet one another, and so it is, all the better sort, shall gladden the hearts of up to how late in September, we do not now say the happy who dwell there, while only Concords The corn gets the good of it, at any rate, and is and the baser kind shall comfort the Egyptians. doing better than we hoped last month. The We do not give up to him this point, and do not, ears are filling out finely.

of course, give up the Delaware or lona. CaBad news comes from various quarters of rot- tawba is a dead failure, dropping its leaves, and ting potatoes. I get no damage as yet. A small leaving the fruit all green. Of Adirondac, and planting of Harrison's, planted about first of Salem, and others, we will say more some time May, have come out sound and beautiful, and hence, but in the meantime, while there is no the ground cleared of them by the first of Sep

worse plague in Egypt than a bunch of Concords, tember, and yielding at the rate of twenty to well ripened in Maryland soil by Maryland sun, one. Early Goodrich, not so productive, but we are likely to linger by her flesh pots-more the same result otherwise. Peach Blows planted especially as so many other Egyptians have the two weeks sooner are green and growing still. same poor taste, and are willing to buy at a payA very intelligent French experimentalist writes ing price, and we are sure to have a plenty to lately, that he can, with certainty, protect his sell. potatoes against rot, by planting in February, Speaking of taste, how submissive we are to

TOBACCO CROP.

habit, or rather to our notions or prejudices. Farm Work for the Month. Great objection is made to swine's fesh, because it is said the hog is an unclean animal, and truth to say, he is not always so nice as he might be, but has excellent capabilities in the Our notes for the past months give all the neway of bam, sausage, &c., but what gay our cessary directions up to this time. If they have squeamish friends to borseflesh? Don't turn up been attended to, there is little to be done but your nose, good sir. There's never a cleaner press forward and close up the labor of housing animal surely. But your mental associations by the 10th. Look carefully to the hanging in suggest that uo pleasant carcass left by the road- the house. Let it not be put so close, but that side, and so your pose settles the question and each plant will bang clear of the other when it not yourself. But Frenchmen rise above such bas wilted. When damp nights with foggy weakness. Cheval is an article of diet in Prance. mornings occur, close the doors at sundown and Chevaux gras contribute tons of wholesome food open at sonrise; also in all rainy or damp weato her labouring people, who bave been taught ther, and in high winds, which beat and whip to eat it by French savans.

the leaves about. If a hard frost is expected A writer, giving an account of several cattle after housing, shut up the house at night to preshows he had visited, says: Il nous reste a par- vent freezing of tbe uncured stems. ler de l'exposition des chevaux grao.” At the town of Nancy, it seems, among the other attractions,

CORN FIELD. was a competition of fat borses destined for the

As the corn field will now be peculiarly liable butcher. "M. Pincaud, the butcher of Nancy, to the inroads of unruly stock, let it be properly was the exhibitor of the filly, twenty-seven guarded, the fences and gates looked to, and fremonths old, weighing 8 cwt., and of the thirteen quent inspection given the field generally. If year old horse, weighing nearly 11 cwt.; both fodder has been secured by cutting tops and pullof which were paraded about decked with gar- ing blades, let all be put away safely as soon as lands and flowers.''

practicable, where it is to be preserved for the In Paris, we are told, there are now fifteen winter. Corn should not be put in the house butcher shops for the sale of horseflesh; foar until well cured, and this will not be till Norestaurants, where it undergoes scientific culi- vember. nary treatment, which the public much appreciates; and five sa usage shops, whose specialty is often better than the common sausages, though

If our suggestions of last month were observed sold at half price. So many shops are opening

we hope that the necessary preparations, at that it is feared the supply will become irregular, least, for wheat sowing, have been made, and and that, consequently, the price will rise. The

we are now ready, with the utmost promptness, Provinces bave followed the example of the to commit the seed to the earth. If sowing be capital, and the trade in borseflesh has sprung delayed for fear of ily till the 5th of October, that up to such an extent, that men go about buying should be the latest day, and then all should be horses for the butcher markets. It is looked ready to finish this important work at once. We upon not only as a most valuable addition to are continually, and more and more impressed the meat supply of the country, but ag adding with the necessity of early seeding, if we would materially to the value of agricultural products,

secure maximum crops. There is, indeed, liasince a "done" horse, or as we should say, a

bility to fly, and we may use the precaution of “used up” horse, that is, one healthy and waiting till the date above named to avoid the sound in other respects, but damaged in his feet Fall attack. But let it be borne in mind that or legs, is increased in value many fold, so that against the Spring ily, and every other enemy or t is said a horse, useless from age or accident, disease, a full supply of vigorous roots, which which sold formerly at seven francs, will now

can only come by early seeding, is the best and bring at the butcher's one hundred francs.

only safeguard Lest it may be thought, that I am riding the

TIMOTHY. cheval too long considering the state of his legs, I hand him over to the digestion of the reader, wheat. Let it follow immediately after the put

Timothy may be sown whenever you so w only claiming that when he sits down to a din- ting in of that crop, and follow it with the roller ner of pony, I may be there " to see."

to insure prompt germination. A peck of good Yours truly, &c. seed to the acre is sufficient.

WHEAT SOWING.

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