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as a fixed quantity; which is what the " That is not enough for a man doing phraseology in question points to. But I your work. If I could take out your am deeply convinced that immense injury brain and lay it on a plate” (he smiles with has been done, and is still in the doing, by an air of faint superiority, and shakes his certain habits of thought and language head, mentally quoting several texts,)“ and which assuredly have no scientific origin, get you to compare it with a healthy man's and as assuredly no philosophical justifica- brain on another plate, you would soon tion. This phraseology, with, of course, that

you do not get sleep enough.” all its blundering implications, is clearly “But I can not leave my post; I must traceable to theologic sources, or, at least, do my duty." to mediæval constructions of theologic “But you are not doing your duty well. phrasing. But for a being whose whole You may start; but if Icould go your rounds point of view can be changed by an east with you, I should be able to convince wind, or a glass of wine, or an hour's less you that you often fail in your dutysleep, or many an act of indulgence or ab- “ God will pardon my infirmities, if-" stinence,- for a being whose morale is “ For want of the sleep which is necesdeeply and inevitably affected by such a sary to refresh your brain and enable you circumstance as celibacy, or the reverse to take clear and straightforward views of condition, or the rate of the circulation of things,-especially of other people's trouhis blood, -to talk of the absolute control bles.” of the soul over the body is profoundly “We have an anointing-" silly. What becomes of the control of the “ Yes, I know; and that reminds me. soul over the body, if you scoop out the You have nothing special the matter with skull ? True, nobody does affirm, in so you heart, liver, or lungs?" many words, the absolute control of the “No?"--spoken wearily and deprecat“spirit” over the “flesh;” but, perhaps, we ingly, as if these were very irrelevant quesmay say so much the worse; for, in this tions. case, we could deal frankly with it. But Then strike work; go and get a Turkmany assumptions which carry with them ish bath; take a four-wheeled cab home some such view are fatally prevalent among with only one window open, (mind you all of us. To take a slight example. In don't get cold in your eyes, which look times of great exertion, accompanied by rather sensitive just now;) 'eat an easily assudden strains upon the strength, and, of similated dinner; drink a pint of chamcourse, much fatigue, how difficult have I pagne, and go to sleep." found it to impress upon those who have “ The spirit must hold up the flesh.” been working with me the duty of econo- “Ah, but you'll find the spirit won't." my of vital force in minor particulars, or Exit clergyman, thinking I am on the to make them understand the proper use of downward road, though among all his stimulants ! In vain do you say, “ You friends and people there is possibly not should laugh and talk less till you have one who is nearer to him heart and soul. got through this work ;” or “ You should, In a month I hear that he is dead of while the strain lasts, walk three miles a small-pox; the doctors remarking from day instead of your usual six; or slightly the first that, though the special attack alter the hours, the quality and the quanti- was not severe, there was great danger, ty of your food,”—the counsel is almost al- owing to the want of resistive or rallying ways thrown away, and at the bottom of power in the system of the sufferer. the disregard of it lies, you perceive, a la- That view of the subject of the relation tent impression that the mind can do of mind to body which is suggested by the what it likes with the body. Perhaps you foregoing sentences is trite enough to some know a clergyman, or some one else, who intelligent people, but by no means to the is exhausting himself with “spiritual" la- majority; and the very reason it is at this bors: you look at his face, note the droop moment uppermost in my own mind is, of the muscles, the slight feverish film on that I have lately come across striking ilthe lips, and the tendency to suffusion in lustrations of the fact that the majority,

even of well-taught persons, habitually “ You must take more sleep, or you think of the mind as something totally inwill break down.”

dependent of the body, or something which “I get six hours' sleep every night.” plays upon the frame, and can do as it

the eyes :

