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there went to Resolution Buy in Tanna; off along the beach; a native walked captain got drunk there; got no men there; through the water to me, and asked me to went thirty or forty miles from Resolution take him in the boat as he was not in the Bay, but still were on the coast of Tanna; place he belonged to; he wanted to come the chief officer went by himself on shore to Queensland, but I was to give his browith boat; came back with two natives to ther the usual price, two tomahawks and look at the vessel ; when they came the one knife; I went to his brother, who was vessel was ready to go, being under sail; sitting on the beach a short distance off, these two natives wanted to go ashore; and gave him the things; I stayed there a captain took them into the cabin to take little time, and got two more men; paytheir attention off; one of them cried and ing for each man two tomahawks and a wanted to go ashore; the captain took his knife. We then went back to the ship, the revolver; the two natives rushed out of the boats were hoisted up, and we went round cabin up on deck, and one jumped over- the island that night. Early next morning board and held on to the gunwale of a the cook called me to say that a canoe with boat belonging to a schooner, the Marga- natives in it was ahead of us, and coming ret Chissell, from Melbourne, which was towards us; muskets were passed up out near us, in the Fiji trade; the captain ran of the cabin, were loaded and put into one for a musket, and threatened to shoot him of our boats, which was lowered, and the if he didn't come on board again ; he chief mate and boat's crew went towards would not let go the gunwale of the boat, the canoe. On reaching the canoe he and the mate of the schooner took a sword gave the bow-oarsman his revolver, and and made a stab at him; he then did let the bow-oarsman made the canoe fast to go, and I threw him the end of a main- the boat with a rope, and both came alongsheet, of which he caught hold; but he im- side the ship. The natives were on their mediately let go and swan for the shore. way to an island about four miles off, and Captain Coath ordered the boat to be low- they had pigs, cocoa-nuts, and other things ered, which was done, and I and two with them; they and their property and others went in it to pick him up, which we the canoe itself were taken on board our did, and he was brought to the vessel. We ship; the canoe was broken up for fireput him on board; he still sat on deck wood, the pigs, etc., taken from them. We crying; the captain threatened to shoot went to Vila for wood and water, staying him if he jumped overboard again, the ves- one day, and then sailed for Maryhorough, sel sailing away. We then went to a place bringing ninety islanders. called Black Beach, for water and wood; “I declare the above statement to be we then went to Erromanga, to land re- true and correct. turning natives; did land them; and got
his one fresh native, who came willingly. We “JAMES HARPER, X Able Seaman." then went to Vila, in Sandwich Island, and
mark. there we got eight natives to act as our “Signed before me, the 16th day of March, boats' crews, and then to Havana Har- 1871. WM. BROOKES, J. P." bor, and from there to North-West Bay, It is on evidence like this that authoriand landed two returned natives from ties who have inquired into the matter deMaryborough, and obtained about eigh- clare that, at the present time, NINETY PER teen islanders by barter in usual way. CENT of the islanders imported into QueensWent to Mow; landed four returning na- land and Fiji are procured by fraud and tives; and took on board ten or eleven, violence ! who came willingly; tomahawks, etc., be- It can not be supposed, now that the ising given in exchange for them."
landers are exasperated by seeing their relHarper's story is a long one, and gives atives and friends carried away, that the in abundance similar details. It may be crews of these trading vessels perpetrate found in full in the Parliamentary Returns, these atrocities unharmed. Piracy and and concludes thus:
man-stealing have ever proved a costly Leaving there, went a little process to the men who have engaged in farther down the coast of the same island, them. Temporary gain in money is ill Apii; the mate landed the last native we compensated by the brief life and violent had to return; I went in my boat with an death which not unfrequently follow them. interpreter towards a fire about three miles Naturally, therefore, these disasters form an important item in the evidence gather- those on board by the natives who had ed respecting the kidnapping in Polynesia. come off in the canoes. The crew were Mr. Paton, in his letter already quoted, totally unprepared. The mate was killed says:
in the deck-house, and a white man nam“ The Wild Duck on one trip had three ed Bill had his head cut off by an axe, and white men and two Faté men killed; the the others were wounded frightfully. The La Maria one Faté man; the Spunkie steward got a loaded gun, and a Fijian and two Malicolo natives ; another vessel, a the surviving white man fired altogether, chief who had been deceived and carried but killed nobody. It had the effect of away became desperate, and killed a white frightening the assailants, who jumped man, then leaped overboard and was drown- overboard. The rest of the crew tried to ed; another vessel lost a white man. I weigh the anchor, but were not able, so forget the names of the last two vessels. A slipped the cable; the long-boat was haulvessel cast away at Apii is said to have had ed up by the natives on shore. The mate, nine natives killed. Captain Stewart, of a Mr. Diehl, and the white man, Bill, were whaler, called at an island in company with buried at sea the next day.”—(Returns, c. a slaver's boat for provisions, when the na- 399, p. 194.) tives shot arrows at them, and a poisoned On the Island of Tahiti, now for thirty one wounded the captain's arm, which was years under the French protectorate, there much inflamed when he called at Santo, was established some ten years ago a and death was almost certain."
plantation for cotton and coffee, belongOne tragic case of retribution occurred ing to a company, and placed under the at the end of December, 1870, when the management of Mr. W. Stewart.
