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14. A Predicate is a word or phrase denoting what is said of the subject.

15. A Proposition is a subject combined with its predicate.

When we speak of any object, we generally tell either what it is, what it does, or what is done to it.

1. Flowers are beautiful. The ant is an insect.
2. Birds sing. Boys play. Carpenters build houses.
3. Fields are ploughed. The corn was ground.

The words are, is, sing, play, build, etc., by means of which we say things of the subjects, are called verbs.

16. A Verb is a word used to express the act or state of a subject.

“ The river washes away the soil”; here washes is a verb, because it tells what the river does. “The river is deep”; here is is a verb, because it tells something of the river, or helps to show in what state it is. Sometimes we say that the verb affirms or predicates something of its subject. This is nearly the same as to tell you that it says something of that about which we are talking. We are sometimes obliged to use hard words in books, for the sake of greater accuracy or exact

By dressing soldiers in a different style from that in which citizens are dressed, we can easily distinguish them from citizens. So every science has generally, in its words, a dress of its own. Mention the subjects, the predicates, the verbs of the predicates, and why :

Frogs leap. Fishes swim. The wind whistles. The thunder rolls. The lightning flashed. Clouds were moving. He recited his lesson. The door creaked. The snake crept into the grass. Out flew the partridges. Lilies and roses were blooming together.

Put a suitable subject to each of the following predicates :
Is happy; knows nothing; am sick; art released; grew


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rapidly; was neglected; were neglected; went away; spoke sensibly; replied ; stepped forth; retreated ; should obey their parents; was a great man.

Say something of each of the following objects, by telling what they are:--
Street, grass, hay, ice, stars, mountains, room, table.
Say something of each of the following objects, by telling what they do:
Horse, farmers, trees, servant, hogs, tailor, teacher, scholar.

Say something of each of the following objects, by telling what is done to them :

Lesson, bonnet, bridge, yard, window, John, newspaper.


We notice every day that objects are not all alike, even when of the same general kind. Some roses, for instance, are red; some are white ; and some are yellow. An apple may be large or small ; red, green, or yellow ; hard or mellow ; mealy or juicy. Sometimes we notice several things of interest in the same object. A river, for instance, may be deep, broad, clear, and swift. The value of objects, or the regard we have for them, depends not a little on their qualities; and hence it is necessary for us to have words that will show the qualities of objects, or describe the objects. These words are called adjectives. Sometimes we use words that do not express the qualities of objects, but that still serve to show what objects are meant. Such words are this, that, each, every, either, first, second, one, two, three, etc. These words are also called adjectives. The word adjective means throwing or joining to ; an adjective generally modifies the idea of an object, by joining to it that of some quality.

17. An Adjective is a word used to qualify or limit the meaning of a noun or pronoun.

A good pupil will be industrious.Good and industrious are adjectives, because they describe the pupil; that is, they describe the object meant by the word pupil. This tree bore five bushels of apples.” This is an adjective, because it makes the indefinite word tree mean a particular one; and five is an adjective, because it makes the indefinite word bushels mean a particular number.

Tell which are the adjectives, and why :

Warm weather; dark clouds; shady lawns; tall trees; a white cloud; yonder house ; a hollow tree; a steep bluff.

Put suitable adjectives to each of the following nouns; and then tell what each of the objects is, by using the same adjective:

Man, boy, workman, star, rose, river, book, day, crow, swan, pink, winter, snow, wood, stones, lead.

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Not only are objects different, but their actions are also different, even when of the same general kind. People do not all walk alike, nor talk alike, nor write flike. Hence we often use such words as well, badly, fast, slowly, gracefully, awkwardly, sweetly, harshly, hastily, etc., to describe the actions of persons, or to distinguish their actions from one another. These words are called adverbs, because they are generally added to verbs. Sometimes we distinguish actions by telling simply where or when they are done; as, “ It rained everywhere; “ It rained seldom."

We not only use words to describe objects and their actions, but we often use words to show in what degrees objects or actions have their qualities ; as, very good ; tolerably fast ; more rapidly; most rapidly. And these words, which express degree, and are joined to adjectives and adverbs, are also called adverbs.

18. An Adverb is a word used to modify the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

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“ John studies diligently”; here diligently is an adverb, because it shows the manner of studying, or it shows the mode of doing that act which is meant by the word studies. apple is very good ”; here very is an adverb, because it shows in what degree the apple is good. “The cars ran uncommonly fast”; here uncommonly is an adverb, because it shows in what degree the cars ran fast.


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By looking around us, we can easily see that the great mass of objects composing this world, is held together in a thousand

“ Houses are on the ground; cellars are under houses; and trees grow around houses.” “ Boats run up and down rivers, and rivers flow between hills.” “ The morning star rises before the sun, and night comes after sunset.”

To describe objects and all their actions and states, we have not a sufficient number of words made especially for this purpose, or we should have to use these words disagreeably often. Hence we often describe objects, actions, or their qualities, by showing simply how they are related to other objects; or we make our thoughts pictures of parts of the world, by showing in these pictures how the corresponding things are linked together. Such linking words, that express relation, are the words on, under, around, up, down, before, and after, used above ; and such words are called prepositions, because they are generally placed before the nouns and pronouns with which they make descriptive phrases. Preposition comes from pre, before, and positio, placing; the word therefore means placing before.

19. A Preposition is a word used to show the relation between a following noun or pronoun and some other word.

“ The roses by my window are in full bloom.” By is a preposition, because it shows the relation between roses and window, or the phrase by my window shows what roses are meant ;

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and in is a preposition, because it shows the relation between are and bloom, or the phrase in bloom shows in what condition the roses are or exist.



We frequently use certain words simply to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, and to show the dependence of the parts thus connected. When you hear such words as and, but, because, you at once know that something more is to come, and that it bears a certain relation to what has been said. If I I say,

“ John writes and ciphers”; John spilt his ink on the desk and on the floor”; “ John writes every day, and I generally look at his writing”; you see that the word and adds something more to what has been said, or joins two words, two phrases, or two propositions together; and since conjunction means joining together, this word, and others like it, have been called conjunctions.

20. A Conjunction is a word used to connect words, phrases, or propositions.

“He rides, if he is sick." "He rides, though he is sick.” “He rides, because he is sick.” Here if, though, and because are conjunctions, because each connects two propositions.


When we see, hear, or

way notice things, our feelings are often suddenly excited, and we utter, almost unconsciously, certain little words that show these emotions. Words of this kind are such as 0, oh, ah, pish, tut, aha, whew, etc., which you have doubtless often heard. They generally express surprise, wonder, joy, grief, anger, or contempt. Interjection means throwing between ; and since these words are loosely thrown between other words in speaking, they have been called interjections.

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