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the gates of death been opened to thee? or hast thou seen the doors of the shadow of death? Canst thou lift up thy voice to the clouds, that the abundance of waters may cover thee? Canst thou send lightnings, that they may go and say unto thee, Here we are ? Who hath put wisdom in the inward parts ? or who hath given understanding to the heart ? (Job xxxviii. 16, 17, 34-36.)

2. Can two walk together, except they be agreed ? Will a lion roar in the forest, when he hath no prey ? will a young lion cry out of his den, if he have taken nothing? Can a bird fall in a snare upon the earth, where no gin is for him ? shall one take up a snare from the earth, and have taken nothing at all? Shall a trumpet be blown in the city, and the people not be afraid (Amos iii. 3–6.)

3. A son honoureth his father, and a servant his master: if I then be a father, where is mine honour ? and if I be a master, where is my fear? saith the LORD of Hosts unto you, O priests, that despise my name. And ye say, Wherein have we despised thy name? And if ye offer the blind for sacrifice, is it not evil ? and if ye offer the lame and the sick, is it not evil? Offer it now unto thy governor; will he be pleased with thee, or accept thy person ? (Mal. i. 6, 8.)

4. They were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works ? Is not this the carpenter's son is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas ? And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things ? (St. Matt. xiii. 54–56.)

5. Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed ? and how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard ? and how shall they hear without a preacher ? and how shall they preach except they be sent ? (Rom. x. 13—15.)

(4.) PARENTHESIS. 1. When ye come into the land of Canaan; (this is the land that shall fall unto you for an inheritance, even the land of Canaan with the coasts thereof:) then your south quarter shall be from the wilderness of Zin along by the coast of Edom. (Numb. xxxiv. 2, 3.)

2. It came to pass at the end of twenty years, when Solomon had built the two houses, the house of the LORD, and the king's house, (now Hiram the king of Tyre had furnished Solomon with cedar trees and fir trees, and with gold, according to all his desire,) that then king Solomon gave Hiram twenty cities in the land of Galilee. (1 Kings ix. 10, 11.)

3. That ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith he to the sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed and go unto thine house. (St. Matt. ix. 6.)

4. Men of Israel, help: This is the man, that teacheth all men every where against the people, and the law, and this place: and further brought Greeks also into the temple, and hath polluted this holy place; (for they had seen before with him in the city Trophimus an Ephesian, whom they supposed that Paul had brought into the temple.) And all the city was moved, and the people ran together. (Acts xxi. 28–30.)

5. That women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broidered hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array; but (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works. (1 Tim. ii. 9, 10.)

(5.) EXCLAMATION. 1. O that there were such a heart in them, that they would fear me, and keep all my commandments always, that it might be well with them, and with their children for ever! (Deut. v. 29.)

2. O that they vere wise. that they understood this, that they would consider their latter end ! (Deut. xxxii. 29.)

3. How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cast down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! (Is. xiv. 12.)

4. O Israel, thou hast destroyed thyself! but in me is thy help. I will ransom thee from the power of the grave; I will redeem thee from death: O death, I will be thy plagues ! O grave, I will be thy destruction ! (Hosea xiii. 9, 14.)

5. O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! (Rom. xi. 33.)

(6.) CLIMAX. 1. The LORD thy God bringeth thee into a good land ;-a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills ;-a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig-trees, and pomegranates; -a land of oil-olive and honey ;-a land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it;

;-a land, whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass. (Deut. viii. 7-9.)

2. The day of the LORD of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud and lofty ;-and upon every one that is lifted up; and he shall be brought low ;-and upon all the cedars of Lebanon, that are high and lifted up; -and upon all the oaks of Bashan, and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up ;--and upon every high tower, and upon every fenced wall, and upon all the ships of Tarshish, and upon all pleasant pictures ;—and the loftiness of man shall be bowed down, and the haughtiness of men shall be made low ;—and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day. (Is. ii. 12—17.)

3. He that loveth father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me ;-and he that loveth con daughter more than me, is not worthy of me;—and he that taketh not his cross and followeth after me, is not worthy of me. (St. Matt. x. 37, 38.)

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4. We know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose. For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the first-born among many brethren ;-moreover, whom he did predestinate, them he also called ;--and whom he called, them he also justified ;-and whom he justified, them he also glorified. (Rom. viii. 28--30.)

(7.) APOSTROPHE AND PERSONIFICATION.* 1. O thou sword of the LORD, how long will it be ere thou be quiet ? put up thyself into thy scabbard, rest, and be still. (Jer. xlvii. 6.)

2. O vine of Sibmah, I will weep for thee with the weeping of Jazer : thy plants are gone over the sea, they reach even to the sea of Jazer : the spoiler is fallen upon thy summer-fruits and upon thy vintage. (Jer. xlviii. 32.)

3. Thy wise men, O Tyrus, that were in thee, were thy pilots. The ancients of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy calkers : all the ships of the sea, with their mariners, were in thee to occupy thy merchandise; they of Persia, and of Lud, and of Phut, were in thine army, thy men of war: they hanged the shield and helmet in thee: they set forth thy comeliness. (Ezekiel xxvii. 8—10.)

4. When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language, Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion. The sea saw it, and fled : Jordan was driven back. The mountains skipped like rams, and the little hills like lambs. What aileth thee, O thou sea, that thou fleddest ? thou Jordan, that thou was driven back ? ye mountains, that ye skipped like rams; and ye little hills like lambs? Tremble, thou earth, at the presence of the LORD, at the presence of the God of Jacob; which turned the * The Prophecy of Isaiah contains many fine personifications.

rock into a standing water, the flint into a fountain of waters.' (Psalm cxiv.*)

(8.) IRONY. 1. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said, How glorious was the king of Israel to-day, who uncovered himself to-day in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself! (2 Sam. vi. 20.)

2. And they took the bullock which was given them, and they dressed it, and called on the name of Baal from morning even until noon, saying, O Baal, hear us. But there was no voice, nor any that answered; and they leaped upon the altar which was made. And it came to pass at noon, that Elijah mocked them, and said, Cry aloud; for he is a god; either he is talking, or he is pursuing, or he is in a journey, or peradventure he sleepeth, and must be awaked. (1 Kings xviii. 26, 27.)

3. Therefore shall evil come upon thee ; thou shalt not know from whence it riseth: and mischief shall fall upon thee; thou shalt not be able to put it off : and desolation shall come upon thee suddenly, which thou shalt not know. Stand now with thine enchantments, and with the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast laboured from thy youth ; if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be thou mayest prevail. Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the astrologers, the star-gazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee. (Is. xlvii. 11–13.)

IV.- Emotional Subjects. Many passages of the Holy Scriptures are highly emotional, and even impassioned ; and their impressiveness, as such, can be conveyed to the hearer only

* In this Psalm the figures of apostrophe and personification are most beautifully combined,

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