In importation was at its height; and the re- 1864, Mr. Stewart was authorized by the sults were the more lamentable, that the Governor to import a thousand Chinese Mr. Rae who lost his life was a man who coolies to work the plantation ; they had always dealt kindly with the natives were brought from Macao and the neighand wished to do them justice.
borhood, no one has said how. In 1869 “ The schooner Marion Renny, which the service of some 300 of these coolies has twice before lost the whole or portion would expire, and Mr. Stewart was authorof her crew by massacre in the South Seas, ized to introduce Polynesian laborers in left Levuka in November last for a trading their stead. He bought the Moaroa, an voyage among the Line Islands; she was old whaler of 300 tons, patched her up, commanded by Mr. Rae, an old Fijian and sent her to the Gilbert Islands to proresident and island trader, and partner in cure the immigrants. Telling the story to the firm of F. W. Hennings and Rae, of Lord Clarendon, Consul Miller thus conLevuka. Mr. Diehl was mate, and she tinues: carried a crew of three white men, six Ro- “On the 4th of July, while off one of tumah boys, one Sandwich man, and four the groups called Peru, the Moaroa fell in Fijians. After visiting several ports in Fi- with the barque Anna, of Melbourne, (of ji, the vessel left the group and called at 143 tons,) having on board 159 Kanakas, Rotumah, where she stayed several days, as the natives are termed,) that she had and then (by the natives' account) steered been three months in collecting from the west for six days and anchored at Anouda different islands of the group; and the Island, between Santa Cruz and Banks' whole of these Kanakas were shortly afGroup. A message was brought on board terward transhipped to the Moaroa. that there were plenty of men willing to “A Mr. Latten, said to be also a Britleave the island. On the following morn- ish subject, and owner of the Anna, went ing Mr. Rae, four Rotumah boys, and one on board of the Moaroa, in charge of his Sandwich man, went ashore in the long so transferred human freight of 159 naboat. The Fijians state that, on reaching tives, who seem to have been originally the shore, (a quarter of a mile distant,) Rae intended for the Fiji labor-market, but and the boat's crew went over the sandy who were now to be supplied instead, prohillocks into a scrub, and a number of na- bably with prospects of a higher profit
, to tives ran down the bank again and pushed the plantation of Atimaono on Tahiti, off the boat, some of them even going up whither Mr. Latten was to accompany to their armpits to send her off shore; at them; the Anna returned to Australia the same time an attack was made on empty.
“ Some days after this transaction, about ed British subjects, Captain Blackett, Mr. sixty additional Kanakas were got at Latten, and second mate Crisp, but likeHope, or Arurai Island, and sixty-eight wise the lives of upward of two hundred more were finally taken on board by the and fifty South Sea Islanders.”—(Returns, Moaroa in passing another of the Gilbert C. 399, pp. 123, 134, 135.) Group called Byron's Island, or Nukunau, In the little pamphlet which has just on the 16th of July; after which she been published by the Presbyterian Misshaped a course for Tahiti,”
sion in the New-Hebrides, and which is The tragedy which ensued is best told mentioned at the head of this article, the in the words of Mr. Steenalt, the mate, a whole question is treated with great fullDane, who was one of the few survivors. ness, and the system is exhibited in its ulAfter showing how the natives suddenly timate consequences in the islands from rose, cut down the captain and supercar- which the poor emigrants have been cargo, and shut up the crew below, he con- ried off. No men have a greater right to tinues :
speak on the subject than the Presbyterian “I was determined to have the ship missionaries. They are thirteen in numagain, and determined to blow up the ber; they have under their charge eight deck amidship, and, in the confusion, to principal stations in the chief islands of the make a rush on deck through the smoke group; their supporters have expended and retake the vessel. We had received £40,000 on the mission, and their presfrom the bark Annie about forty-five can- ent outlay amounts to £4000 a year. isters of gunpowder half a pound each. I Five missionaries have died in the group, took thirty-four of them, and emptied of whom two were killed by the natives, their contents into an empty butter fir- in addition to John Williams who had prekin.... After seeing the men se- ceded them. More than others have cure, and uttering a short prayer for the they been affected by this traffic. Any protection of my wife and children, I lit thing honorable and legitimate they could the train and dropped at the same time have effectively aided. Against the drugdown into the lower hold. The explo- ging, and violence, and murder, they were sion was immediate, and I was nearly compelled to lift up their voice. They are choked with smoke. Making my way on their people who have been carried away; deck I was joined by the men, who were it is their mission which has been all but there before me, and the interpreter, whose destroyed. It is therefore with sound reawife liberated him. Nor a living Kanaka son that the Rev. J. Inglis, on behalf of was to be seen on deck; but the sea all his brethern, addresses to the churches of round literally covered with black heads mak- New South-Wales a full statement of their ing toward the island. My first care was views; and his able letter to the Rev. Dr. to send two men down the hold to guard Steel deserves the most attentive perusal against fire, and with the others I hauled of all concerned. all the lines in which were hanging over- After describing the various methods by board, as the Kanakas, with knives and which the natives are entrapped, such as other weapons, were making for the vessel direct force, putting them under hatches again. The ship, thank God, was ours when visiting a ship, buying them from again.”
