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Julia Brooks is the niece, not the nephew, of Mr. Julius Brooks. Ganders are white, and geese are gray.

Ganders and geese are often called geese ; drakes and ducks, ducks ; horses and mares, horses; and heirs and heiresses, heirs. Two sons were all the male descendants, and three daughters all the female descendants, of the family. The landlady was very polite to the gentlemen and the ladies ; but I assure you the landlord made them all pay for their titles the next morning.


One was.

One is. Two or more are.

Two or more were. One has been. Two or more have been. One reads. Two or more read. The man works. The men work. My tooth is sound. My teeth are sound. That goose is wild. Those geese are wild. The boy has lost his knife. The boys have lost their knives. The girl has recited her lesson. The girls have recited their lessons. Only one half was accepted, though both halves were offered. The fox is a cunning animal. Foxes are cunning animals. The lady is modest. Ladies are modest. My foot is sore. My feet are sore. Our feet are sore. The mouse ran into its hole. The mice ran into their holes. The child sleeps. The children sleep. He bought an ox. They bought a yoke of oxen. I am busy. We are busy. Thou art.

I know myself.

We know ourselves. He knows himself. They know themselves. He, she, or it, is good. They are good. The deer is a pretty creature. Deer are pretty creatures. The sheep is timid. Sheep are timid. The swine is greedy. Swine are greedy. I bought one dozen. He bought five dozen. This species of flowers is beautiful. These species of flowers are beautiful. The committee was large. The committee were not unanimous. The whole flock of partridges was caught. A multitude of people were assembled. The news is good. By this means he lost all. By these means he lost all. His

Ye are.

lungs were diseased. Riches are seldom well spent. The embers were hot. The dregs were at the bottom. The tongs have been more useful than the snuffers. An ash is a tree ; but ashes are the remains of burned wood or coal. Geniuses are men of genius, but genii are spirits. Dice are used for gaming, and dies are used for stamping. A memorandum denotes one thing, but memorandä denote more. A rádius is a single line, but radžī are more. Silk is a kind of stuff, but silks are different kinds of silk. Tea is a kind of drink, but teas are different kinds of tea. By spices we usually mean different kinds of spice. The Misses Bates are sisters to Dr. Bates ; and the Messrs. Barnes are brothers to Miss Barnes. Ten spoonfuls made a cupful; and twenty cupfuls made two pitchers nearly full. My brothers-in-law live at my father-in-law's residence. The court-martial appealed to all the preceding courts-martial's decisions.

Every boy has brought his books. All the boys have brought their books. All sugar is sweet. All ripe oranges are yellow. Either place is suitable. Both places are suitable. Neither place is suitable. Some children are industrious. Most children are lazy. Some one is talking. Some others are shutting their desks. Many were invited, but only a few came. Two make a pair ; twelve make a dozen; and twenty make a score. Five pair were sold for fifty cents. Man's

years are three score and ten.


This subject belongs more properly to the next head, Relation; but it is probably best to consider it in connection with Number.

I am. I was.

Thou art. He is. We are. You are. They are. Thou wast. He was.

We were.

You were. They were. I have been. You have been. He has been. They have been. I write. He writes.

lessons. He knows his lesson. You know


lesson. We know our les

I know my


They know their lessons. I take care of myself.

You take care of yourself. We take care of ourselves. You take care of yourselves. He takes care of himself. They take care of themselves. This is mine ; that is yours; and the other is his or hers. The responsibility must fall upon him, upon you, or upon me. We have deceived ourselves ; you have deceived yourselves ; and they have deceived themselves.


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Things have many relations to one another, and there are as many corresponding relations in the use of words ; but we shall here notice only the chief of those relations which afford us the cases of nouns and pronouns. Nominative Case. The tree fell. (What fell ?)

(What fell?) The flower is unfolding. The partridges flew away. The ship moves. The bell rings. The storm roars.

She laughed.

(Who laughed?) He is reading. I shall return soon.

The boys skate. The trees wave. The fire crackles and flames.

The ocean is blue. (What is blue?) This map is beautiful. The well was deep. Her dress was white and neat. The lark is a singing-bird. A thief is also a liar. Our corn is gathered. The bread is baked. Brass is made of zinc and copper.

Objective Case. - The fisherman catches fish. (Catches what?) The boy broke the looking-glass. My mother spins flax, The carpenter mended the door. The caterpillars devoured the buds. The weaver weaves yarn into cloth. The barber shaved me.

I invited him. They hid themselves. The sun is warming the garden. Snow has covered the hills. She sang us a song:

I was going down the street. (Down what?) The Mississippi river rises in Minnesota. The book lay on the table. The child fell into the well. The bridge extends over the river. There is a plank-road from the church to the college. Several railroads run through Pennsylvania. The garden lies behind the house. The swallows flutter about the eaves.

Possessive Case. - Here is the boy's book. Here are the boys' books. This is the man's hat. These are the men's hats. I have cleaned my desk. We have cleaned our desks. You have broken your slate. He has bruised his thumb. She has torn her book. They had lost their way. This is mine; that is yours;

and the other is hers. Yours are better than ours. My brother's estate belongs to .one person only. My brothers' estate belongs to two or more persons. My friend's request comes from one person only. My friends' request comes from two or more persons. It is our duty, not theirs, to supply the people's wants. For goodness' sake, help me out of my troubles. He resides near St. James's Place.


We shall notice manner here, only so far as it relates to the different modes of expressing the verb in regard to its subject.

INDICATIVE MOOD. — John is at home. The glass was broken. The servant has made a fire. I had bought a farm. You shall see him to-morrow. The miller will have ground the corn before we return.

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. — If John were at home. If the glass be broken, you may throw it away. If the servant had made a fire, we should have been comfortable. If I bought the farm, I should have to sell it again. If you see him tomorrow, tell him to visit me. Had the miller ground the corn, we should have returned sooner.

POTENTIAL MOOD. — John may be at home. The glass may have been broken. The servant could have made a fire. I would buy the farm, if he would sell it. You must see him to-morrow. The miller should have ground the corn.

IMPERATIVE Mood.—John, be at home. Peter, make a fire. Miller, grind the corn. Buy the farm. See him tomorrow, if

Behave yourself well. Be always kind and obliging. Do not grieve over unavoidable calamities.

you can.

INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES, · A servant came to make a fire. I ought to have bought the farm. It seems to have rained last night. Two hundred cannons, flashing and thundering continually, seemed to shake the very earth to its centre. The glass having been broken, we threw it away.

Akin to the forms of the verb known as MOODS, are the forms of the verb called voices.

John hit James. James was hit by John. He told the story. The story was told by him. The puppy tore the book. The book was torn by the puppy. The water turns the wheel. The wheel is turned by the water. The winds fan the flowers and ruffle the waters. The flowers are fanned and the waters are ruffled by the winds.

Akin to the MOODS are also the INTERROGATIVE and the NEGATIVE FORM of the verb.

He has read the book. He has not read the book. Has he read the book? Has he not read the book ? You have been at home. You have not been at home. Have you been at home? Have you not been at home? Life is a burden. Life is not a burden. Is life a burden ? Is not life a burden ?

Akin to the moods are also the FORMS of the tenses.

He teaches. He teacheth. He is teaching. He does teach. He doth teach. You know him. Thou knowest him. You are a sinful people. Ye are a sinful people. I write. I am writing. I do write. I wrote. I was writing. I did write. Visit me. Do visit me. Are

you the traitor ? Art thou the traitor?


A chief idea sometimes displays itself in the changes which it causes in a certain class of words. When this occurs, the idea becomes a grammatical property. Hence time affords us the tenses.

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