likes with it, just as if it were a mere in- shall be deep-set. Now, place these two strument, with a will that had perfect com- persons, alike, in situations where equal demand of it. Now it is not easy to invent mands are made upon readiness in seeing language that shall express even what lit- and supplying the small wants of others. tle we know of the real state of the case, Suppose it is a time of pressure: that A without seeming to surrender something of should hand B a certain volume, open, at what can not be foregone; something of a certain exact moment; or know to a our belief in our accountability, and in the fraction of a second when C will be crossresources that are at our command in our ing a particular part of a room, or have a intercourse with the Father of Spirits. sleepless eye to the fire or the candles, or, But it is useless shutting our eyes to the in a hundred nameless ways, to what is gotruth, and the truth is that there is in the ing on all round,-is, we will suppose, of “solidarity" of mind and body something considerable consequence. Now, it is cerwhich can not be called less than fatal. tain that, though (and because) we have It is a perfectly arguable proposition that supposed both our men equal in all other you should treat sane and insane criminals respects, the one with the prominent eyes on the same footing; but it was nonsense (the all other respects including of course for Sir John Coleridge, in cross-examining that the sight in both shall be equally the medical experts in the case of the boy good and pretty much of the same range Connor, to ask whether, though his body when directed to an object) will be the was out of order at a certain time his mind most helpful of the two men. He will alwas not in good condition. I am not for ways know what is going to happen a'cona moment suggesting that this boy was outsiderable fraction of time before the other of his senses, or yet responsible to the law; man will, and his “eyghen like an hare's” but it certainly looks the most obvious of will see much more widely round and all propositions, that you can not affect about. I am drawing from actual examthe body in any way without in some way ples, and it is obvious that the hare-eyed affecting the mind too. And if the injury man might even gain credit for more goodto the body have come about without the nature than the other, while he in fact concurrence of the person's will, how can might have less. . Nor is this all, for the we refuse to admit that, to some extent, rapid and sensitive apprehensiveness of the and in some way, however inscrutable, “eyeghen like an hare's” might qualify the the person's moral responsibility is quali- whole of a person's conduct, and have fied ? A man is bound to support his consequences which were distinctly moral, wife and children; we find him wanting in and which, taken in the mass, materially energy; after his death it is discovered affected the lives of those about him. that he had a flabby heart. In a case like We might carry this kind of criticism to this we have not a moment's hesitation in almost any length, and, to say the truth, it qualifying the moral verdict upon the is very much wanted. The moral diffeman's career. Yet, if a diagnosis of an- rence between a “ wiry" man and a largeother kind affirms that he was naturally chested brawny man-other conditions, redeficient in that portion of the brain through ligious culture included, being supposed the help of which firmness would be mani- similar—are of the most marked descripfested, a good many of us refuse to admit tion. True, to repeat what has been said any qualification whatever. But allowing before, all moral truth is best expressed in the hypothesis, where is the difference ? terms of morality, and a physiologically

However, I do not wish to prosecute worded gospel of charity would be very this. It is a necessary part of the general unpleasant—to no one more unpleasant question ; but it arose here incidentally, than to me; but it will be better for us if and it may now pass. But let us choose we apply physiological truths to their another illustration of the way in which a proper use in these matters—that, namely, bodily peculiarity may affect a person's of giving form, distinctness, and solidity to character. Také two persons of entirely convictions and impressions which are too similar character and culture. They shall apt, unless fortified from the physical side, both be equally conscientious, equally to pass off in gas. And it is really very cugood-natured, and equal, too, in intellectu- rious to note how slow people are to think al promptness. But in one of them the of these matters “off their own bats." eyes shall be prominent, in the other they When I was a little boy listening to

versation in which various friends of mine pel. There was no room for such queswere endeavoring to get out of certain diffi- tions in the philosophy of my friends. culties which maintain an iron grip upon But, if we are to try and judge out fellowevery fair thinker, I heard it declared that creatures or ourselves (which is equally imthose who had not heard the gospel portant, though there are forms of false preached would be judged without the humility” which would deny this) fairly, gospel. I asked how often the person we must find room in our philosophy for must have heard the gospel. Oh, if the a great many interpellations of the kind. way of salvation had been plainly laid be. And we will, in the next paper, endeavor fore him, he was to be judged by the gos- to deal with some of them in reference to pel. But I then wanted to know whether the methods by which attempts have been a person who had the gospel plainly laid made by students of different schemes of before him at a time when he had as bad physiognomy to guess at the quality of the an ear-ache as mine on the previous Sun- brain. day would have to be judged by the gos



SAMUEL FINLAY BREESE MORSE, whose said to have really adopted art as his proportrait embellishes our present number, fession. He was one of the founders of was born at Charlestown, Mass., on the the National Academy of Design in 1826; 27th of April, 1791, and died at his resi- he was its first President; he was about dence, in New-York City, on the 31st of the same time lecturer on the fine arts at March, 1872, in the eighty-first year of the New-York Athenæum; and during his his age. His father, the Rev. Jedediah second residence abroad he was elected to Morse, D.D., pastor of the First Congre- the .professorship of the literature of the gational Church in Charlestown, was a arts of design in the University of the leader in the controversial disputes of the City of New-York. It was on the voyday, and a shining light of the Orthodox age home in 1832 to enter upon the party in their struggle against Unitarian- duties of the position that he conceived ism. He is best remembered by the pres- the great invention to which he owes his ent generation, however, as the author of world-wide fame. Ever since his college a series of geographical text books, which days he had dabbled a little in chemistry. for thirty years were adopted almost univ- The new discoveries in the science of elecersaily in our schools, and were extensively tro-magnetism had an especial attraction reprinted in England and on the con- for him, and he had discussed them over tinent. Dr. Morse has been called indeed and over again with his friend Professor the father of American geography, for he J. F. Dana. On board the Havre packet was the first laborer in this field of science, Sully, which brought him home in October, and a large part of the material for his 1832, the subject formed one day a topic works was gathered by personal research of conversation among the passengers. and travel. Samuel was graduated at Dr. Charles S. Jackson of Boston describYale in 1810, and having resolved to be- ed an experiment recently made in Paris, come a painter, went the next year to by means of which electricity had instanEngland with Washington Allston, to taneously been transmitted through a great study under his tuition and that of Ben- length of wire. “ If that is so," said Morse, jamin West.

