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The State of Georgia......

1.. 218 217 218 218 219 219 220 221 66 Florida...

224 224 223 3:23 224 224224 51226 The Western States...

1.- .. 227 228 227 2281 -- 228 The State of Ohio..

228228229230229230230230 231 231 232 232 234 Indiana....cor

234234334236 234 236 235236236236 Illinois.......

239239240242239242 242 243243 Michigan....a

246 247 247 249 247 248 249 249 250 Wisconsin ..

252 252 252 252252|254 254 .. Kentucky.....

255255 - 258 256 256 257 258 Missouri......

261261 261 263 -- 263 263 263 Iowa.........

266266266267 .. 267 267 268 The South-Western States..

270270 . ...... 270 .......... 270 The State of Tennessee...

271271272273271 273273273273274274275276 Alabama.....

277277 277279 .. 279278279279279280281282 Mississippi...

282 282 282 282 282 .. 283284284284285285 286 Louisiana.......

287 287 287 .. 287 .. 288 ... ..... 295 Arkansas....

295 296 296 297 296 297 297 297 298 298 298298299

299 300 300 302 302 302 302 303 303 .. 303 303 309 The Territories of the United States... 310 The Territories East of the Rocky Mt's/311) The Indian Territory................|3111311

1-311312 2312 312 317
The Nebraska Territory..........313 ..
The Missouri Territory...
The Territory of Minesota...........
The Territories West of the Rocky Mt's/313..
The Territory of Oregon....

313 314 314
66
New Mexico...... 316 316 317

|322 322 .. 330 324 328331 State of Deseret.--.......

333) ..
Statistics of Population.......
Progressive Population......
Age and Caste of Population.
Employment of the People.
Infirm Population....
Area and Relative Population...
Education of the People....

342
Principal Colleges in United States.
Roman Cath. Ecclesiastical Seminaries..
Protestant Theological Seminaries...
Law Schools......
Medical Schools....
Statistics of the Army.....
Organization of the United States' Army
Table of Pay of Army Officers...ie
Military Geographical Divisions.....
Militia Force of United States .....
Statistics of the Navy.........
Vessels of War of the United States..
Officers of the Navy..........
Pay of the Navy.....
Marine Corps......
Statistics of Commerce, &c.......
Exports to Foreign countries....
Imports from Foreign Countries.....

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Value of Exports.............. Page
Entrances and Clearances.......
Commerce, &c., of each State...
Tonnage of United States ...

359 Statistics of Ship-building....

360 Statistics of the Post-Office...

361 The United States' Mint.....

362 Ecclesiastical Statistics......

363
Episcopal Denominations..... 363
Presbyterian Denominations...
Baptist Denominations ....... 365
Methodist Denominations.....
Congregational Denominations.. 367
Dutch and German Churches... 368
Miscellaneous Denominations..

369
Canals of the United States....
Railroads of the United States.
Magnetic Telegraphs.......

3801 ..
Ocean Mail Steamships......
Miscellaneous Statistics ...
The United States of Mexico... 389389 390 392 393 398 395 398 399 400 4044
The State of Tamaulipas ...... 409 409 ..

Neuvo Leon .... 410 - 410 ..
Cohahuila ......

410 410 ....
Chihuahua ...

411 411 Durango .....

4124
Sonora....

413 413..
Sinaloa.....
San Luis Potosi.
Zacatecas ......

415 .- 415
Guanaxuato ......
Aguas Calientes ......

Jalisco..........
The Territory of Colima.....
The State of Mechoacan ...... 419 419.[19

Vera Cruz.......
Mexico ........
Queretaro ......

Puebla...
The Territory of Tlascala .
The State of Oaxaca..
Tabasco.......

0143014
Chiapas.........

Yucatan.....
The Territory of Lower California.. 434 434 434 435
The States of Central America ... 435 436 -- 437 437 438
The West Indies ...one.

441441 442 442 442 .. Hayti, Hispaniola or San Domingo.

445 445 445 The British West Indies..... ..... 450

453 453 454 455 455 454 Jainaica .....