chiefs, giving them drink, offering them a After noticing that in the attacks made a pleasure trip, exhibiting valuable proby the immigrants there were killed three perty, making them delusive promises, Englishmen and five native sailors, Mr. and the like, Mr. Inglis thus speaks of the Consul Miller adds :
effect of their service on the few who “The only intelligence that has since have managed to return from their captireached Tahiti concerning the fate of vity : these people, is contained in the inclosed « In no case has any improvement report from the islands, published in the been witnessed; in no case has any native Sydney Mail, and stating that some thirty commenced to plant and cultivate cotton, of them alone reached the shore. So that nor has he introduced any improvement. this calamitous undertaking of the Moaroa Instead of being more industrious, they to obtain laborers for the plantation of At- are greatly less so. They return with imaono would appear to have cost the muskets, ammunition, and tobacco; they lives not only of the three above-mention- have had plenty of work for the last three years, and they think they may now keep But this has been most certainly proved, holiday, and for a time smoking and shoot that whenever you Christianize a savage, ing become the chief objects of their exist- you implant within him the germs of civilience. By and by they awake to a truezation, a civilization which grows, and sense of their position; they find they have which he never casts off. In these islands, no food, their island-habits of industry as a general rule, no heathen man, howhave been destroyed, their new habits are ever long he may have been in Queensall foreign to island life, they are not a land, will ever wear European clothing natural development and an additional when he returns to his own island; wheresource of strength. No; this mode of life as, as a general rule, no Christian man will is something like a punishment that has go without some portion of European been submitted to, and once over, not to clothing, and his progress in Christianity be repeated. They feel reluctant to begin is always followed by a corresponding adthe world anew, and generally sink into a vance in his civilization.”—(Pages 18, 19.) lower position than they would have occu- Apart from the personal and social evils pied had they remained at home. Some springing from this traffic, Mr. Inglis get dissatisfied with their position, or, tired points out one of its more remote conseof island-life, perhaps have a quarrel with quences, from which the whole group is their friends; and should a labor-seeking now suffering in a most painful degree, vessel appear at this juncture, to show the depopulation of the islands : their anger and vex their friends, they will “ The evil to which I refer is the exgo off again to Queensland or Fiji."- traordinary and ruinous drain that has (Page 17.)
