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52. There are two other forms of the verb, the infinitive and the participle; but it is hardly necessary to call them moods. See pp. 131, 217.
“I study"; here study is in the indicative mood, because it expresses something as really taking place. “If I study,"
" “ If I were studying”; here study and were studying are in the subjunctive mood, because the former expresses only what may take place hereafter, and the latter a mere supposition. can study”; here can study is in the potential mood, because it expresses only my ability in regard to studying. “ Study" ; here study is in the imperative mood, because it is given as a command to the person spoken to. “ To study,” “ Studying"; here the actions are spoken of abstractly, that is, without referring them to any particular person or thing.
We can not separate our actions from time. Besides, the time of an act, or whether the act is completed or not, is often a matter of great importance to us. Time may naturally be divided into three great divisions, - present, past, and future ;
and in each of these periods we may speak of an act as simply taking place, or as completed. Thus: “I write,” “I have
" written”; “I wrote,” “I had written”; “I shall write,” “I shall have written." These different ways of using verbs to distinguish time, are called tenses.
53. Tense is that property of verbs which shows the distinctions of time.
54. There are six tenses : the present, the presentperfect; the past, the past-perfect; the future, and the future-perfect.
55. A verb in the present tense expresses à present act or state. I see.
56. A verb in the present perfect tense represents something as completed in present time; or as past, but connected with present time. I have seen.
57. A verb in the past tense expresses simply a past act or state. I saw.
58. A verb in the past-perfect tense represents something as completed in past time. I had seen.
59. A verb in the future tense expresses simply a future act or state. I shall see.
60. A verb in the future-perfect tense represents something as completed in future time. I shall have
The following sentences illustrate the six tenses: “The tree blossoms,"
;" “ The tree has blossomed"; 6 che tree blossomed,” 6 The tree had blossomed”; “ The tree will blossom,” “ The tree will have blossomed."
COMPARISON. Objects not only have qualities, but they often differ in their qualities, especially in degree; and not a little of our regard for objects depends on whether they have more or less of the qualities which we like or dislike. I may prefer, for instance, one apple to another because it is larger or better than the other. Actions also differ, and not unfrequently in degree. “ John may study diligently, but Mary may study more diligently.”
When we thus compare qualities, actions, and their circumstances, we usually make but three chief distinctions. We may speak of the quality itself, of a higher or a lower degree of it, or of the highest or the lowest degree; as, wise, wiser, wisest ; wise, less wise, least wise. From these distinctions in the use of qualifying words, we get that property of adjectives and adverbs which is called comparison.
61. Comparison is that property of adjectives and adverbs which expresses quality in different degrees.
62. There are three degrees of comparison ; the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.
63. An adjective or an adverb is in the positive degree, when it expresses simply the quality. Wise.
64. An adjective or an adverb is in the comparative degree, when it expresses the quality in a higher or a lower degree. Wiser, less wise.
65. An adjective or an adverb is in the superlative degree, when it expresses the quality in the highest or the lowest degree. Wisest, least wise.
“ Jane is tall” ; “ Alice is taller”; “Louisa is the tallest.” “Jane writes carefully ” ; “ Alice writes less carefully”; “ Louisa writes least carefully."
Fundamental Ideas, and Grammatical
Development of Sentences.
1. Horse, dog, man, boys, lady, monkey, parasol.
The horse runs. The dog barks. The man works. Boys study and play. The lady lost her | parasol. The monkey had taken the lady's | parasol. I bought a barrel of flour. Life has its | pleasures and its | troubles. 2. For me to go.
To die for one's country. For me to go is impossible. (What is impossible ?) He wishes to sell the farm. It is glorious to die for one's country.
3. That he will ever return. That you are not very attentive.
That he will ever return, is doubtful. (What is doubtful ?) He says that
you are not very attentive to your business. Is it not a pity, that she knows so little ?
From the examples under this head, we can infer that a fundamental idea may show itself in a word, a phrase, or a
clause. And from some of the examples under the following heads, it will be evident that it sometimes shows itself in the changes which it causes in the forms of words.
66. A Phrase is two or more words rightly put together, without making a proposition.
67. A Clause is à proposition that makes but a part of a sentence.
68. A Sentence is a thought expressed by a proposition, or a union of propositions, followed by a full
Roll, read, climb, fly, swim, dance, sing.
The ball rolls. The boy reads. Squirrels climb trees. Pigeons fly rapidly. Ducks swim. The girls sing and dance. The girls sing, walk, and dance. The lightnings dart from cloud to cloud. The dew bends and refreshes the flowers.
Changes in Form. — The bell tolls. The bell is tolling. The bell has tolled. The bell tolled. The bell had tolled. The bell will toll. The bell will have tolled. The bell may toll. The bell
have tolled. The bell should have tolled. Toll, sweet bell!
I strike. I am striking. I am struck. I was struck. I was striking. I struck. I have been striking. I have been struck. I shall strike. I shall be struck. I shall have been striking. I could strike. I could have been struck. See Manner and Time, pp. 23 – 25.
QUALITIES, OR ATTRIBUTES. 1. Words. - A green meadow.
The meadow is green. A fragrant pink. The pink is fragrant. Warm weather. The weather is warm. Blue hills. The hills are blue. Long lesThe lessons were long. An idle boy.
The boy is idle. A bleak and frosty morning. The morning is bleak and frosty.
She has black eyes, rosy cheeks, and pearly teeth. The windy summit, wild and high, rises against the distant sky. Rosy child, with forehead fair, coral lip, and shining hair.
Changes in Form. A cold day; a colder day; the coldest day. The day was cold. The day was colder. The day was the coldest. Large fish live in deep water. Larger fish live in deeper water. The largest fish live in the deepest water. This tree has many apples. That tree has more apples. Yonder tree has most apples. See Degree, p. 26.
2. Phrases. The flowers of spring and the stars of heaven. (What flowers ?) Beauty is like the flowers of spring, but virtue is like the stars of heaven. The song of the robin was clear and tender. A bough with red berries floated on the water. The time of danger is the time for courage. It is the knell of the departed year. She has a bouquet of rare and beautiful flowers. The shady lawn between the house and the river is the most delightful part of the farm.
3. Clauses. The lady who sings so well, is now in the house. (What lady ?) He who is fond of solitude, is generally fond of studying. Those people who flatter you, are not your friends. The rain which we have had this week, has been very refreshing. We gathered every year large quantities of nuts, which grew in great abundance in the forest | that surrounded our little farm.
He is a boy. She is a girl.
It is a tree. I met him. You met her. We met them. He is my father. She is my mother. My uncle came on his pony. My aunt came in her carriage. His brother is a duke. His sister is a duchess. He married a Jewess. She married a Jew. He was administrator. She was administratrix. He is an actor. She is an actress. If Joseph was a hero, Josephine was a heroine. Beaus wait upon belles. The prince and the princess are now king and queen. Miss