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in those tones and modulations of voice which the expression of sentiment naturally requires ; but here it is specially necessary to remind the student, that in reading the Holy Scriptures, every emotion must be expressed in a comparatively subdued ione.

EXAMPLES. 1. Affection and Sympathy. I know that ye all, among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of God, shall see my face no more. And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among

all them which are sanctified. I have shewed you all things, how that so labouring ye ought to support the weak, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, It is more blessed to give than to receive. And when he had thus spoken, he kneeled down and prayed with them all. And they all wept sore, and fell on Paul's neck, and kissed him, sorrowing most of all for the words which he spake, that they should see his face no more. (Acts xx. 25, 32, 35—38.)

2. Fear and Astonishment.—Then Nebuchadnezzar the king was astonied, and rose up in haste, and spake, and said unto his counsellers, Did not we cast three men bound into the midst of the fire ? They answered and said unto the king, True, O king: He answered and said, Lo, I see four men loose, walking in the midst of the fire, and they have no hurt; and the form of the fourth is like the Son of God! (Daniel iii. 24, 25.)

3. Fear with Terror.–And the heaven departed as a scrowl, when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places; and the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every freeman, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains; and said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand ? (Rev. vi. 14-17.)

4. Mental Distress and Anguish.Jacob their father said unto them, Me have ye bereaved of my children: Joseph is not, and Simeon is not, and ye will take Benjamin away: all these things are against me! And he said, My son shall not go down with you; for his brother is dead, and he is left alone : if mischief befall him by the way in which ye go, then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. (Gen. xlii. 36, 38.)

5. Inconsolable Grief:-And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept; and as he went, thus he said, O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son !- And it was told Joab, Behold, the king weepeth and mourneth for Absalom ;—but the king covered his face, and the king cried with a loud voice, O my son Absalom, 0 Absalom, my son, my son! (2 Sam. xviii. 33; xix. 1, 4.)

5. Indignation.And the high priest Ananias commanded them that stood by him to smite him on the mouth.--Then said Paul unto him,-God shall smite thee, thou whited wall: for sittest thou to judge me after the law, and commandest me to be smitten contrary to the law. (Acts xxiii. 2, 3.)

6. Anger.— Then Saul's anger was kindled against Jonathan, and he said unto him, Thou son of the perverse rebellious woman, do not I know that thou hast chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion ? For as long as the son of Jesse liveth upon the ground, thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom. Wherefore now send and fetch him unto me, for he shall surely die ;-and Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him. (1 Sam. xx. 30, 31, 33.)

7. Rage.—Then was Nebuchadnezzar full of fury, and the form of his visage was changed against Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego; therefore he spake, and commanded that they should heat the furnace one seven times more than it was wont to be heated; and he commanded the most mighty men that were in his army to bind Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, and to cast them into the burning, fiery furnace. (Dan. iii. 19, 20.)

8. Divine Wrath.--I hate, I despise your feast-days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies. Though ye offer me burnt-offerings and your meat-offerings, I will not accept them : neither

will I regard the peaceofferings of your

fat beasts. Take thou away from me the noise of thy songs; for I will not hear the melody of thy viols. Have ye offered unto me sacrifices and offerings in the wilderness forty years, 0 house of Israel? But ye have borne the tabernacle of your Moloch and Chiun your images, the star of your God, which ye made to yourselves; therefore will I cause you to go into captivity beyond Damascus, saith the LORD, whose name is The God of Hosts. (Amos v. 21-23, 25—27.)

9. Hatred.And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, There is yet one man, Micaiah the son of Imlah, by whom we may inquire of the LORD: but I hate him; for he doth not prophecy good concerning me, but evil.

And the king of Israel said unto Jehoshaphat, Did I not tell thee that he would prophecy no good concerning me, but evil? And the king of Israel said, Take Micaiah, and carry him back unto Amon the governor of the city, and to Joash the king's son; and say, Thus saith the king, Put this fellow in the prison, and feed him with bread of affliction and with water of affliction, until I come in peace. (1 Kings xxii. 8, 18, 26, 27.)

V.-Pathos of Short Passages. The force of a passage often depends upon some short member, clause, or reply, expressive of sudden impulse or impression. This, to have effect, must be read in those tones which indicate simple natural point and feeling, and which the sensitive and cultivated mind readily appreciates.

EXAMPLES (printed in Italics). 1. And Isaac spake upon Abraham his father, and said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son : and he said, Behold the fire and the wood : but where is the lamb for a burnt offering? And Abraham said, My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering : so they went both of them together. (Gen. xxii. 7, 8.) 2 And Joseph lifted up


eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's son, and said, Is this your younger brother, of whom ye spake unto me? And he said, God be gracious unto thee, my son. (Gen. xliii. 29.)

3. And as David returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and brought him before Saul, with the head of the Philistine in his hand ; and Saul said to him, Whose son art thou, thou young man? And David answered, I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Bethlehemite. (1 Sam. xvii. 57, 58.)

4. But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping; and she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.

Jesus saith unto her, Mary: she turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni ; which is to say, Master. (St. John xx. 11, 14–16.)

VI.-Illustrative and Part Reading. The use of illustration in the Holy Scriptures is very common, in the form either of parables or of real or imaginary incidents. Generally, it assumes a parenthetical character, and requires to be marked by a slight pause at the commencement and conclusion.

Part-reading, as also Argument, Denunciation, Command, Entreaty, and Question and Answer, must be indicated as in secular reading; but without any attempt at impersonation.

EXAMPLES. 1. Incidental Illustration.--And Jesus answering, said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee. And he saith, Master, say on.—There was a certain creditor which had two debtors: the one owed five hundred pence, and the other fifty; and when they had nothing to pay, he frankly forgave them both :tell me, therefore, which of them will love him most? Simon answered and said, I suppose that he, to whom he forgave most. And he said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged. (St. Luke vii. 40—42.)

2. Part-reading.Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died ;-but I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.

Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.

Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.

Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life; he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth in me, shall never die. Believest thou this?

She saith unto him, Yea, Lord : I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world. (St. John xi. 21–27.)

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