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I told them all that had passed, and re- an understanding; others, the more narpeated my refusal to interfere in any way, row-minded, would listen to nothing exuntil I was sure of being at the head of a cept the “ Irish centres." I cut these troop, not only raised, but in the field. I short, and, taking with me men the most added, that the only advice I had to give influential, as well as belonging to the to M. was to take F. with him, who, from highest class in the Fenian hierarchy, I envy and ambition, had refused to listen repaired with them to the house of one of to my counsels, and, for himself, to exhibit the most important members of the Coma passive and reserved manner.
mittee of the Reform League, and there In vain I advised him to wait upon cir- the basis of an agreement between Feniancumstances, in vain I represented to him ism and the Reform League was agreed that our position as foreigners was essen- upon. tially false, and that as for myself, if it It was at the close of these negotiations ever came to pass that I took the com- that the meeting in Trafalgar Square took mand of an armed insurrection, I should place, and certainly if the police and the never dream of quarreling with a few army had chosen to oppose it, I can assure people more brave than wise, obliged them that on that day all the Fenians in from their position to take the shortest London, who are many, would have withroad to get out of the way of constables stood them like one man, and a good many and policemen.
resolute Englishmen would have aided F. replied that all this was to him a them. Government was well advised to matter of indifference, and that he should let them alone, and to allow them to take go on to the end. From that time, as I their course. In France it would have been heard afterward, he intrigued to be named a revolution. commander-in-chief of an imaginary army. I must not forget to say that I had a I did not try to thwart him in any of his long interview with John Bright in his own projects, but left him to follow them out at house ; but as Ireland did not come in his leisure.
question, there is no necessity for enlarging M. set out for Ireland, escorted by F. upon this now. During all this time I had both thought For the rest, the members of the Comand inquired a great deal in London, mittee of which he was the president, had especially from Mazzini, one of my most no confidence in him; they followed him, faithful friends, although we were not of but they also watched him. the some mind upon the Social Question ; In the evening of the day upon which Ledru-Rollin, Bradlaugh, Karl Blind, and M. and F. ought to have commenced their others. By Mazzini I was introduced to campaign, I chanced to meet the former P., F., C., and many other influential about eleven o'clock at night, completely members of the Reform League. I saw drunk, and smoking expensive cigars, and at once that I was on the wrong tack, and making a display of his money. I went that the Irish Question could only be set- immediately to rouse up K., in order to tled by English co-operation.
entreat him by all means to have M. put I met with sympathy as warm with Ire- into safe keeping, and to deprive him both land and her federal enfranchisement of authority and money. Unfortunately I amongst old Chartists, to whom I had was too late; I could not find K.; and the brought letters of introduction, as I did next that I heard of M. was the news of amongst the members of the Reform his arrest, and of his treachery. League. I had even a nocturnal inter- The following is the narrative I had view with members of the Executive Com- from an eye-witness, who came in all haste mittee; in the course of which I was as- to tell me what had happened, and to give sured that if the Irish desired to join hand me warning to escape. in hand with them, they would certainly The town of (I can not recollect the be welcome; and that they would make a name of it) had been pointed out to M. as platform which should be acceptable to the rendezvous for the concentration of difboth parties. I communicated these pro- ferent Fenian contingents. On arriving posals to the most influential members of there, M. found the place filled with Engthe Provisional Fenian Government. The lish soldiers, who had recently come in, and most intelligent amongst them were of who were all as drunk as lords. Instead opinion that it would be well to come to of retiring prudently and waiting for the
columns from Tipperary, who were not far of its best defenders, but they help to give off, and who would not have made more the enemy all the advantage of the prestige than a mouthful of this English detachment, of victory. Such people do not reflect that M. found himself taken ill, made a noise, two policemen armed and standing behind and was made prisoner. A man who al- a battlement, could hold it till they died of lows himself “ to be taken ill” under such natural exhaustion, against thousands of circumstances can not be much of a soldier. men armed with sticks and stones. M. was not one at all. He at once de- What bravery there was on the side of nounced all and every one, me in particu- these latter! what weakness on the side of lar. It seems that this man had lately the former! Nevertheless there were ovamarried, and was very much in love with tions for those, whilst the others were the his wife, more so than with his honor. In objects of abuse, bad jests, and ridicule! order to see her again he sacrificed every Thus goes the world ; success and riches thing; he sold himself, and he sold his gain the credit for possessing all virtues as comrades also. I do not believe that this well as all talents in the opinion of those man was either a coward or a spy in the whom I, with more justice and reason than common acceptation of the terms. He had M. Thiers, call the vile multitude. If Nafought well in the War of Secession. poleons I. and III., if Garibaldi had been
