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I find that attraction in such doctrines as dulge in compromises is a rooted one. It these, which are laid down by him : “In has its origin in the very depths of their the Positivist phase the mind, convinced of nature. As I have intimated before, they the futility of all inquiry into causes and do not like pushing things to extremes. essences, restricts itself to the observation They like to get on, somehow or other, and classification of phenomena, and to the with the business that is before them; and discovery of the invariable relations of compromise always seems to be progress. succession and similitude which things Then, again, those who are masters of the bear to each other: in a word, to the dis- situation, who feel that they have the covery of the laws of phenomena."* commanding vote, whenever it may come
Now, some of the most important phe- to the point of voting, are often inclined nomena in the world are in the domain of to be generous, and would be glad if the the personal: which have regard to the measure they advocate could be passed personality both of individuals and of na- with something like an appearance of tions. It was to these phenomena that unanimity. On the whole, therefore, this such men as Bacon, Macchiavelli, and inclination of ours in favor of compromise Goethe largely devoted their attention is a good thing, and has often prevented when dealing with questions relating to outbreaks of passion, and great ruptures government.
in public affairs. How all-important is this question of But there are drawbacks. It is not personality when the choice of men for the every matter that will admit of comprohighest situations is to be made! A man, mise; and it often requires great discernmuch versed in the discernment of human ment to decide when a question admits of character, chooses another man, also well compromise, and when it does not. There versed in that great art of life, and hence- are matters in which compromise is adforth, while that well-chosen man rules mirable—as, for instance, when there is over the greatest Viceroyalty of the earth, submitted to a legislative body some social millions of human beings are tolerably or political measure, affecting closely the well governed.
wishes, interests, or even the prejudices, of I can not also help remarking that re- large bodies in the State, and respecting cent events of great magnitude show how where there is wide difference of opinion much necessity there is for studying the throughout the land. Then compromise personal character, if I may so express it, may justly be adopted as affording a wise of nations.
and peaceful solution of the difficulty—a solution which, if not final, may be expected to remain undisturbed for a considerable
time. I SUPPOSE that every writer is prone to exaggerate the importance of the subject
As a general rule, compromises are which immediately occupies his attention. good in legislation and bad in adminisPerhaps he would hardly write with suffi
tration. cient vigor if it were not for the stimulus
I will now give an instance of the unfitafforded by this exaggeration. Though I ness of compromise in a matter of adminisam very averse to throwing adjectives tration. Suppose that a government deabout carelessly, I fear that I have often partment is being re-organized, and that it used the word " important” rather indiscri
is thought advisable to place certain duties, minately, applying it to each division of and certain clear and definite responsithe general subject I have been treating.
bilities, upon a newly-created officer in And now this subject of " compromise,” that department. These duties and these I must own, seems to me of the highest responsibilities at present
, however, partly importance; for it not only enters largely
belong to some other officer, or some into the ordinary affairs of daily life, but section of the department; and for the is certainly to be found in full vigor in sake of peace, and with a view of getting the greatest matters relating to govern- and these said duties are not wholly sev
something done, compromise is employed, ment. The habit of the English people to in- ered from that old officer, or section of
the department. Every body will see at * Comte's " Philosophy of the Sciences." By
once that much mischief may ensue as the G. H. Lewes. Sect. I., p. 11.
effect of compromise in this particular case.
