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been at work to bring this change about. The ciety in which it prevailed. Thus the Continental education which the Roman considered proper and Saxons, in the days of Charlemagne, evidently decorous for his daughters was the same now as it paid the greater part of their tribute in cattle and had been in the early days of the Republic, when, produce rather than in coined money, and the amid a tribe of herdsmen and shepherds, the value of the animal according to his age and conhighest praise that could be placed as an epitaph dition, with the amount of grain or honey passing on the tomb of a deceased matron, was the state for a solidus, was carefully laid down in their ment that she who lay beneath had led a sober laws. The beast remained stationary in value and a pious life, had regulated her household with between autumn and spring, thriving little appardiligence, and had presided ably at the spinning- ently as a “winter-steal" upon bad hay; but the wheel, untouched by foreign manners, careless of valuations in Ini's laws are not repeated in any of what occurred abroad; and, finally, that she had the later English codes, and the custom of estibeen the wife of only one lord and master, and mating payments in cattle would appear to have had never sought a second matrimonial alliance. died out in the South-country at a comparatively Innocence such as this, grounded on simple hab- early period, its cessation dating at any rate from its, and preserved by ignorance, might indeed be the establishment of a royal moneyer in the most maintained by the rude farmers of Latium-among important burghs, if not before. In the Welsh the citizens of what was then 'merely the capital and Scottish laws, however, of a much later date, of an Italian tribe. But when once the highly assessments were still reckoned by “the cow," as cultivated nations of the East began to pour their well as by the penny, the ox, and the shilling, treasures into the open bosom of the queen of the and nowt-geld long continued to be the “ custom Mediterranean, such innocence and ignorance of the country" in the north of England; for, at could no longer be of any avail, even had men the date of the Conquest, there was but one mint been in earnest in their endeavors to preserve in existence-at York-throughout the whole of them. “Conquered Greece led her conquerors the great Northumbrian provinces and St. Cuthcaptive” in morals no less than in philosophy and bert's territory, whilst, in the wild western disin art; and now the softer manners and the loos- tricts, gradually known as the counties of Cumer morals of the Ægean were transferred to the berland and Westmoreland, cornage continued to hills among which Curius had tilled his farm, and be nearly the only tenure for several generations Camillus driven his oxen.
after the Norman Conquest.-From “ Historical
Essays." By E. William Robertson. EARLY SUBSTITUTES FOR A COINAGE.-Skillful armorers were still unknown amongst the BIBLIOMANIA.-A novel entertainment was lateFranks in the middle of the sixth century, be- ly afforded the Troy Scientific Association at cause they were not wanted, and, for a similar their monthly meeting, which took place at the reason, some time must have elapsed before the residence of Irving Browne, where they listened monetarius, as a skillful craftsman, penetrated to the reading of an essay on “ Bibliomania" by beyond the boundaries of the old Roman prov- Mr. Browne. The subject was illustrated by inces. Various substitutes, however, existed for books and prints from the reader's library, which a metallic currency, or rather coinage. Cattle were shown, as he remarked, for the same reason passed from very early times at a fixed value for that the temperance lecturer carried about with money, feoh, or pecunia ; hence the high valua- him his inebriate brother, as an example to be tions of the eye, the horn, and the tail, in Ini's avoided. Mr. Browne reviewed the history of laws, for “the best beast,” was always insisted book collecting, and enumerated the famous men upon, and a mutilated animal was “ bad money,” who acquired libraries, from Cicero to Marshal the malicious injurer of his neighbor's means of Jumot. He described the whims and peculiaripaying "rents and taxes” being apparently ties of collectors, especially in respect to the subamerced in the estimated amount of the depre. jects of large paper books, bindings, and " illusciation. A very ancient and widespread custom trating.” In regard to the pleasure derived from was that of reckoning the ox as a measure of cur- the pursuit of accumulating a library, he remarkrency. “Let him pay ten oxen,” says the law ed : "To constitute a bibliomaniac in the true of Draco, quoted by Pollux ; and in the well- sense, the love of books must combine with a cerknown lines of Homer, the golden armor of tain limitation of means for the gratification of the Glaucus, and the brazen armor of Diomed, are appetite. The disease is cunningly concealed in valued not in money, but in oxen. When a man the patient affected by it. The consciousness of a was bribed to silence, the Greeks used to say, certain amount of extravagance must be always “He has an ox on his tongue;" and though the present in his mind. In a rich man the disease learned choose to explain the proverb as if it re- can not be correctly evinced. He can not enter ferred to "a coin with the impress of an ox," the the kingdom of the bibliomaniac's heaven. There beast passed as money long before his image was is the same difference of sensation in the acquirestamped upon a bit of metal. This cattle-tribute ment of books by the wealthy man and by him of known in England as Nowt-geld, or Cornage, af- slender purse that there is to a fisherman between fords a very fair criterion of the state of the so- the taking of fish in a net and the successful result