No, he was only one of those characters unsuccessful, they would have been the whom one so often finds; they are weak Cartouches and Mandrins of their epoch. and foolish, and they must not be trusted If I had succeeded in defending Paris, (and in important matters. As captain, or cor- I was beaten by those whom I defended,) poral, he would have done very well; but I should have been called a great man, and as a general he was deplorable. But let I should have been adulated and flattered those who have had the management of in- by all those men who at Versailles expecsurrections say whether they have obedient torate from the depths of their white crasubjects, and whether they have any great vats those atrocious words and sentences choice. They have to take what comes to which render France an object of universal their hand, and to make the best of it. To pity. England, fortunately for her, has not be the general of a regular army is compar- had to sustain twenty years of imperial atively child's play; to command an irreg- régime ; thanks to this providential mercy, ular one is a task of infinite difficulty ; it is she still contains a number of sound hearts to command men who are insubordinate by and free minds. It is to these enlightened temperament, without organization, with intelligences that I address the following out any framework of officers and non-com- reflections. missioned officers to keep the men together, Catholicism is the source of clericaland to direct their movements. It is to be ism or the spiritual hierocracy, which most without resources; it is to
responsible surely destroys all nations that are weak for every thing, even for human stupidity, enough to refrain from destroying this venblind passions, and ignorance. This sort omous plant in its germ. This crystalliof thing wears out life quickly. Whoever zation of thought, of reason, of will—in one has not gone through this experience word, of individual sovereignty-destroys knows only the rose-colored side of exist- the expansive force of humanity by hierarence.
chical centralization; it can have no other Being entirely without luggage, as I al- conclusion than the one we have seen goways take care to be in circumstances of ing on for the last two centuries in the dethis kind, I was not long in quitting Eng- cadence and decrepitude of all clerical naland; that very night I was upon the sea. tions. Is there one of them that is in the
I need scarcely add that the insurrec- way of prosperity. tion, deprived of direction and of arms, France, by virtue of her geographical never broke out. There were only a few and ethnological constitution, quite pecuhot-headed fools here and there, who at- liar to herself, has remained to the last; tacked with sticks strong places defended but she, too, has had to fall like her elder by policemen armed with rifles. They sisters, Italy and Spain. As for the lower were brave fellows, who fell honestly and classes of poor people, who only scramble foolishly. To rise in arms with the cer- through life from one day to the next, clertainty of being massacred is a double folly; icalism has only one level, subjection, one not only do such men deprive their cause door, death.
And this law is universal and absolute. tesans, instead of furnishing the military
Neither the greatness of a people nor resources of the nation. the differences of climate can keep that A well-educated and instructed nation country free, the inhabitants of which are ought not, however, to stand in need of so unfortunate as to allow clerical influence an army; wise, it knows how to preserve to preponderate.
internal order; strong, how to make itIt is with the monarchy of Charles V. self respected by the nations around as with the dynasty of the Bourbons, with through the influence of its example. Italy as with Poland, with Ireland as with Ireland, a clerical country par excellence, the Spanish Republics in the New World, has fallen under the universal and fatal with the greatest things as with the least; law. none have escaped, not even Paraguay. Partial revolts do not prove any thing.
It is vain to attempt to account for this The worth of a resort to arms in an insurdecay by appealing to natural or to local rectional movement is in the present day causes, or to political influences. A law so very doubtful. I myself have recently universal that it does not afford a single ex- tried the experiment in Paris on the larception, obliges us to recognize and ac- gest scale (as regards arms and munitions knowledge it.
