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old friend in a new coat, be more agreeable as a companion and more acceptable as an adviser. In whatever dress it may be clothed, we certainly should endeavour to bear in mind this venerable truth, that “ by means of imitation we make the very first acquisitions of learning;” and experience must show in every art and science, from the formation of armies to the structure of sentences, that the rude and uninitiated become skilful and accomplished, first through practice, and afterwards from theory: so, therefore, with the subject at present under consideration, I must confess myself brought to conclude, although without intending the slightest mark of disrespect to those abler men who may differ from me in opinion, that the safer and really more expeditious course for a school-boy is to proceed from the former to the latter. That practice is essential to all perfect' imitation, none will feel disposed to deny: while by persevering, but patient practice, without any

posting Haste,” in rehearsing and writing the different parts of speech, the rules of syntax, the parsing and other rudiments of grammar, the mind of a child will slowly but surely become thoroughly conversant with facts ; and through this effective yet pleasant discipline, (since “ all men receive pleasure from imitations”') in being readily taught to know what is, it will be the better prepared for those philosophical and even metaphysical inquiries, at some future day, into the why and the wherefore, which will then call for stronger efforts; but are too hazardous of a strain for our earlier powers,-too rigorous and severe for the tender germinations of incipient reason.

I am, indeed, much mistaken if it will in the end prove wise to treat the intellects of children like such

as are perfectly developed ; expecting those to form a judgment, and, what is more, perhaps draw an inference, whose minds are not yet sufficiently expanded to comprehend abstract ideas, or to exercise aright the faculty of Simple Apprehension : nevertheless it requires but little observation of what is daily taking place around us to perceive that this species of inconsistency is far from being uncommon.

Such were not the opinions of our forefathers; who, when founding Grammar-Schools, never intended them to be Colleges; and at the same time, to use the memorable quotation of one of the best of British monarchs, “there were giants in the earth in those days !” Had their notions and views been more respected and acted upon in these latter days, there would not be so many instances of young men entering the University, who, after having read at their school some of the very highest Classical Authors, are considerably inconvenienced afterwards at College, on being requested to state the principal parts of a verb, the cases of a noun or the government of a sentence; and give many other deplorable proofs of having been most miserably grounded in the rudiments of language. That this is not an exaggerated statement of what is frequently the case, I feel emboldened, from even the very short experience with pupils there which fell to my lot, to maintain myself; and I can appeal, with confidence, to those whose opinions will carry much greater weight for the further support of such an assertion. I am perfectly aware that it is not so showy, at a public examination, for a parcel of boys to be declining parts of speech or parsing a passage, as translating an author and delivering a well-gotten recitation; and, further, that it sounds much nobler for his School, on a lad's return home for the holidays, if he talks of having read for a lesson whole pages of Tacitus and Thucydides, with hundreds of lines of Æschylus, Terence, or Lucretius ! than if he complains (and the chances are he would complain) of having spent half-hours in parsing some half-dozen lines of Virgil or of Cicero, or it may be even of Phædrus or Eutropius—in the comparing of dialects in Homer--in scanning an ode of Horace,--or even in learning the difference between ó and 6. the same time the Reader must be equally well aware that the esse is one thing, but the videri quite another : and I question whether a prudent parent will take as much interest in hearing what each son has read, as in the discovery of what he actually knows and thoroughly understands.

If the plan of teaching recommended in the Preface to Lily's Grammar had been more generally persevered in, I am inclined to think it would have been all the better for the cause of sound scholarship: neither can I omit this opportunity of expressing my firm conviction that it would have been none the worse for the moral and religious feeling of the higher and middle classes in society, if the tone of Lily's mind, as displayed in the writing of that book, had been observed and imitated by those who from time to time have put forth successive editions. Some passages will be found, wholly quoted from him by me, with his name attached; and there must be but few persons who will fail of admiring the excellent advice and unaffected piety of the old Grammarian. That all his verses are elegant I am very far from being disposed to assert : yet, surely, pervading excellence of matter will be allowed to compensate

for only occasional inelegance in manner; but, should this appear to any one a really serious objection to the extracts I have made, among the examples at the end of the book, from William Lily, I must be permitted to observe that there are no great beauties of versification in either his “ Propria quæ maribus,” or “As in præsenti ;” both of which have been hitherto so carefully retained : while I am quite confident that all the erudition there displayed will be but a poor make-weight for any deficiency in that spirit of wisdom and holiness which may be discovered, breathing so beautifully, throughout those other of his compositions given here.

With regard more especially to this little work, now offered to the Public, my sincere wish is that it may be found, on trial, to be really useful. That no pains have been spared, during its passage through the press, both to render it agreeable to the eye and to carry out my own views, may not only be inferred from the Publisher's name, but also perceived on the most cursory inspection of the nicety displayed in the arrangement of the type. The quantities have been marked with extreme care and clearness—those of the common syllables in a manner previously, I believe, unattempted in print; and I cannot but consider it much superior to not marking them at all, as being more likely to rivet the pupil's attention to a not unimportant fact in the department of Prosody. The alterations also of words, in conjugation and declension, have been so shown, in a manner altogether new, as inevitably to strike the eye, without disarranging the proper division of the syllables. It would be well for this division to be observed in all schools, for the sake of a clear enunciation ; but more particularly in those where many of the scholars are destined, at a future period of their lives, to speak much in public places, or to “give thanks,” and “preach righteousness in the great congregation.”

This SIMPLIFIED LATIN GRAMMAR will be used with the greatest advantage, if in the Etymological part the pupils are required to spell out aloud, and write on slates as they are spelling, a considerable number of examples under each declension, &c., and of every variety there given; and it is quite astonishing to perceive the readiness and accuracy of the very youngest boys, attained by corrections among themselves, while thus putting into practice the tò pipeło bai. I would not, however, wish to be understood as desiring to arrogate to myself any merit from this plan, which I have pursued constantly for the last eight years; since I feel bound to acknowledge having derived much benefit from it, while a boy at Charter-House, under the Rev. Dr. Russell. For the purpose just mentioned, it is hoped that the vocabulary at the end of the book will be found of some advantage ; because the master will so have examples ready to his hand, without being obliged to refer to some other work : and I should recommend that at least each word there given under one declension or conjugation, &c., be thoroughly learned and written out, before another declension be proceeded with : but, should more examples be required, the Eton Nomenclatura, or Valpy's Latin Vocabulary, would be found well adapted to this Grammar. As the pupil continues to advance, it is likely that the numbered paragraphs will prove convenient for the sake of reference.

To those Teachers, or other Scholars, who have been accustomed to the Eton Syntax with its one hundred and fifty-eight rules, it is very possible that the Syntax

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