of a long angling pursuit after one specially fat of minor importance, is nearer and quite direct : and evasive trout. To visit the metropolis ; to it descends through three steps. Brothers and haunt its book stores, there to see a long desired sisters are more closely connected; their descent work in luxurious and tempting style ; reluctant passes through only three parallel steps, though ly to abandon it on account of the price demand- it is derived from no less than four variable ed; to go home and dream about it, to wonder for sources-namely, the latent and personal contria year, or perchance longer, whether it will ever butions of either parent. again greet your eyes ; to conjecture what act of
FEMALE EDUCATION AT ZURICH.—The uni. desperation you might in heat of passion commit on some more affluent man in whose possession
versity of Zurich has, as is well known, led the you should thereafter find it; to have it turn up
way in the attempt to solve the problem of female again in another book shop, its charms slightly
university education. From a letter printed in faded but yet mellowed by age, like those of your
the National Gazette from Zurich, we observe that first love, met in after life, with this difference,
at present out of some 400 students at the univerhowever, that whereas you crave those of the book
sity there are eighty ladies in attendance, most of
them students of medicine. A large proportion more than ever, you are generally quite satisfied
of these ladies belong to Russia, where the move. with yourself for not having, through the green
ment in favor of female education has taken very ness of youth, yielded untimely to those of the
distinct shape, though they have not been able lady; to ask, with assumed indifference, the price, and learn, with ill-dissembled joy, that it is now
yet to establish a medical college of their own.
It would seem from the remarks of the writer of within your means; to say you'll take it; to place it beneath your arm; to emerge from that room
the letter that the lady students are hardly much with feelings akin to those of Ulysses when he
more in favor with their masculine companions at
Zurich than they have been at the university of brought away the Palladium from Troy; to keep a watchful eye on the parcel in the steamboat or
Edinburgh, although there have been none of the
discreditable scenes at the former by which the railroad cars on your way home; to gloat over the
latter has made itself notorious. The professors treasures of its pages, and wonder if the other
also are a good deal puzzled sometimes how to passengers have any idea of what a fortunate indi
proceed, and some of them do not hesitate to vidual you are ; and finally, to place the volume on your shelves and thenceforth call it your own;
speak openly in condemnation and discouragethis is indeed a pleasure denied to the affluent; so
ment of the lady medical students-remarks which keen as to be akin to pain, and only marred by
are sure to be applauded by the chivalrous males. the palling which always follows possession.”
So that, although Zurich has practically solved
the problem of female university education so BLOOD-RELATIONSHIP.-Mr. Francis Galton
far, it would appear that the subject has intro
duced there as well as in Edinburgh not a little stated, the other night, in a memoir read before
discord, with also considerable perplexity and the Royal Society, that it had hitherto been im
dissatisfaction. possible to define the connection between relatives in a way that should do justice to the latent ele- APPARATUS FOR THE BLIND.-At a recent ments which every creature inherits and may be meeting of the Royal Scottish Society of Arts, a queath, but which give no sign of their existence communication was read from Mr. Albert Melin its own person. He showed that this difficulty drum, teacher of the blind, Alloa, describing an may be wholly avoided by the simple expedient of improved method of corresponding between blind tracing the intervals of descent from the very ori- persons. The invention consists of two parts gin of life in each generation, and not from one the upper having the types, with keys and levers adult person to another. There are three well. for moving them, and the lower containing the defined stages in each of these intervals-namely, paper-moving apparatus. The base of the upper the ovum in which all the elements are confounded part is a metal disk, with a circular hole in the and no structure exists, and the embryo, and the
centre. Around the central opening are arranged adult, in both of which they are separated into twenty-six little hammers, having on their strikpersonal and latent. The author described in de- ing surface copper types for embossing the paper. tail the character of the processes by which each The types are so arranged that they all strike at stage in either of the lines was derived from its the same place, namely, on the opening in the disk, predecessor. By protracting these stages into a and each hammer, after striking, is pulled back to genealogical diagram, the true relation of a man its original position by an india-rubber band. Each to either of his parents becomes quite clear. It of the keys represents a letter, and when any parhas a twofold character, one part passing by the ticular key is pressed down, the corresponding latent and the other by the personal line. The hammer strikes, and the type makes a mark on former was shown to be much the more import- the paper, which is stretched on a revolving drum ant, but it is only collateral because it will be found in a drawer below the disk. When one letter is to ascend through five steps to the parental ovum, impressed the drum is moved round by a handle and thence to descend through three other steps in front of the machine, and a plain surface is to the parental person. The personal line, though presented for the next stroke. When a line is
finished, the drawer in which the paper moves is caustic soda, produces rose colors of different pulled out one line. The machine is constructed shades, dependent on the amount of coralline to print Moon's type, but its principle is equally used. The only color which veneers will absorb, applicable to any other, especially to Braile's. without a previous treatment of soda, is silver After the paper had been read the machine was gray; this color is obtained by soaking them for a exhibited in operation, and worked very satisfac- day in a solution consisting of one part of prototorily.
sulphate of iron to 100 parts of water. HESPERUS.