of war) that has been put into the power After all, it is only a logical result. Cler- of any people for a very long time. ical domination can not exist, unless it is Ignorance and proflicacy caused us to allowed to rule supreme; and in order lose a victory, that would have been otherthat clerical influence may be able to dom- wise inevitable. inate over all things, it absorbs thought If, in addition to all this, we consider into ignorance: clericalism will not allow the new conditions under which war is free discussion; neither will it tolerate the carried on, both as regards the change chief element of discussion, which is edu- that has taken place in weapons and encation, instruction. Hence it follows that gines of destruction, and the perfection to ignorance is raised to the dignity of a vir- which the means of communication have tue, of a moral principle. Hence the been brought, it will be seen that success barren results of clerical societies. This lies altogether in the hands of capital which inferiority extends from the schools to the can get possession of magazines of war field of battle; for victory no longer en- material, and prepare long beforehand camps on the Champ de Mars, but sits those means of destruction which right still upon the benches of elementary and justice, where they rise in insurrecschools. Prussia has taken on herself the tion, are not able to obtain. task of setting forth this truth before the Let it not be supposed from this, that eyes of France. Men in spectacles may I wish to discourage men from the duty talk to me about the Emperor, about Le- of rising up in insurrection in the name of bæuf, about Bazaine, about treasuries, and justice, and of fighting against those who magazines, and arsenals all empty ; I an- oppress them. Insurrection has been, and swer that nothing was well filled except always will be, the very holiest of duties. men's bellies; and the worst of all was in But if insurrection be the holiest of duties, the heads which were empty of brains— COMMON SENSE is the chief of privileges, empty of all knowledge and of all intel- and for men to go headlong and break lectual culture. Ignorance in high places themselves to pieces against an obstacle, causes ignorance in the ranks below-a instead of endeavoring to remove it by result at once logical and fatal-corrup- wise means, is to commit the treason of tion everywhere.
stupidity against reason. If the people had been properly educat- When the spirit of insurrection has taken ed, they would have insisted upon having possession of the soul of an entire people, the control of their own affairs, and would and has penetrated into the mass of those have been capable of managing them. people who are usually indifferent-when The war budget would never have been public opinion takes it up by anticipation allowed to absorb the funds for public —then the insurrection will be successful ; education; and if public education had then good sense will coöperate with duty. been attended to, it would have prevented This has been the case with those insurthe funds of the war budget from going to gents who have borne the names of Washsupply the extravagances of imperial cour- ington, Bolivar, Garibaldi, and earned their triumphs. It was thus that the re- servants of England; those who have paid volutions of '89, 1830, 1848, and the 4th the Pritchard indemnity are not likely to of September, 1870, were successful. Pub- equip a fleet and come to the assistance of lic opinion was so thoroughly in accord Ireland. with the rights of the people, that in cer- Bonapartism? Born in the blood of tain cases, as for example in that of Ga- December and fallen into the mud of ribaldi, the Government was the soul of Sedan, it will never be restored; and even the insurrection.
if it were, what could it do for Ireland ? This brings me naturally to speak of It is better for it that Bonaparte should Ireland. Ireland will never enfranchise remain buried forever in his blood-stained herself by means of violent insurrection, and polluted shroud. The personal friend but only by a general agreement of opin- of the Queen of England, the ally of the ion. It is the English revolution which Crimean war, the free-trader
, the special will enfranchise Ireland; it is by identi- constable who beat the Chartists, he would fying the interests and uniting the British never see in the people of Ireland any Isles in fraternity that Ireland will succeed. thing but people who were poorly clad, Thus Fenianism ought to mingle and ill-conducted, hungry, and poor. All these coalesce with the advanced Liberal party things are what he the most detests. in England. This is what I endeavored One of his ministers and friends, who to promote in 1867, and in which I was was my friend before he was his, clapped partially successful, by inducing certain his hands and applauded when he heard Fenian chiefs to join with some of the my project of fighting for Ireland; beheads of the Reform League.
cause he was in those days crippled with The two elements, Celtic and Saxon, debt, and a revolutionist. Since that time as represented by Ireland and England, Napoleon has paid his debts, made him a are each the complement of the other. minister, and given him an estate; at this England will never begin a revolution of moment Clément Duvernois is at the head herself, and Ireland by herself will never of a Spanish bank. If he were capable of bring one to a successful result; but, unit- blushing, he would blush that he ever ed, they could both begin one and carry knew me, and that he had ever applauded it through to the end; which is to say, our attempts to raise an insurrection. that if united they would succeed.
There is nothing to be hoped for from Once free from the hindrances and en- that quarter. cumbrances of mutual prejudices, inde- There remains the Republican party, pendent, and yet federally united, what with all its shades and half-shades. more could Ireland desire ? Any other On the whole, Ireland is looked upon combination is purely chimerical, both as by the Republican party as a nest of Caregards means or results.
tholicism to be stifled rather than encourHow can Ireland hope to achieve her aged. own enfranchisement single-handed ? And Then there is the Republican party of whence can she expect to obtain help? Gambetta, of the Lauriers, of Jules Simon, From France ? or from America ? From and tutti quanti
. France ? Poor France ! she has enough It is all nothing but Bonapartism withto do not to sink beneath her own bur- out its trappings; it is the continuation of den. Eaten up as she is with a social the old grinding down of the people, for gangrene, she has no strength to spare to the luxury of the few. take thought for others. Besides, who Egoism never put arms into the hands amid all the parties in France knows or of any, except those of kings and empercares about Ireland ?