Again, as regards matters of account, I for compromise, but also the exact nature have known the greatest confusion, and and extent of your convictions respecting ultimately great evil
, to arise from the it. A subject may in itself be unfitted for want of clear definition of duties and re- compromise. Again, it may be suitable sponsibilities. And, when you trace the for compromise on the part of other peomischief to its source, you are nearly sure ple, but not on your part, on account of to find that it originated in an unwhole- the opinions which you hold in regard to some spirit of compromise—in fact, in ap- this subject. Again, it may be a subject plying compromise to some transaction respecting which your views would allow which did not admit of any compromise you, however unwillingly, to enter into a whatever. Now this is a thing which compromise. Those views, however, exEnglish statesmen have much to beware tend into other objects of great importof. Being addicted to compromise in po- ance, and if you compromise here, you litical affairs and in social measures-also must compromise there, in pari materiâ, as members of Parliament, being often and this you are by no means prepared to obliged to make compromises with their do. constituents—their minds get into a habit To take an instance: It is proposed to of compromising, and they are under the abrogate a law which prevents the mardomination of that habit on occasions riage of a man with his deceased wife's when they should totally discard it. sister. Many people will say, as I do,
The lover of compromise may take an that this is not a question which in itself objection, which appears very plausible at admits of compromise. Whichever side first sight, to the foregoing course of argu- we may take in the controversy, most of ment. He may say, “ Compromise is not us have come to that conclusion. But surrender. I, at any rate, contrive to suppose, just for the sake of argument, carry my views partially into effect. My that some ingenious person, who dotes opponent has gone a bit, if but a small bit, upon compromise, should have invented a of the road on which I wished that we mode of introducing his favorite remedy should travel together; and, so far, some in the case of this vexed question. Supgood has resulted from compromise.” pose he should say: “It is unwise to allow
There is, however, an answer to this men, as a general rule, to marry their detrain of reasoning, which in many cases is ceased wives' sisters; but we will make an a complete answer, and which, in almost exception for poor and plain men—poverty all cases, requires to be carefully consider- and plainness to be defined in the schedule ed. It is this—that you, the compromiser, to the bill,” where, as I have often observhave, as it were, shot your bolt. You ed, the special difficulties of an Act of Parhave made an effort which most probably liament are conveniently placed in comcan not be made again with the same vi- parative obscurity. Our compromising gor. Moreover, you may never have the friend would argue in this way: “The opportunity of making it again. How poor and plain man would naturally have often this must apply to the case of a a difficulty in finding a second wife, but Minister of State. He does not, perhaps, his deceased wife's sister, having regard to remain long enough in office to remedy her little nephews and nieces, and being, the ill effects of an injudicious compromise perhaps, somewhat accustomed to the tirein some matter which, as I before said, some ways of the man, may kindly put up did not admit of any compromise at all. with him as a husband.” He had far better have left the thing alone; I have chosen a rather strange and lucontent to wait for an opportunity, either dicrous mode of compromise, which only for himself or his successor, of effecting serves to illustrate how difficult, to my his object thoroughly.
mind, any compromise at all would be in The question of compromise or non- this matter. compromise is often one of the thorniest The compromise is, however, proposed; possible. Its ramifications are very exten- and some kindly souls might say: “Let sive, and it can not be exhausted by a few us take any compromise we can get in apt illustrations, as it deals with every this matter. We shall be doing something variety of circumstance in human life. at least for the poor and plain men.” If,
Moreover, you have not only to con- however, your convictions, reader, are as sider the nature of the subject submitted strong as mine upon this matter, you could not listen to any compromise, but must which demand the application of the same insist upon a total maintenance or a total principles as those upon which your conabrogation of the present law.
victions in this matter are based. Again, speaking generally, your convic- If you give way here, you may find tions as regards any question submitted to hereafter that you are subject to a surprise you may not be so clear and strong as to upon your opinions in relation to these render you absolutely adverse to any com- kindred subjects. In short, there is nothpromise relating to it alone, as you might ing which requires more to be considered say. But remember that no large ques- in making any compromise than whether tions, and indeed very few questions of it is final in its nature, and what conany kind, are of an isolated nature. Even cessions in the future are, logically at if you are willing to abandon principle in least involved in your present comprothe particular case, you have deeply to mise. consider whether you could prudently and Those compromises alone are perfectly rightly do so, bearing in mind other ques- safe which have no continuity of comprotions which are of a kindred nature, and mise involved in them.