PETRIFACTION OF THE BODY.—The New York THERE is a silence in the quiet woods,
Courrier des Etats Unis has the following stateThere is a holy stillness in the West,
ment: "The mortal remains of Mazzini, after the When day, contented, ere its farewell, floods The fields in tranquil light, and bids them rest. pretended burial at Genoa, have been intrusted to
Professor Gorini, who has undertaken the comThere is a silence in the weary town,
plete petrifaction of them within eight months. When frequent footsteps lessen one by one; To preserve the body for ages, and to give it all And last good nights have fainter, fewer grown, the appearance of life has been in Italy the preocAnd all the bustle of the day is done.
cupation of a number of scientific men. One may
say that it is a study peculiar to that country, Yet not the silence of the setting sun,
where it has been followed for many centuries, Nor all the twilight darkening with increase, and has produced incredible results. Professor Brings unto weary mortals, every one,
Gorini, whom,' says the Liberté we have known The tender comfort of a natural peace. personally, enjoys in this department uncontested The wild bird, tired of its song, may rest,
notoriety. He possesses a museum of bodies And hide its head within its trusty wing;
and of anatomical pieces of the most curious kinds, The early sun shall wake it from its nest
which we have frequently been to see, and the
merest superficial examination of which causes unTo-morrow morn it will as bravely sing,
utterable surprise. Certain mummifying operaThe flowers may close their petals for the night,
tions give to the body the strange property of reAnd stay their beauty in the dewy gloom;
suming all the appearances of sleep after it has Upon the glory of the morning light,
remained some hours in the water, and admit of More fresh, more fragrantly, the rose will the closest anatomical study of it. Other preparabloom.
tions give to the body the hardness of stone, and
enable it to resist humidity, the inclemency of the Yet not with men is such a dream of peace ;] seasons, and the combined action of heat and cold. The fierce thought racks throughout the silent The remains of Mazzini, in the hands of this skill. night;
ful operator, will escape disorganization, and reAnd longing, lingering cares without surcease, tain the sublime expression of the last hour.'» Wear on the troubled soul into the light.
-Once a Weck.
A RELIC OF SCOTT AND Burns.-In the
June number of Macmillan's Magazine, there is a COLORING VENEERS.-Veneers first soaked for single page with the signature “H. Bartle G. 24 hours in a solution of caustic soda containing Frere," a name that guarantees the accuracy of 10 per cent of soda and boiled therein for half an
the writer's statement. He publishes eight lines hour, and afterward washed with sufficient water of verse by Sir Walter Scott. They form a kind to remove the alkali, may be dyed throughout of introduction to Burns' “Address to Robert their mass. This treatment with soda effects a Bruce before Bannockburn.” Sir Walter thought general disintegration of the wood, whereby it be that the opening of those beautiful lines was "too comes, in the moist state, elastic and leather-like, abrupt,” and that Burns would, on consideration, and ready to absorb any pigment. After dyeing have prefaced them with some words showing the the wood must be dried between sheets of paper notation. Scott, talking over this with a friend, and subjected to pressure to retain its shape. hastily penciled the sort of thing he meant, and Veneers treated in this way and placed for 24 his lines are before us. This is a literary anechours in a hot decoction of logwood, then dyed dote of great interest, and as such it is most wel. superficially and subjected to another solution, come. Scott on Burns must be listened to with consisting one part of proto-sulphate of iron dis- especial reverence: solved in 30 parts of water, will, at the expiration of 24 hours, become beautifully and completely
“* By Bannockburn proud Edward lay; dyed black. A solution of part of picric acid in
The Scots they were na far away,
Just waiting for the break o'day, 60 parts of water, with a small quantity of ammo
To show them which were best. nia, produces a beautiful yellow, which is not The sun rose o'er the purple heath, changed by subsequent varnishing. Coralline And lighted up the field of death, dissolved in hot water, with the addition of one
When Bruce wi' soul-inspiring breath,
His soldiers thus addrest: fifth of its volume of silicate of soda and a little ""Scots wha hae wi' Wallace bled,'" etc.