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enough to supply room for many millions which actually conceal the sun from imof living creatures, we should not merely mense regions of the planet for years tofind a raison d'étre for the outer planets, gether in the very heart of the winter of but we should be far better able to explain those regions, is satisfactorily solved when their purpose in the scheme of creation the Saturnian satellites are regarded as the than on any theory hitherto put forward abodes of life, and Saturn himself as the respecting them. Jupiter as an abode of source of a considerable proportion of life is a source of wonder and perplexity, their heat-supply. We do not say that, in and his satellites seem scarcely to serve thus exhibiting the Jovian and Saturnian any useful purpose. He appears as a systems in a manner which accords with bleak and desolate dwelling-place, and our ideas respecting the laws of life in the they together supply him with scarcely a universe, we have given irrefragable testitwentieth part of the light which we're- mony in favor of our theory. That theory ceive from our moon at full. But regard- must stand or fall according to the eviing Jupiter as a miniature sun, not indeed dence in its favor or against it. But so possessing any large degree of inherent long as men believe that there is design in lustre, but emitting a considerable quan- the scheme of the universe, they will be tity of heat, we recognize in him the fit- readier to accept conclusions which exhiting ruler of a scheme of subordinate orbs, bit at once the major planets and their whose inhabitants would require the heat satellites as occupying an intelligible posiwhich he affords to eke out the small sup- tion in that scheme, than views which ply which they receive directly from the leave the satellites unaccounted for, and sun. The Saturnian system, again, is no present the giant planets themselves as longer mysterious when thus viewed. The very questionable abodes for any known strange problem presented by the rings, orders of living creatures.
BY ROBERT BUCHANAN.
Yet are there golden dawns and glassy days
And in the sea the gentle heaven doth gaze,
Faces there are around thy walls; and see ! With nights of peace, when, in a virgin haze,
west. They are the Faces of the strong and free ;
III. Prophets who on the car of Tempest ride;
WITHOUT AND WITHIN. Martyrs who drift amid the waters wide
On some frail raft, and pray on bended knee. The sea without, the silent room within,
On other walls let flush'd Bacchantes leer; I watch the storms die and the storms begin;
I see the white ships ghost-like come and go;
I wave a signal they may see and know, Lone House! for comfort, when the nights are As, crowding up on deck with faces thin, long,
The seamen pass,--some sheltered creek to win,
What prospect, then, on midnights dark and
Only to mark the beacon I have fed,
Whose cold streak glassily on the black sea
falls; around; Their sharp mouths foam, their frantic hands Only, while the dim lamp burns overhead,
To watch the glimmering Faces on the walls. wave high ; I hear around me a sad soul of sound,
The Face that frown'd the rights of realms
STORM AND CALM.
The Imperial forehead, filleted with gold.;
VIII. The arrogant chin, the lips of frozen clay.
ROBERT BROWNING. This is the later Cæsar, whose great day Was one long sunset in blood-ruby rolled, Bearded like some strong shipman, with a beam Till, on an ocean-island lone and gray,
Of gray orbs glancing upward at the sky, It sank unblest, forgotten, dead, and cold. O friend, thou standest, pondering thy theme,
Yea, this is he who swept from plain to plain, And watching, while the troublous days blow
Watering the harvest-fields with crimson rain ; by This is the Eagle who on garbage fed.
Their cloudy signs and portents; then thine eye Turn to the wall the pitiless eyes. Art, Falleth, and, reading with poetic gleam Thought,
The human lineaments that round thee lie, Law, Science, owed the monster less than
Peers to the soul, and softens into dream. nought;
O dweller in the winds and waves of life,
No nobler mariner may mortal meet!
Steadfast and sure thou movest thro' the strife,
Knowing the signs and symbols of the air,
Yet gentle as the dews about thy feet.
TO THE DELLA CRUSCANS.
Be your thin monotone, your brows flowerSad storm-cloud with God's Iris on his breast,
crown's, Across the troubled ocean traveled he,
Your backward-looking faces; for ye mar Sad was his passing! gentle be his rest!
The pregnant time with silly sooth of sound, God's Bow sails with him on another sea!
With flowers around the feverish temples
bound, At first no larger than a prophet's hand,
And withering in the close air of the feast. Against the dense insufferable blue
Take all the hot-house garlands ye have found, Clod-like he came; and by a fierce wind fanned, While Circe-charm’d ye turn to bird and beast. Didst gather into greatness ere we knew,
Meantime I sit apart, a lonely wight Then, flash by flash, most desolately grand,
On this bare rock amid this fitful sea,
And in the wind and rain I try to light
May gain the Ocean-course, and think of me! Friend Whitman! wert thou less serene and kind Surely thou mightest, (like our Bard sublime
X. Scorn'd by a generation deaf and blind,)
THE WANDERERS. Make thine appeal to the avenger, Time;
For thou art none of those who upward climb, God's blessing on poor ship-folk! Peace and Gathering roses with a vacant mind.
prayer Ne'er have thy hands for jaded triflers twined Fall on their eyelids till they close in sleep! Sick flowers of rhetoric and weeds of rhyme.