During the present month (May) an and Mercury, played parts of equal imevening star, which some may mistake for portance. the planet of love, will adorn the western Let it be carefully remembered, then, skies for several hours after sunset. This that the four planets which circle nearest orb is not, however, the true Hesperus, nor to the sun,—the family of which our earth does it shine with equal lustre. *It is the is a member,—differ in all their characternoble planet Jupiter, the giant of the so- istics from the outer family (also consisting lar system, itself the centre of a system of of four planets) to which Jupiter belongs. orbs whose movements, under the mighty The whole of the inner family—the whole influence of their ruling centre, resemble in of the space within which its members regularity the motions of the planets round travel-could be placed between the paths the sun. We propose to give a brief of Jupiter and his next neighbor Saturn, sketch of what is known respecting this with a clear space many millions of miles planet, the only member of the solar sys. wide on either side. The actual area between tem,—or rather of the better known part the paths of Jupiter and Saturn exceeds of that scheme,—which chances, at the nearly thirty times the whole area within present time, to be well placed for observa- which the four lesser planets pursue their tion. Much has been discovered during paths. And when we consider the dimenthe last few years,—nay, even during the sions of the four inner planets we find a like last few months,—to render such a sketch disproportion. Four circles representing interesting
these orbs can be inclosed within a circle We must, in the first place, dispossess representing Uranus, the smallest of the ourselves of the notion, not uncommonly four outer planets; yet even this circumentertained, that Jupiter is one of a family stance does not adequately represent the of orbs, nearly equal in dignity and im- enormous disparity between the two famportance, and comprising the Earth and ilies of planets; for, in fact, the volume of Venus, Mars and Mercury, among its Uranus exceeds the combined volume of members. This idea still prevails, because all the inner planets upwards of thirty times. in our books on astronomy we commonly We might adduce many other illustrations see a set of concentric circles at regularly of the complete dissimilarity between the increasing distances, assigned as the paths inner and outer families of planets; but of the several planets of the solar system. what has been already stated will suffice And besides, there yet remains in the mod- for our present purpose. It will be eviern teaching of astronomy a perceptible dent that in considering the members trace of the ancient astronomical systems, of one or other family, we must be prein which Saturn and Jupiter, Mars, Venus, pared to meet with relations which differ not merely in degree, but in kind. compared with the mid-latitudes in either We may thus, at the outset, dismiss from hemisphere, -affords a striking illustration our thoughts the idea that the planet Ju- of the enormous amount of energy really piter is necessarily to be regarded as an in- represented by the rotation of Jupiter. It habited world merely because the only may also be added that the velocity with planet we are actually acquainted with is which points on Jupiter's equatorial zone inhabited. The latter circumstance may are carried round, exceeds the correspondbe an excellent reason for regarding Marsing velocity in the case of all the planets or Venus as the abode of life; but the an- in the solar system, and is nearly six times alogy can no more be extended to Jupiter greater than the equatorial velocity of the than to the fixed stars, which certainly are sun himself. It amounts, in fact, to about not inhabited worlds. We must, in fact, 7} miles per second ! consider the physical habitudes of Jupiter We do not propose to consider here at independently of all conceptions based up- any length the system of satellites over on terrestrial analogies. Studied thus, he which Jupiter bears sway; but this prelimwill be found, as we conceive, to hold a inary sketch would be incomplete without position in the scheme of creation differing a few words on the subject. It is worthy considerably from that which has been as- of notice that although our earth in some signed to him, until of late, in treatises on sort resembles the outer planets in being astronomy.
accompanied by a satellite, yet the relaIt is necessary briefly to state the dimen- tion which our moon bears to the earth is sions, mass, and general characteristics of altogether different from that which the the planet, before proceeding to discuss its satellites of the outer planets bear to their probable physical condition.
respective primaries. Our moon is by no Jupiter has a diameter exceeding the means a minute body by comparison with earth's rather more than ten times, and a the earth, and compared with Mars or volume exceeding hers 1230 times. It is Mercury she may be regarded as having not far from the truth to say that Jupiter's very respectable dimensions. We may, indimensions exceed the earth's in very near- deed, look upon the moon as a fifth memly the same degree that those of the sun ber of the inner family of planets,-a memexceed Jupiter's. But his mass, though ber inferior to the rest, doubtless, but still gigantic compared with the earth's, does not so far inferior to Mercury as Mercury not altogether correspond to his bulk, for is inferior to the earth. In the case of the it exceeds the mass of the earth only three outer planets, however, and especially in hundred times. So that, if the disk our Jupiter's case, moons hold an utterly suastronomers see and measure, actually rep- bordinate position. Taking the accepted resents the true globe of the planet, his measurements, we find the largest of Jupisubstance must be, on the average, much ter's moons less than the 16,00oth part of less dense than that of the earth. In fact, its primary as respects bulk, while its mass while the earth's density is nearly six times or weight is less than the 11,000th part of as great as that of water, the density of Jupiter's. * So that these orbs may fairly Jupiter (thus judged) would exceed that of be regarded as bearing the same relation to water by barely one third. This vast their primary that Jupiter himself bears to globe rotates in less than ten hours on an his primary,—the sun. It will be seen presaxis nearly upright or square to the level ently that this consideration is an import. in which the planet travels. This rapidity ant one. of rotation,-so great that points on the But the great interest of the study of planet's equator travel twenty-seven times Jupiter resides in the fact that being the as fast as points on the terrestrial equator, nearest of the outer family of planets, the -results in a considerable flattening of the planet's globe; insomuch that the polar * It is not uncommonly stated in our textdiameter is less than the equatorial by books of astronomy, that the density of Jupiter's about a twelfth part, or by fully 7,000 Lardner goes so far as to say that the density of miles. And it may be remarked in pass- the matter composing these satellites is much ing, that this circumstance—the fact, name- smaller than that of any other body of the system ly, that the poles of the planet are drawn in, whose density is known." But this is a mistake.