456 458 The Caymans................ 459

459 Trinidad .....

459 459 ....

--461 ... 461 461 Tobago .......---.. - 462 462 462 - 463

.. 463 463 463 Grenada.......... .. 4641464 4641 ....

mol., 1464 464 465

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Marmue . . . . .UHO.COMMONOODO.

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St. Vincent......
Barbadoes.
St. Lucia....no
Dominica...
Antigua.....
Barbuda ......
Nevis........
Montserrat..

47 1 471 St. Christopher's .......

3472 Anguilla.....na

3473 Tortola, and the Virgin Islands

4 474 The Bahama Islands.....

8 475 The Swedish West Indies..

4781 St. Bartholomew's........

478 478 The Spanish West Indies...

479 Cuba ..

479 479 480 480 480 480 481 Porto Rico ...

486 486 487 The French West Indies ....

489. Guadalupe, &c. ................

. 490 490 490 .. Martinique ......

... 491 491 491 ..
St. Martin's, (North Side)............ 4921
The Dutch West India Islands.mec.. 492/
Curaçoa.......

493 493 St. Martin's, (South Side)...

493 St. Eustatius.....

493 493 Saba......

-The Danish West Indies...

. ....................|494 Santa Cruz, or St. Croix. . 494 494 ..

494 St. Thomas ..

... 495 495 .. St. John's ..... West India Mail Steamers..

:. 495 . . in South America....

.... 497 497 498 503 5001499 The Republic of New Grenada Equador......

517 5171517521 521 520 521 520 523 522 522|5211522 Venezuela...... 52515251..5271527 527 528) -- 1528|528531 531 532 Bolivia ...........

534 534 534 536 536 535 537 538539539539540540

540 541 .. 543543 542 545 548 548549550550550 Chile ......•**

553 554 555 557 556 555 560 556 558 559 564 563 564 Juan Fernandez....

.. .. . . .. .... 566 The Argentine Republic......... 56615671568 569 568 568|569 568 570 571 - 572573 The Dictatorship of Paraguay.... 576|577 - 1577|577-- 579 -- 578|578579579|580 The Republic of Uruguay

581581

1582 ..... .. 582 The Empire of Brazil....

584 584.586|591590|587|594|590 592592 599 600/601 Guayana ...............

1 .. 604 British Guayana..........

604 604 605 605 605 .. 606606 -- 1606607606607 Dutch Guayana.......... French Guayana............

608 609 .. Patagonia .........

609609 610 610 .. South American Islands ....

612 ... The Magellanic Archipelago.. .. 612 612 . Falkland Islands .............

....614 614 614 614 614 Island of Georgia.................. 614614614614 -.

614 Sandwich Land, &c..nacer... ......16141614 .lol.

INDEX TO VOLUME FIRST, p. 615.

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The Earth, the world we inhabit, forms one of the primary planets, which, at various distances, revolve round the sun as a centre, and receive from that resplendent source the blessings of light and warmth. It is a globular or orange-shaped mass of matter, and consists of an indefinite aggregation of earthy, metallic and other substances, chemically and mechanically combined. Vast as the earth appears to the external senses of man, its greatness is only acknowledged by the inferiority of our perceptions. Science has demonstrated the earth to be one of the least among the worlds which traverse the infinity of space, and which are linked together by the force of attraction into a splendid universe. It is only one-fourth the diameter of Uranus, and an eleventh the diameter of Jupiter, and forms therefore a comparatively small portion of the planetary system, and with reference to the stars, only a speck in the vastness of creation.

The earth, according to the calculations of astronomers, is 7,902 miles in mean diameter, and measures about 25,000 miles in circumference. But the diameter, or thickness, is greater at the middle or equatorial line, than in a contrary direction. The cause of this may be here adverted to. The diurnal motion of the earth on its axis, or imaginary poles, causes a greater velocity at the middle than at the extremities of the mass, and the earth, originally in a soft or fused state, has been then bulged out all around. The extent of this bulging is twenty-six miles on the whole thickness, or thirteen miles from the centre to the surface: thus, the globe has a spherical form, and is consequently twenty-six miles greater from one side to another at the equator than betwixt the poles. Such is the nice adjustment of the diurnal motion of the earth on its axis, that, if it were but a little accelerated, the sea would rise and fly off, and if the velocity were somewhat further increased, the whole mass of earth and water would be dispersed in fraginents, or, in other words, destroyed : such, indeed, is the perfect balance of all its parts, that to add to, or abstract from, would destroy the whole fabric.

