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21. An Interjection is a word that expresses an emotion, and is not connected in construction with any other word.

“ Day broke; but then, oh! what a spectacle was that battle

; field !" Oh is an interjection, because it expresses the sudden emotion of the speaker, and is not related to any of the other words of the sentence.

SUGGESTION TO THE TEACHER. – Take a walk with your class during some leisure interval, and teach them the parts of speech from the surrounding scenery.

Properties of the Parts of Speech.

GENDER

When I say John, I mean a male; when I say Mary, I mean

I a female; when I say child, I can mean either a male or a female ; and when I say knife, I mean neither a male nor a female. Hence some nouns are the names of males; some are the names of females; some are the names of either males or females; and some are the names of neither males nor females. From this distinction in the use of words, we get that property of nouns and pronouns which is called gender.

22. Gender is that property of nouns and pronouns which distinguishes objects in regard to sex.

23. There are four genders; the masculine, the feminine, the common, and the neuter.

24. A noun or pronoun is of the masculine gender, when it denotes a male. Man.

25. A noun or pronoun is of the feminine gender, when it denotes a female. Woman.

26. A noun or pronoun is of the common gender, when it denotes either a male or a female. Person.

27. A noun or pronoun is of the neuter gender, when it denotes neither a male nor a female. House.

The nouns man, boy, and king are of the masculine gender, because they denote males ; the nouns woman, girl, and queen are of the feminine gender, because they đenote females; the nouns parent, cousin, and neighbor are of the common gender, because they can be applied to either males or females ; and the nouns house, tree, and chair are of the neuter gender, because they are the names of neither males nor females.

PERSON.

In speaking, we can refer either to ourselves, to the person spoken to, or to the person or thing spoken of; and there are no other ways of speaking. From this distinction in the use of words, we get that property of nouns, pronouns, and verbs, which is called person.

28. Person is that property of words which shows whether the speaker is meant, the person spoken to, or the person or thing spoken of.

29. There are three persons; the first, the second, and the third.

30. A noun or pronoun is of the first person, when it denotes the speaker. I saw you. 31. A noun or pronoun is of the second personig

when it denotes the person spoken to.

You saw me. 32. A noun or pronoun is of the third person, when it denotes the person or thing spoken of. He saw it.

I Paul have written it”; here I and Paul are of the first person, because they denote the person speaking. In the sertence, “ Thomas, your | horse has run away," Thomas and your are of the second person, because they denote the person spoken to; while the word horse is of the third person, because it denotes the object spoken of.

NUMBER.

There are not only many kinds of objects in the world, but generally many objects of each kind. In speaking, we often wish to show that we mean one object of a kind, or more than one; and we use words accordingly. From this distinction in the use of words, we get that property of words which is called number.

33. Number is that property of words which shows whether one object is meant, or more than one.

34. There are two numbers; the singular and the plural.

35. A noun or pronoun is of the singular number, when it denotes but one object. Book.

36. A noun or pronoun is of the plural number, when it denotes more objects than one. Books.

The nouns Albert, tree, and girl are of the singular number, because each denotes but one object; the nouns boys, trees, and girls are of the plural number, because each denotes more objects than one.

CASE.

When we speak of an object, we either say that it is something, that it does something, or that something is done to it; as,

“ The dove is white; “ The dove coos; “ The dove was caught." This relation of an object to what is said of it, is called case. When something is done, the act often affects some object; as, “ The dove eats corn." This relation of the act to what is acted upon, is also called case. object in the world belongs to some other object, or is a part of some other; as, “ Mary's dove”; “ The dove's feathers.”

All these relations of objects produce, in the expression of our thoughts, those relations between words which are called

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37. Case is that property of nouns and pronouns which shows how they are used in the construction of sentences.

38. There are three cases; the nom'inative, the possessive, and the objective. 39. A noun

or pronoun is in the nominative case, when it is the subject of a predicate-verb. I

40. A noun or pronoun is in the possessive case, when it denotes possession. My hat.

41. A noun or pronoun is in the objective case, when it is the object of a transitive verb or a preposition. He sent me to him.

John shot some squirrels in my father's | field.Here the word John is said to be in the nominative case, because it denotes the doer of something, or the person of whom something is said; the words squirrels and field are said to be in the objective case, because squirrels shows what he shot, and field shows in what; and the word father's is in the possessive case, because it denotes the owner of something.

The teacher should explain the subject of Case more fully.

VOICE. When an act is done by one person or thing to another, we can state the fact in two ways, - either by telling what the doer does, or by telling what is done to the person or thing acted upon ; as,

“ Brutus killed Cæsar”; “ Cæsar was killed by Brutus.” From this distinction in the use of words, we get that

property of verbs which is called voice. 42. Voice is that property of verbs which shows whether the subject does, or receives, the act.

43. There are two voices; the active and the passive.

44. A verb is in the active voice, when it represents its subject as acting. I struck.

45. A verb is in the passive voice, when it represents its subject as acted upon. I was struck. If I

say, “ The servant scoured the floor," scoured is said to be in the active voice, because it represents the subject, servant, as acting upon the floor; but if I say, “The floor was scoured by the servant,” was scoured is said to be in the passive voice, because it represents the subject, floor, as acted upon.

MOOD.

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Many actions really take place; but many actions are only in the mind, or people are in certain relations to them. If I say, “I write,I express something as a matter of fact; “I may or can write,I express not what is matter of fact, yet may become such, or I simply declare my relation to the act; “ If I were writing,I express a mere supposition; “Write,I request it to be done; “ To write,Writing,I simply speak of the act. These different modes of expressing the verb, grammarians call moods; or, from this distinction in the use of verbs, we get that property of verbs which is called mood.

46. Mood is that property of verbs which shows how the act or state is referred to its subject.

47. There are four moods; the indicative, the subjunctive, the potential, and the imperative.

48. A verb in the indicative mood expresses an actual occurrence or fact. I go.

49. A verb in the subjunctive mood expresses a future contingency, or a mere wish, supposition, or conclusion. If I go. If I were.

50. A verb in the potential mood expresses power, possibility, liberty, inclination, duty, or necessity. I may, can, or must go.

51. A verb in the imperative mood expresses command, entreaty, exhortation, or permission. Go (thou).

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