M. de Boissy and those things of which Socialism remains; it is the party of lahe was the representative ?—the dregs of bor. Laborers work, and never fight but the last of the Voltigeurs of Louis XIV.; for themselves except when they see the l'aile de pigeon and the talon rouge ; le roy moon at midday, as in 1830, and 1848, spelled with a y, and l’ostel, which most and in 1870; they came to their senses in people write l'hôtel ! It is easy to cal- 1871. culate the influence of this party in If the Commune spoke to me of FenianFrance. As to the adherents of Orlean- ism as an accusation, it is well to observe, ism, they are traditionally the very humble first, that it was the majority who accused
me, and it was the minority who defended ligious bigotry, which was incompatible me; and the majority were not Socialists, with the institutions of the country, and but Jacobins; it was only the minority who only desired to get rid of you; do you were Socialists. Secondly, that the mem- suppose the Republican party would arm, bers of the majority were so ignorant that or allow an expedition to arm itself, for they did not know the first elements of your benefit ? Fenianism; they talked for the sake of Besides, the Republican party is, of all talking, without knowing what they were the parties, the most conservative. The saying. Even if they had succeeded (which most conservative! that seems strange. was not possible) in founding any govern- The Republican party, chiefly composed ment at all, the first thing they would have of men who have become rich; desires done would have been to anathematize peace at any price, to have the free enjoyCatholic Ireland.
ment of luxury—the full efflorescence of Believe me, O Irishmen, when I say egoism. The egoism of the capitalist makes that you have absolutely nothing to hope peace at any price his watchword, and it or expect from France.
constitutes his platform. To the capitalist, Now let us look at America.
if you are a source of embarrassment in one I do not find there any one who loves respect, you have a marketable value in you. The Democratic party, knowing the another. You can work; therefore you influence of New York over the other parts are a mine that can be worked to advanof the Union, has used you for its own pur- tage. You can bring in some profit; thereposes, and nothing more. To get your fore you are worth keeping; for before all votes it has traded on your poverty, and other things they are traders. has helped on your demoralization by The Republican party, like the DemoWHISKY. The bars in New-York—the real cratic party, is used up. It has had its electoral temples of the Democratic party day. Filled and stuffed full with dollars, -were your sanctuaries; you had the it is dying with plethora and indigestion. right of asylum in them. Murder was Let one or two more presidental elections sheltered there, but what about hun- pass over, and the party will transform itger?
self into another shape and make way
for What has Democracy done for you when another combination. This great party detheir party was in power ? Did they even, sires to absorb into itself all the best eleas they did for Cuba, arm or allow the ments of the old parties. Let me not be smallest force to arm itself?
misunderstood. To the United States beDid they furnish Ireland, as they did longs, in virtue of their liberty, the solution Cuba, with a Walker or a Lopez? No. of the great problem of the nineteenth cenThe reason is not far to seek. The men tury: What are the equitable relations forming the party are, and only can be, between labor and capital ?" egoists.
Already Wendell Phillips has taken the Oppressed in Ireland, you emigrated to initiative and placed his splendid eloquence America, where you obtained votes, and and generous heart on the side of justice. supplied agricultural and other rough la- After having fought victoriously for the bor.
emancipation of the Negro race, he will Consequently you have a value. again fight and conquer for the emancipa
Enfranchised Ireland would recall all tion of white labor. her sons, and keep them with her—a loss I declared at the beginning of this paper for the United States in general, and for the solidarity that exists between the rights the Democratic party in particular. You and liberties of all. The enfranchisement know now that you will never be enfran- of the black race ought to lead inevitably chised by the Democratic party, nor by the to the setting free of the slave who is white. United States in a body.
The social party in America will conquer. The Democratic party is not any longer But does it thence follow that this party in the ascendant, and probably never will will come to the help of Ireland against be again. After the scandals of the Irish- England ? No! no ! a thousand times Democratic administration in New-York, no! can you hope that the Republican party, Help thyself, Irishman, and Heaven will which never either loved or esteemed you, help thee! In other words, make a beginbecause of your drunkenness and your re- ning by trying to obtain instruction, and