Quality Assurance for Chemistry and Environmental Science: Metrology from pH Measurement to Nuclear Waste Disposal

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2007 M09 18 - 326 páginas
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Metrology and its applications e.g. in chemical or food analysis or in environmental monitoring are entering our daily life. This book provides a basic overview over the relevant metrological concepts like traceability, ISO uncertainties or cause-and-effect diagrams. The applications described in great detail range from progression-of-error type evaluation of the measurement uncertainty budget to complex applications like pH measurement or speciation calculations for aqueous solutions. The consequences of a measurement uncertainty concept for chemical data are outlined for geochemical modeling applied to transport in the subsurface and to nuclear waste disposal. Special sections deal with the deficits of existing thermodynamic data for these applications and with the current position of chemical metrology in respect to other quality assurance measures, e.g. ISO 900x, GLP, European and U.S.-American standards.

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1
14
4
39
5
46
Efficient Sampling from Multidimensional Distributions
97
Metrology in Chemistry and Geochemical Modeling
141
24
153
29
163
31
191
Metrological Principles Applied to Geohydraulic Data
203
32
213
A Appendix 279
278
34
285
ReadMeTextandLicenseAgreement
294
37
315
41
323
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Página 179 - I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind: it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of science, whatever the matter may be.
Página 68 - ... if a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts; but if he will be content to begin with doubts, he shall end in certainties.
Página 12 - Calibration: The set of operations that establish, under specified conditions, the relationship between values of quantities indicated by a measuring instrument or measuring system, or values represented by a material measure or a reference material, and the corresponding values realized by standards.
Página 12 - Traceability is defined as the property of the result of a measurement or the value of a standard whereby it can be related to stated references, usually national or international standards, through an unbroken chain of comparisons all having stated uncertainties.
Página 12 - Some of these components can be evaluated from the statistical distribution of the results of series of measurements and can be characterized by experimental standard deviations. The other components, which can also be characterized by standard deviations, are evaluated from assumed probability distributions based on experience or other information. 3. It is understood that the result of the measurement is the best estimate of the value of the measurand, and that all components of uncertainty (including...
Página 159 - the state of mind with respect to an assertion, a coming event, or any other matter on which absolute knowledge does not exist.
Página 12 - ... Uncertainty of measurement comprises, in general, many components. Some of these components may be evaluated from the statistical distribution of the results of series of measurements and can be characterized by experimental standard deviations. The other components, which can also be characterized by standard deviations, are evaluated from assumed probability distributions based on experience or other information.
Página 2 - Gentlemen, that in questions of science the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual.
Página 12 - Uncertainty (of measurement) — parameter associated with the result of a measurement that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand...

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