been made upon the effective strength of The following is the decided testimony these islands. It is not a drawing away of the Mission to the inability of this serf- of the surplus labor, it is a draining away age-system to Christianize the emigrants of the vital strength of the community. who went from home as heathen. This To compare small things with great, it is testimony has been given repeatedly in a drain upon the New-Hebrides scarcely other days and in other lands; here it less in proportion than the drain which comes forth again fresh and clear: the Franco-Prussian war caused upon the
“ What can natives learn of Christian- population of Germany; that, however, ity in Queensland or Fiji, when there is was but for one year; this is for many. not a person in either land who would or The numbers taken away, in proportion to could impart to them any religious instruc- the population, are enormous. In short, tion that can speak a single word to them the islands are all but ruined. Let this in their own tongue? The same holds system go on unchecked for but a few good of civilization. You do not civilize years, and the natives are doomed; they a native by teaching him to smoke to- will be exterminated."-(Page 30.) bacco; you can not civilize a native by The extent of the event is appalling. feeding him on rice; you can not civilize a The kidnappers have so hasted to be rich native by clothing him in tweeds or doe- that within five years they have swept skin. If you wish to civilize a savage, all the groups within a short distance. you must begin within. Some eighty First, the voluntary emigrants from the years' experience in these seas has fully Loyalty Islands were carried away. Then and clearly proved that, if you wish to came the New-Hebrides. Then followed civilize savages, you must first Christianize the Banks Islands; and during all 1871 them." And what is more remarkable, they were clearing the Solomon group: while it is impossible to civilize them till “This is not a question affecting the you Christianize them, it is easier to Chris- New-Hebrides alone; it is fast affecting tianize them than it is to civilize them every group in Western Polynesia. The after they are Christianized. It is easier New-Hebrides are already nearly used up; to get them to give up the superstitions, all the available labor has been nearly exthe cruelties, and the abominations of tracted out of them. It is little more than heathenism, to worship the one true God, the gleanings that are now left. The to learn to read the Bible, and walk in planters are now discussing the question of some goodly measure according to God's labor. The question of labor is a question laws, than it is to make any thing like of life and death with their system of opesimilar advances in European civilization. rations. They must have labor, and
where is it to come from? The New-He- Though offered the valuable living of Honbrides, the nearest available field to both iton, he preferred to give himself to misFiji and Queensland, are nearly exhaust- sionary work, and in 1855 accompanied ed, and they must extend the area from Bishop Selwyn to New Zealand. For which labor is to be drawn. In this way, five years he was the bishop's constant atas long as the traffic will pay, one after tendant on his missionary voyages; and another, every group of islands between then was himself consecrated Bishop of this and China will be subjected to the Melanesia, that he might devote himself same process."
entirely to the evangelization of its heathen The atrocities now described, including islands. He was well known to the misrepeated acts of kidnapping, piracy, and sionaries of the London Missionary Somurder, and frequently ending in the vio- ciety in the Loyalty group, and to the lent death of the guilty perpetrators of Presbyterians of the New-Hebrides; and these crimes, have been carried on for was a welcome visitor in their island more than five years. They have been homes. With the natives also he was a specially numerous during the years 1870 favorite; and he sought their spiritual weland 1871. Christian and humane men, fare with all the zeal of an earnest nature both in England and Australia, have cried and the resources of a well-stored mind. out against them. The Government has He was deeply moved by the unhallowbeen appealed to; and though the ab- ed traffic which so much interfered with sence of suitable war-steamers on the his labors. He was aware that his own life Australian station, in sufficient numbers, and efforts had furnished some of the has tied their hands, Lord Clarendon, kidnappers with hints for framing one of Lord Granville, and Lord Kimberley, have their decoys. One of these worthies paintconstantly pressed the importance of the ed his vessel to resemble the Presbyterian case, and the need of suppressing the schooner, the Dayspring; dressed one of traffic, on all whom they could influence. his men in clerical costume, and had him But these moral influences have been ex- walk the deck with a book in his hand, as erted in vain. The greed and gain of in- if he were a missionary. Another painted dividuals have been found sufficient to re- his vessel like the bishop's schooner, the ject all warning and all entreaty, to crush Southern Cross; and when the people down principle, to fling away scruples, and came on board and asked for the bishop, trample on the liberties and the rights of he would say, “ The bishop has broken the unhappy heathen, whom curiosity or his leg,” or “is not well;" the natives desire for trade had led to place them- would be forced into the hold and carried selves within the white man's power. off. And thus a fractical system of slavery has Bishop Patteson had been specially apbeen established in Fiji and Queensland, pealed to on the subject of the trade, and which has brought the deepest disgrace two letters exist from him relating to it upon the English name.
which are of great value. In the first of One thing, however, has recently occur- these, written to Sir George Bowen, who red, a result of the system, which has com- had been Governor of Queensland, he pelled attention; and has brought down speaks thus, under date July 4, 1870: upon it a storm of indignation, which hap- “10. I do not advocate the suppression, pily may sweep it entirely away, namely, the but the regulation of this traffic. Decepmassacre of Bishop Patteson. The islands tion, inhumanity, unjust detention of nawhich specially formed the sphere of his tives, and violation of agreements are not devoted labors were all heathen, and were necessary for the purpose of procuring in the immediate neighborhood of the re- and maintaining a supply of laborers for cruiting-grounds last visited by the English the plantations. Even on the ground of kidnappers. Bishop Patteson was a man mere self-interest it would pay the planters of high character and Christian devoted to deal kindly and honestly with their ness, and by the Christian workers of all workmen. Churches was held in high regard. The “ As things now are, it is admitted that son of an honored English judge, having this system of so-called emigration' is for his mother a member of the Coleridge likely to degenerate, and probably has family, he was educated at Eton, and took sometimes degenerated into a practice aphis degree at Balliol College, Oxford. proaching a slave-trade, and perhaps ac