He showed a decided talent “ I see no reason why messages may not for art, and produced a model of a dying be instantaneously transmitted by elecHercules, which gained for him a gold tricity.” Before the packet reached Newmedal from the Adelphi Society of Arts; York, the invention of the telegraph was but Providence had reserved him for oth- virtually made, and even the essential feaer uses than those of the pencil and the tures of the electro-magnetic transmitting chisel, and though he always retained his and recording apparatus, were sketched early fondness for æsthetic pursuits, and upon paper. Of course, in reaching this even made a second voyage to Europe in result, Morse made use of the ideas and 1829 to complete his studies in the chief discoveries of many other minds. No cities of the continent, he can hardly be great invention ever sprang complete and perfect from any one brain. Various forms pectations, and he was endeavoring, with of telegraphic intercourse had been devis- the aid of his friend, Mr. Smith, of the ed before; electro-magnetism had been Committee on Commerce, to devise a sort studied by savants for many years; Frank- of plow that would both open and cover lin even had experimented with the trans- a trench for the pipes, when accident mission of electricity through great lengths brought him into association with Ezra of wire. It was reserved for Morse to Cornell

, afterward so intimately connected combine the results of many fragmentary with the progress of the telegraph in the and unsuccessful attempts, and put them, United States. Mr. Cornell devised a maafter years of trial, to a practical use; and chine, drawn by a yoke of oxen, which, as though his claims to the invention have it moved along, opened the ground, laid been many times attacked, in the press the pipe, and covered it with earth ; and and in the courts, they have been triumph- with this, superintended by Cornell himantly vindicated alike by the law and the self, the work was begun at Baltimore. verdict of the people both at home and Ten miles had been laid, when Mr. Morse abroad. Part of the apparatus was ac- was convinced that the pipe would not tually constructed by Mr. Morse, in New- answer, and the story runs that Cornell York, before the close of the year, but it saved him the embarrassment of confesswas not until 1835 that he succeeded in ing failure by purposely driving the maputting up an experimental line, consist- chine at full speed against a rock and ing of half a mile of wire stretched around breaking it to pieces. The whole year and around a room, and exhibiting a tele- was consumed in fruitless experiment. At graph in actual operation. With this in- last, when only $7000 of the appropriation strument he could send and record a mes- remained, Mr. Morse gave the mechanical sage only in one direction. By 1837 he execution of the work entirely into Corhad a duplicate apparatus, and now he nell's hands; the pipe system was abangave greater publicity to his scheme by an doned, and the wires were insulated upon exhibition at the University. The inven- poles. tion attracted a great deal of interest, but The first message was sent on the 27th very few persons could be persuaded of of May, 1844. Every part of the apparaits financial value. At the close of the tus worked imperfectly, but the feasibility year Mr. Morse went to Washington and of the project was established, and the asked Congress for an appropriation to long struggle was over. build a telegraph line from Washington There came afterward a long series of to Baltimore. The House Committee on vexatious lawsuits. Morse's patents were Commerce, at the head which was the violated, his honors were disputed, even Hon. F. O. J. Smith of Maine, gave him an his integrity was assailed, and rival comattentive hearing and a favorable report, panies devoured for a while all the profits but the session passed without further ac- of the business. But these troubles were tion, and the disappointed inventor went finally overcome, and though his pecunito England and France. He met with no ary rewards seem small in comparison encouragement in Europe, and struggled with the colossal fortunes amassed by othon four years longer, renewing his appeal er men out of his invention, he nevertheat Washington year after year, and still less obtained a full recognition of his serhopeful in the midst of poverty and trou- vices to the world, and dies with the knowble. On the last night of the session in ledge that two hemispheres spoke his name March, 1843, he left the capital entirely dis- with gratitude. Rarely, indeed, in the heartened, after patiently waiting through history of invention has mankind been the long day. But the next morning, to so prompt and hearty in honoring their his amazement, he learned that in the benefactor. All the principal nations of hurry and confusion of the midnight hour Europe gave him tokens of distinction. the expired Congress had voted $30,000 So early as 1848 the Sultan presented him for his experimental essay.

