A Guide to the Orchard and Fruit Garden: Or An Account of the Most Valuable Fruits Cultivated in Great Britain

C. M. Saxton, 1852 - 420 páginas

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Página 321 - In sowing seeds for the purpose of procuring improved varieties, care should be had not only that the seeds be taken from the finest existing kinds, but also that the most handsome, the largest, and the most perfectly ripened specimens should be those that supply the seed. A seedling plant will always partake more or less of the character of its parent, the qualities of which are concentrated in the embryo when it has arrived at full maturity.
Página 321 - It will be as well to consider these two subjects separately. By what means the first tendency to change their nature was given to domesticated plants, we are entirely ignorant. It is probable that it was originally due to accident, and also that it was still mere chance which continued to operate down to very modern times. Philosophers are unacquainted with the reason why there should be any tendency to variation from the characters first stamped on any species by Nature; but all know that this...
Página 297 - York, some time in the end of last century. It remained barren several years, till, during a violent thunder-storm, the whole trunk was struck to the earth and destroyed. The root afterwards threw out a number of vigorous shoots, all of which were allowed to remain, and finally produced fruit. It is, therefore, to be presumed that the stock of the barren kind was the parent of this. Trees were sent to Mr.
Página 331 - One common practice is, to head down the branch that is laid into the earth ; this is to call into action the buds below the incision, by stopping the general axis of development. Another method is to tongue the layer, that is, to split the stem just up to the origin of a bud ; a practice that has the effect of enabling the roots to be emitted into the soil through the wound more readily than if they had to pierce through the bark ; the resistance offered to their passage through the bark is in many...
Página 331 - ... in these practices, the roots strike between the bark and wood of the stock, instead of into the earth, and form new layers of wood, instead of subterranean fibres. The success of such practices, however, depends upon other causes than those which influence the growth of cuttings. It is necessary that an adhesion should take place between the scion and the stock, so that when the descending fibres of the buds shall have fixed themselves upon the wood of the stock, they may not be liable to subsequent...
Página 333 - ... success; and that a habit of constantly operating with delicacy will enable a gardener to succeed with certainty in cases in which a bungling practitioner would be sure to fail. Little do those who crush with rude hands the tender limbs of plants, reflect how delicate is that organization upon which the life of their victim is dependent.
Página 334 - These spongioles are exceedingly delicate in their organization, and a very slight degree of violence destroys them. It is scarcely possible to remove the soil from the roots without injuring them in some degree; and if transplantation is effected violently or carelessly, they are in a great measure destroyed. In proportion to the size or age of a tree, is the difficulty of preserving them increased; and hence, at the same time, the difficulty of transplantation is augmented. If, by any method, the...
Página 11 - In favourable situations, in many parts of the country, instead of the trees being in a state of rapid decay, they may be found of unusually large size, perfectly healthy, and their crops abundant ; the fruit perfect in form, beautiful in colour, and excellent in quality.

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