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5. King Lear, in a Storm. Blow, winds, and crack

cheeks :
: rage,

You cataracts, and hurricanoes, spout

have drench'd our steeples, drown’d the cocks ! You sulph'rous and thought-executing fires, Singe my white head. And thou, all-shaking thunder, Strike flat the thick rotundity o' th' world : Crack nature's mould, all germins spill at once, That make ungrateful man! Rumble thy bellyful, spit fire, spout rain! Nor rain, wind, thunder, fire-are my daughters! I tax not you, ye elements, with unkindness : I never gave you kingdoms, call’d


You owe me no subscription. Then let fall
Your horrible pleasure !—Here I stand, your brave,
A poor, infirm, weak, and despis'd old man !
But yet I call you servile ministers,
That have, with two pernicious daughters, joind
Your high engender'd battles 'gainst a head
So old and white as this! Oh! oh! 'tis foul !

6. Pious Trust in Afiction.
Hast thou no Trust? no Helper? Go to Him,
Thou who art heavy laden and oppressed,
Lay at His feet thy fears! My child, I'm old,
Thy mother's mother hath been long on earth
(Heaven take me in its time !)—but never yet
Found she the humble truster in her God
Forgotten in his need! Take comfort, daughter :
He that directs the blind bird's weary flight,
Will light the storm-path of the wandering boy!

C. Swain.

XVII.-Pause, Inflections, and Modulation, with

Graduated Force.

CLIMAX OR AMPLIFICATION. Climax or Amplification has its basis in Enumeration or Series; but, as a figure, has much greater force in

Rhetoric and Elocution, as its subjects increase successively in importance, and it can be used only in connexion with strong emotional excitement.

In reading, it requires the voice to be gradually raised or energised, as the subjects approach their highest point, or climax. Here, however, boisterousness of manner must not be mistaken for energy of expression.

The graduated force of voice is denoted by the indes figures 1, 2, 3, &c.

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SIMULTANEOUS EXERCISES. 1. What shall we say', when a woman' guilty of homicide", a mother

of the murder of her own child", - comprises so many misdeeds in one single crime'? - a crime' - in its own nature' - detestible'ı; - in a woman' - prodigious"?; in a mother' - incredible's. And - perpetrated against one, - whose age' called for compassion't; whose near relation claimed affection'?; and whose innocence' - deserved the highest favours'3.

2. But - my lords', who is the man', that - in addition to the disgraces and mischiefs' of the war, has dared' to authorize' - and associate to our arms', the tomahawk' and the scalping-knife of the savage'1to call into civilized' alliance', - the wild and inhuman inhabitants of the woods'??—to delegate to the merciless' Indian", - the defence of disputed rights'3?—and to wage the horrors of his barbarous' war' - against our brethren'? My lords, these enormities cry aloud for redress'1 - and punishment

3. Intemperance' engenders disease'', - sloth' produces poverty'?, - pride' creates disappointment's, - and dishonesty' - exposes to shame'4. The ungoverned' passions of men' betray them into a thousand follies'ı ; their follies' into crimes'?; and their crimes' into misfortunes'3

4. Do not hurt yourselves or others by the pursuit of pleasure'. Consult your whole nature'. Consider'


yourselves - not only as sensitive', - but as rational'ı beings'; - not only as rational', - but social'; - not only as social', - but - immortal'3.

5. You mourn', O Romans', that three' of your armies' have been slaughtered”; - they were slaughtered' by Antony'l. You lament the loss of your most illustrious citizens'; - they were torn' from you by Antony. The authority of this order is deeply wounded'; - it is wounded' by Antony'. - In short, - all the calamities ' we have ever since beheld' - (and what calamities' have we not beheld'?), - have been entirely owing to Antony 4.-As Helen' was of Troy', - so the bane'l, the misery2, the destruction's of this state' - is' - Antony'.

