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first, second, third ; and secondly, counting them from the end; as-last, penultimate (last but one), antepenultimate (last but two).
SIMULTANEOUS EXERCISES, Marking the accented syllables with special stress. Vis'ibly, domes’ticated, recollec'ting, recombina'tion, imprint'.
Suf'ferance, occa'sionally, entertain'ment, sensuali'zing, dragoon'.
Ap'petite, compla'cently, inexhaus'tible, inexorabil'ity, misinform?
Perpendicular'ly, mis'chievous, ter'tiate, lu'crative, extraor'dinary, sus'tenance, suffic'ient, human'ity, satisfac'tion, incorrect', testamenta'tion.
[Let the pupils now go through the exercises individually; explaining on which syllable the accent is placed, other examples being also selected.]
The necessity of attending to proper accentuation is shown in the following instances, where the words differ in meaning as they are differently accentuated.
SIMULTANEOUS EXERCISES. Every min'ute his inquiries became more minute'. He collects' the col'lects from various sources.
He would accent that syllable with the circumflex ac'cent.
In the court of record', he keeps the rec'ords.
They may contest' the election, but they must pay for the con’test.
[The pupils should read the same sentences individually, and explain the meaning of the differently accentuated words. ]
IV.—Understanding what is Read. It is generally considered that to read music correctly at sight, requires great proficiency or uncommon talent; and yet it is not unfrequently expected of a youth that he should read at sight, selections from the sublimest poetry, which is scarcely less difficult.
A reading lesson, therefore, should always be prescribed such time before, as will give the pupil an opportunity of considering it carefully; in order to understand the scope and object of the author.
In connexion with such arrangements, it will be useful for the teacher to devote a fixed portion of time to assist his pupils in understanding the passages they are afterwards to read. This, although involving a little labour, will not only promote its direct object, but, as an intellectual exercise, will be abundantly repaid, in the increasing aptness of the pupils to make progress in other studies.
The following are a few suggestions as to the kind of exercises useful for this purpose :
(1.) Principal Divisions. Let suitable passages be selected, which allow of being separated into—first, the subject, or nominative; secondly, the predicate, or verb; and thirdly, the object, or that which is affected by the predicate. The divisions may be marked by lines, thus
Object. A conceited scholar |
good old Saxon. After this manner, the pupils should be required to divide the various examples selected; writing them on their slates; and after such division, the teacher should question them as to-1. Who or what is the subject? 2. What is predicated of this person, or thing? or in other words, what is he said to do? 3. What is the object, whether person or thing, affected in this manner?
The teacher may then usefully draw attention to the particular points in the sentence. For instance, in the above, he may remark that it is not "
every scholar that despises good old Saxon,” but only the “conceited" one; and hence he can show, that in order to convey the author's meaning, it will be necessary, in reading, to lay some stress on the word “conceited.”
In like manner in the following, and other examples which he can select, he may inquire where a similar stress should be laid.
INDIVIDUAL PRACTICE. New objects and pursuits require new expressions and modes of speech.
A little infusion of the spirit of forbearance would render him a better member of society.
Good sense and integrity will not make good manners unnecessary.
A becoming sincerity will always produce a becoming assurance.
(2.) Transposition. The meaning of involved sentences may be perceived by arranging the transposed words in their natural order ; and such examples as the following may be written out, thus
The same re-arranged. It seems in vain to ask, whether Happiness dwells in crowds or solitudes, in streets or shady groves.
Could grow; or sin, without example, spring
3. Achilles' wrath, to Greece the direful spring
Of woes unnumbered, heavenly goddess, sing ! 4. Away hath pass'd the heather-bell
That bloom'd so rich on Needpath-fell. 5. The bending hermit here a prayer begun,
“ Lord ! as in heaven, on earth Thy will be done." 6. Ye barons, to the sun unfold
Our cross with crimson wove and gold. 7. At early dawn the youth his journey took,
And many a mountain passed and valley wide. 8.
He bursts upon them all ;-
White are the decks with foam. 9. The king has cured me;—and, from these shoulders,
These ruined pillars, out of pity taken
A load would sink a navy, too much honour. 10.
Who would lose,
To perish utterly? 11. His praise, ye winds, that from four quarters blow,
Breathe soft or loud; and wave your tops, ye pines,
With every plant, in sign of worship, wave. 12. Such health and gaiety of heart enjoy
The houseless rovers of the sylvan world ;
Of loathsome diet, penury, and cold. 13. Within the hollow circle of a crown, Keeps Death his court.
(3.) Adjectives and Adverbs. ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS are frequently introduced not merely as expletives, but to give special force to other words in a sentence; and as they require in such
cases to be read with special attention, the motive for introducing them must be duly considered, in order to understand and express the author's meaning.
Let the following passages be written out by the pupils, omitting the adjectives and adverbs marked in italics. When this is done, let the passage, as printed, be first read; and afterwards the passage as written out. The significance and expressiveness of such parts of speech will then appear, and the necessity of attention in reading them be also obvious :
EXAMPLES. Very minute beginnings have sometimes important consequences.
Scenes of domestic felicity are beautifully painted by
It is hardly known to the world outside, that in the schools of the Royal Academy, almost all the rising artists of the country receive a free education in art.
The batteries were speedily silenced; and the victorious flotilla slowly retired.
The sense which the Government of 1692 entertained of the services of the navy, was promptly, judiciously, and gracefully manifested.
I have seen many monuments, where art has exhausted its powers * to awaken the sympathy of the spectator ; but I have met with none that spoke more touchingly to my heart, than this simple but delicate memento of departed innocence.
(4.) Context. The connexion of a passage with the context, either going before, or following after it, generally requires to be considered, in order to understand its intended
• The omission of this sentence will show that the remarks made on adjectives and adverbs will apply also to expletive passages.