a decoration set in diamonds. Gold medThe difficulties, however, were not yet als were awarded him by Prussia, Austria, surmounted. Mr. Morse proposed inclos. and Würtemberg. France made him a ing the wires in lead pipes buried in the Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Denearth-a plan which soon proved imprac- mark gave him the cross of Knight of the ticable. The expense far exceeded his ex- Dannebrog; Spain, the cross of Knight Commander of the Order of Isabella the tween New-York and Washington was Catholic. At the instance of the Em- placed upon the stage and connected with peror of the French, representatives of the the wires, that Professor Morse might European States, France, Russia, Swe- send with his own hand a word of greetden, Belgium, Holland, Austria, Sardinia, ing to all the cities of the United States Tuscany, the Holy See, and Turkey—met and Canada. at Paris to decide upon a collective testi- It should not be forgotten that to Promonial to him, and the result of their de- fessor Morse we also owe the invention of liberations, was a vote of 400,000 francs. the submarine cable. One moonlight night Scores of learned societies all over the in October, 1842, he laid in New-York world admitted him to membership. In harbor the first submarine telegraph, an1856, the .telegraph companies of Great ticipating thus by more than a year and a Britain gave him a banquet in London. half the actual construction of the first In 1858, the American Colony in France land line. It was only an experiment, but entertained him at a grand dinner in Paris. it enabled Professor Morse to predict the On the 29th of December, 1868, the citi- next year in a letter to the Secretary of zens of New-York gave him a dinner at the Treasury the certainty of the great Delmonico's. In June, 1871, a bronze project which so long afterward was carstatue of Professor Morse erected in ried out by the energy of Cyrus W. Field. Central Park by the voluntary contribu- The latter years of Professor Morse's tions of telegraph employees throughout life were passed in quiet comfort, chiefly the country, was formally unveiled, with at his residence in Poughkeepsie. His an address by William Cullen Bryant; and venerable figure was often seen at public in the evening a reception was held at the gatherings, and wherever he appeared he Academy of Music, where one of the first was always one of the most honored and instruments used on the original line be distinguished guests.


The LIFE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN; from his Indiana and Illinois; most of whom were about as Birth to his Inauguration as President. By capable of estimating him as of computing the orWard H. Lamon. Boston: Osgood & Co. 1872. bit of a new planet, and to whom the great part


From the time Abraham Lincoln came promi- which he played in the nation's history was evi. nently before the country, and especially since his dently a mere caprice or accident of fortune. There death, there has been an unsupplied want of an is an ancient proverb that “A prophet is never authentic and at least approximately complete without honor save in his own country," and a biography of him,- -a biography which would pos. modern version of it declares that “A man is sess us of the facts of his earlier and more ob. never a hero to his wise or to his valet.” It is scure years, and give us some clue to his great easy to imagine, therefore, the reflection of Mr. and, in some respects, unprecedented subsequent Lincoln we are likely to catch from the trades.

Those of us who had heard of Mr. La- men, tavern gossips, and village associates, with mon's work, of the long time he had spent upon whom the longer and less-known, but most signifi. it, and of the material which he had at his com- cant, part of his life was spent; and just what we mand, have been hoping that he would furnish the would be likely to anticipate is what we find in Mr. public with some such biography; but with the Lamon's book. On this point the Evening Post of volume before us we are compelled to say that he this city says: “It is said that the late Abraham has not only failed utterly, but has written a work Lincoln in his fits of dejection was in the habit of which must inevitably lower and confuse the pop- repeating a somewhat lugubrious poem entitled, ular estimate of Lincoln's character.

"O) why should the spirit of mortal be proud ?' The record is copious enough, the smallest and At least his latest biographer, Mr. Lamon, re. most obscure incidents of his life are brought out peats the statement to that effect, made in this with microscopic minuteness; but Mr. Lamon paper years ago, and certainly no more convinchas made the great mistake of preparing his bio- ing proof of the abstract truth of the sentiment or graphy on the theory that a mere multiplication its appalling significance to Mr. Lincoln could be of facts from any and every source would convey found than the biography itself. Whether our laa correct impression of the character and life of mented President had some premonition of a kind Mr. Lincoln. Hence his ponderous volume con- of martyrdom that should last beyond the grave; sists chiefly of the recollections of Lincoln's whether he felt the shadow of an impending schoolfellows, neighbors, and acquaintances, in Herndon or a coming Lamon; whether, looking

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