6. Fathers'! Senators of Rome'! the arbiters of nations'! to you' I fly for refuge' - from the murderous' fury of Jugurtha'By your affection' for your children'1; - by your love' of your country'?; - by your own virtues's; - by the majesty of the Roman Commonwealth*; - by all that is sacred' - and all that is dear to you'5 - deliver a wretched prince' - from undeserved'and unprovoked' injury.

7. I'll bear' no more'!

Nor tenderness'1 - nor life'? - nor liberty'3,

Nothing4 - shall make' me bear' it! 8. It is a crime' to put a Roman citizen' in bonds'ı; it is the height of guilt' - to scourge'? him; - little less than parricide - to put him to death'3 ; - what' name', then, shall I give - to crucifying'4 him! 9. Imperial spoiler'!

Give me my father'ı; - give' me back my kindred''; Give me the fathers of ten thousand' orphans'3; Give me the sons'4 - of whom thy ruthless'sword Has left our widows' childless'. Mine' they were', Both mine', and ev'ry Swede's', whose patriot

breast Bleeds' in his country's' woundings'. Oh! thou'

can'st' not'!

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PRACTICE. In the following Examples, let all the Figures of Speech be pointed out by the pupils, before reading them; and let them mention any rules to be observed in the reading.

1. Cicero against Verres. There is now to be brought upon his trial before you, Fathers, one whose life and actions condemn him in the opinion of all impartial persons, -I mean Caius Verres. I demand justice of you, Fathers, upon the robber of the public treasury,--the oppressor of Asia Minor and Pamphylia,—the invader of the rights and privileges of Romans,—the scourge and curse of Sicily! The employment he held in Asia Minor and Pamphylia, what did it produce, but the ruin of those countries ? Houses, cities, and temples were robbed by him. What was his conduct in his prætorship here at home? Let the plundered temples, and public works neglected, that he might embezzle the money for carrying them on, bear witness. How did he discharge the office of a judge? Let those who suffered by his injustice answer. But his prætorship in Sicily crowns all his works of wickedness, and finishes a lasting monument of his infamy. There, his decisions have broken all law, all precedent, all right. The sums he has, by arbitrary taxes and unheard-of impositions, extorted from the industrious poor, are not to be computed. The most faithful allies of the Commonwealth have been treated as enemies ; Roman citizens have, like slaves, been put to death with tortures ; the most atrocious criminals, for money, have been exempted from deserved punishments; and men of the most unexceptionable characters, condemned and banished unheard !

I ask now, Verres, what thou hast to advance against this charge? Wilt thou pretend to deny it? Wilt thou pretend that anything false, that even anything aggravated, is alleged against thee? What punishment ought, then, to be inflicted upon a tyrannical and wicked

prætor, who dared, at no greater distance than Sicily, within sight of the Italian coast, to put to the infamous death of crucifixion, that unfortunate and innocent citizen, Publius Gavius Cosanus ? There, Fathers, was an innocent Roman citizen publickly mangled with scourging; whilst the only words he uttered, amidst his cruel sufferings, were—“I am a Roman citizen." With these he hoped to defend himself from violence and infamy. But of so little service was this privilege to him, that, while he was thus asserting his citizenship, the order was given for his execution,-his execution upon the cross !

O liberty ! O sound, once delightful to every Roman ear! O sacred privilege of Roman citizenship! once sacred ! now, trampled upon! But what then! Is it come to this ? Shall an inferior magistrate, a governor, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman province, within sight of Italy, bind, scourge, torture with fire and red-hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Roman citizen? Shall neither the cries of innocence expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman Commonwealth, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of liberty, and sets mankind at defiance ?

2. Religious Support in Affliction. Let us oppose to this awful picture, the life of the good man. Place this man on the stormy seas of misfortune and sorrow; press him with afflictive dispensations of Providence; snatch from his arms the object of his affections; separate him for ever from all he loved and held dear on earth; and leave him isolated and an outcast in the world ;-he is calm; he is composed; he is grateful; he weeps,- for human nature is weak,—but he still preserves his composure and resignation. He still looks up to the Giver of all good

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