The world, as far as has been ascertained, is a solid mass or body, and consists of two kinds of matter, viz: land and water; the land is composed of rocks, metallic ores, mineral and vegetable soils, and a variety of other substances, to describe which is the province of the geologist; the water, as is well known, is a chemical combination of two gases and the most pervading of all other kinds of matter : as a general mass, it holds in solution various salines; but the water, when pure as it falls from the clouds, is fresh; the one is the water of the sea, while the other is peculiar to lakes and rivers, The greater portion of the earth consists of solid land, but an extensive area of it is covered by a superstratum of water; and therefore, to appearance, the ocean forms the principal portion of the globe. It is so, however, only in appearance, notwithstanding its imposing extent, the water being merely a superficial covering to the subjacent land.

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II

The disposition of land and water is quite irregular, and the relative situation and dimensions of each is constantly shifting. The ocean daily encroaches on the land, while the land in other places is left dry, and becomes elevated above the level of the water. Thus, the external aspect of the globe is ever changing; and it may be safely averred, that there has been, in the course of ages, a thorough alteration over the whole terrestrial surface--that no part of the earth retains its primitive shape, or resembles that form which it originally possessed

The superficial area of the world has been calculated to contain 198,943,750 square miles, of which scarcely one-third is dry land; the rea maining two-thirds being covered with water. The land is composed price cipally of two large masses or tracts : one of which is subdivided into the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa; the other into those of North and South America. All detached masses of land are called islands, and these taken together, are computed to contain as much land as the continent of Europe. Australasia may be considered as forming a third grand division. In reference to the map of the world, Furope, Asia, Africa, and Australasia, with their islands, are distinguished as lying in the eastern heinisphere, or half; while North and South America, with the West Indies and other islands, are comprehended in the western hemisphere. The waters which encompass these extensive tracts of land have various local names; but the two principal expanses are the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: the first lying between the eastern shores of America and the continents of Europe and Africa, and the other between the western coast of America and the eastern margin of Asia. The extensive oceans which surround the polar regions, are called the Arctic or North Sea, and the Antarctic or South Sea: the everlasting ice which here presents a barrier to the intrepid explorer, frustrates the inquiries of man, and denies to him all knowledge respecting the character of these impenetrable regions. Great diversity of opinion prevails with respect to the depth of the ocean. By numerous investigations, it does not appear that the depth is much more than two or three miles-generally it is a great deal less; and it might be argued, that notwithstanding the large surface of the ocean, the body of its waters can only be considered as lying like lakes in the hollows of the land; for the earth, as already noticed, is near 8,000 miles in diameter, and to that large mass of dense matter the sea bears no proportion to its depth. While the surface of the land exhibits a great variety of mountain ranges, hills, vallies and plains, so also is the bottom of the sea varied in its configuration, abounding in sand-banks, hills, rocks and reefs; and the islands which rear their heads above the surface, are only the tops of the highest hills and mountains in the sea.

In accord with the beautiful harmony of design manifested throughout creation, the earth, with its oce'ın, its atmosphere, its rivers and its varying climates, forms an appropriate field for animal and vegetable existence. The power, the wisdom and goodness of God is imprinted in everything. The manner in which animals and plants are distributed in situations and circunistances exactly adapted to their character, is a matter of deeply interesting observation. Nature-by which, as a phrase of convenience, we denote the great Creating and Disposing Power-has appropriated very few forms of animal or vegetable life to be localized in any portion of the world approaching to its entire terrestrial surface. Most of them are calculated for certain climates, requiring for preserving their existence certain combinations of circumstances, and accordingly are to be fuund only in such

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