All the satellites, save one, are of greater density as it were, 3500 miles as compared with
than Jupiter, and that one-the innermost-is the equatorial regions, or 1750 miles as denser than Saturn, Uranus or Neptune.
aspect of his globe supplies the best avail- ent from the earth's, yet the direct heat fallable means for determining the conditioning on the planet's oceans can not be inof the giant orbs constituting that family. creased in this way-nay, it must be rath
The first feature which strikes us in the er diminished. It chances, indeed, that telescopic aspect of the planet is the pres- the very quality by which the earth's atence of a series of belts, lying parallel to mosphere retains the solar heat is unquesthe planet's equator. Usually the equa- tionably possessed by Jupiter's atmosphere. torial regions are occupied by a broad When our air is full of aqueous vapor (inbright belt, of a creamy white color, and visible to the eye) the escape of heat is bordered on the north and south by cop- prevented, as Tyndall has shown, and thus per-colored belts. Beyond these, again, the nights are warmer than where the air lie alternate bright and dark belts, the is dry. Now in Jupiter's atmosphere there dark belts growing more and more blueish is much water, for observers armed with in hue as the pole is approached, while that wonderful instrument, the spectrothe poles themselves are usually of a some- scope, have recognized the very same dark what decided blue color in telescopes bands upon the spectrum of the planet adapted to display such features to ad- which appear in the solar spectrum when vantage. There are commonly two dark the sun is low down, and therefore shining belts on each hemisphere.
through the lower and denser atmospheric Now, before inquiring into the peculiar- strata. The spectroscopist knows that ities presented by these belts, and into the these bands are due to the aqueous vapor remarkable changes which have been not- in the air, because Janssen saw the very ed in their general aspect, it may be well same bands when he examined the specfor us to consider briefly what such belts trum of a powerful light shining through seem to imply. That they are due to pe- tubes filled with steam. So that there is culiarities in the planet's atmosphere is ad- the vapor of water and that, too, in enormitted on all hands. And it has been mous quantities—in the atmosphere of usual to compare them with the trade- Jupiter. But though we thus recognize wind zones, and the great equatorial calm the very quality necessary for an atmoszone on our earth. The bright belts, ac- phere which is to retain the solar heat, our cording to this view, are regarded as zones difficulty is not a whit lessened; for it is where for the time clouds are prevalent, as difficult how to understand how the inthe dark belts being regions where the visible aqueous vapor finds its way thus comparatively dark hues of the planet's into the planet's atmosphere, as to undersurface are brought to view. And then it stand how the great cloud-masses are has been deemed sufficient to point out, formed. that the parallelism of the zones is due to Aqueous vapor in the atmosphere, the extreme rapidity of the planet's rota- whether its presence is rendered sensible to tion.
the sight or not, implies the action of heat. But setting aside the fact that the trade- Other things being equal, the greater the wind zones and the great equatorial calm heat the greater the quantity of watery vapor zone on our earth are, in reality, little bet- in the air. In the summer, for instanceter than meteorological myths, it must be though many imagine the contrary—there regarded as a remarkable fact that, in the is much more of such vapor in the air than case of a planet so far away from the sun there is in winter, the greater heat of the as Jupiter is, there should be a supply of air enabling it to keep a greater quantity clouds so abundant as to form belts dis- of the vapor in the invisible form. In cernible from the earth. Jupiter is rather winter, clouds are more common, and more than five times farther from the sun the air seems moister; yet, in reality, the than the earth is, and receives from him quantity of aqueous vapor is reduced. Now about one twenty-seventh part of the light it can not but be regarded as a remarkand heat which falls upon the earth, (equal able circumstance that, though the sun surface for equal surface.) Making every supplies Jupiter with only one twentyallowance for the possibility pointed out by seventh part of the heat which we receive, Professor Tyndall, that some quality in there should yet be raised from the oceans Jupiter's atmosphere may prevent the so- of Jupiter such masses of clouds as to form lar heat from escaping, and so cause the veritable zones; and that, moreover, above climate of the planet to be not very differ- these clouds there should be so large a