God send them gentle winds and summer air, Nay, thine hath been a Prophet's stormier' fate. For the great sea is treacherous and deep. While Lincoln and the martyr'd legions wait
Light me up lamps on every ocean-steep, In the yet widening blue of yonder sky,
Beacon the shallows with a living care. On the great strand below them thou art seen,
Ay me! the wind cries and the wild waves leap. Blessing, with something Christ-like in thy mien, And on they drive-God knows-they know not A sea of turbulent lives that break and die !
Come Poets ! come, O Prophets ! yea, disown
The phantasies and phantoms ye pursue !
Lights! lights ! with fatal snares the sea is
sown. O Faces ! that look forward, eyes that spell Guide the poor ship-folk lone beneath the blue.
The future time for signs, what see ye there? Nay, do not light for Lazarus alone,
THE WATCHER OF THE BEACON.
Will morning glimmer soon, and all be fair ? Watcheth all weathers o'er the beacon-light. O Faces ! ye are pale, and somewhat sad,
Ah! woe to him if, mad with his own mind, And in your eyes there swim the fatal tears ; He groweth sick for scenes more sweet and But on your brows the dawn gleams cold and bright; hoar.
For round him, in the dreadful winter night, I, too, gaze forward, and my heart grows glad; The snow drifts, and the waves beat, and the wind. I catch the comfort of the golden years;
Shrieks desolately, while with feeble sight I see the Soul is safe for evermore!
He readeth some old Scripture left behind
By those who sat before him in that place, Dim with the peace that starry twilights weave, And in their season perish'd, one and all. . . It riseth, and the storm is hush'd and o'er. Wild raves the wind: the Faces on the wall Trembling I feed my feeble lamp once more,
Seem phantoms: features dark and dim to trace. Tho' all be placid as a summer eve. He starteth up-he tottereth-he would fall, See there it moves where weary waters grieve,When, lo! the gleam of one Diviner Face ! O mariners ! look yonder and adore ! XII.
Spirit, grow brighier on my nights and days;
Shine out of heaven; my guide and comfort be: AND THE SPIRIT OF GOD MOVED UPON THE Pilot the wanderers through the ocean ways : WATERS."
Keep the stars steadfast, and the waters free: O Faces ! fade upon the wall, and leave
Lighten thy lonely creature while he prays : This only, for the watcher to implore.
Keep his Soul strong amid the mighty Sea!
That respect for the will of the major- found in the pages of Harper's Magazine, ity which is inculcated by democratic in- there is not one the object of which is to stitutions, has exercised a decided influ- call attention to this national trait. On ence over the social, no less than the poli- the contrary, the narrators of the various tical, life of the people of the United stories are obviously quite unconscious of States. It has not only had the effect of its existence; and yet, how frequently does preventing the development of individual- it manifest itself! The individuals, indeed, ity of character, but it has also consider who figure in the majority of the anecably modified that obstinacy of temper dotes referred to, do not belong to the edwhich is one of the most strongly-marked ucated classes, and the language they make characteristics of the so-called Anglo-Sax- use of is, frequently, neither elegant nor on race.
grammatical; but their readiness to ad“An Englishman never knows when mit themselves to have been in error is he is beaten,” one often hears it trium- unmistakable, and finds expression in such phantly said in this country. But this phrases as, “ Well, I own the corn;" “You very unwillingness to admit defeat, how- have me there, and no mistake;" “ You ever admirable a quality on the battle- may take my hat;" “ I'm dead beat, and field, is not quite so desirable a one in so- that's a fact," etc. cial life, when it assumes the form of an One result of the absence of marked inutter deafness to reason and argument. dividuality of character in the United
Now, the inhabitants of the American States is the circumstance that, in 'social Union are singularly devoid of this dogged life, people—to use a colloquialism—“get tenacity of opinion. Mr. Disraeli said on on” together better than they do here, one occasion in the House of Commons, where a man's idiosyncrasies are very apt that a friend of his, who had spent some to clash with those of his neighbor. time in the United States, had declared it When, in fact, Benjamin Franklin said, to be his conviction that the Americans “No house is large enough to hold two “ were the most tractable people in the families,” he uttered an aphorism suggestworld.” And in saying this, he did them ed by the experience of many years' resino more them simple justice.
dence in England, or, if warranted as reThis phase of the national character gards his own land, warranted simply by finds, indeed, an illustration in one de- the fact that the influence of her new inpartment of American literature. Let the stitutions had not yet had time to make reader take up any collection of anecdotes itself generally felt. For there is no counfrom the States, and he will, if he looks a try—not even France-where various famlittle below the surface, almost invariably ilies can and do live in such harmony undiscover in it evidence of the readiness der the same roof as in the United States. with which the American, when in the In the larger cities especially, where housewrong or worsted in argument, admits rents are exceedingly high, it is frequently himself to be so. The evidence in ques. the case that the married sons and daughtion is all the more reliable from the fact ters of a family will live in the same house that it is purely incidental. Of the many with their parents, for years in succession, thousand anecdotes, for instance, to be in peace and quietness.
A mother-in-law, again, is far from being grown-up young folks in the United States. the bête noire in the States that she is in And why? Because they are spoilt, to be this country, where there seems to exist a sure! I say to you, get the confidence of species of chronic antagonism between yours—before the day comes of revolt and most married men and their wives' moth- independence, after which love returneth ers. “Strange infatuation of the human not." intellect !" says Thackeray, “there is, not Unquestionably, the law of primogeniunfrequently, a period in a man's life, be- ture has influenced, in some measure, the fore marriage, when, so far from regarding relations existing between father and son his future mother-in-law with dislike, he in this country. The younger members of positively feels a certain degree of affec- a family can, indeed, scarcely fail to feel,
Was it not Douglas Jer- and tacitly, at least, resent, the invidious rold, too, who said, that on “ the day of a distinction made, both by law and custom, woman's marriage her mother should sac- in favor of the first-born. It is not simply rifice herself at the altar as a propitiatory that in the case of entailed estates the bulk offering to secure her son-in-law's future of the property goes to the one son, but happiness?” Indeed, English literature is only too frequently all the father's love, full of references to the incompatibility pride, and aspirations for the future of the supposed to exist between the members family seem centered in the heir, to the of a family standing in the above relations exclusion of his other children, who, as to each other.
near to him in blood, should be equally This state of feeling certainly does not so in affection. To aggrandize his future prevail to any appreciable extent in Amer- successor, that he may be enabled to ica, as will be seen from the following sustain handsomely the family name and slight anecdote, which pretty fairly illus- position, the interests of his younger brethtrates the difference of national sentiment ren are not unseldom sacrificed. Of this on the subject.
feeling we recently had an illustration; In the clever two-act comedy entitled when a nobleman, whose rent-roll has The Little Treasure, part of the plot hin- been estimated at over four hundred ges on the fact that a husband has quar- thousand pounds per annum, left nearly reled with his wife on account of the inter- the whole of this vast property, comprising ference of her mother (who resides with several unentailed estates, to his eldest them) in their domestic affairs. In one son; bequeathing the comparative pittance scene a friend is explaining to the daugh- of two thousand a year to the second. ter of this couple how the differences be- In America, not only is there no law in tween them arose, and he premises his favor of primogeniture, but there is incorstatement by saying that “it is a law- porated in the code of every State in the though an unwritten one--that no man Union a more or less stringent one against shall live in peace and quietness in the it; any clauses inserted in a will, with a same house with his mother-in-law." view to entailing or attempting to entail
Now the writer has seen the piece in an estate, being absolutely null and void. question, more than once, in both New. When Daniel Webster, who enjoyed, and York and London. Here the sentence justly, the reputation of being one of the quoted never fails to elicit from the au- most eminent jurists in the United States, dience some tokens of approval; there it made his will, he exercised all his ingeis heard in absolute silence, the Ameri- nuity in endeavoring so to word the incans having no sympathy with the senti- strument as to enable him to keep “Marshments expressed, and therefore failing to field,” his homestead, in the family of his appreciate the jest.
eldest son; or, in other words, he sought The relations, too, existing between pa- to create a species of entail. But the atrents and children in America are of the tempt was unsuccessful
. The will was most satisfactory character, notwithstand- disputed by those members of the family ing, or rather, perhaps, in consequence of, whose interests were injuriously affected the indulgence with which the latter are by it, and the Massachusetts judges were treated. “I never saw,” says the author unanimous in their decision that the proof Vanity Fair, “people on better terms vision in question was contra bonos mores, with each other, more frank, affection- and in direct contravention of the laws of ate, and cordial than the parents and the the State.
I may observe here, en passant, that it between parents and children in the United is rather a curious commentary upon the States finds, incidentally, confirmation in inconsistencies of human nature, that Web- the literature of that country. In the ster-the “great expounder of the consti- works of no American author are to be tution," the champion of law, par excellence found the scenes of domestic dissension -should, in one of the most important and unhappiness portrayed in those of acts of his life, have made a deliberate at- English writers; and for the simple reason, tempt to evade the operation of the laws that such phases of human life have not of his country. He was, however, quite come under the observation of the former. exceptional in his desire to entail his es- The great passions indeed, love, hate, retate. As a rule the feeling, created and venge, play their part in the writings of fostered here by law and usage in favor of American novelists, as they do in the litthe eldest son, is, practically, non-existent erature of every nation. But such scenes in the United States, where a man in ma- of domestic discord as those painted so king a disposition of his property rarely graphically in the Newcombs and the Adevinces a preference for one child over an- ventures of Philip could by no possibility other.
occur in the state of society which exists In the State of New York, and, I be in the United States; for, in nearly every lieve, in nearly every one of the Northern instance, these dissensions arise from the and Eastern States, the law is, that when circumstance that the elder members of a married man dies intestate, his widow the family neither recognize the individualshall enjoy a life interest in one third of ity nor respect the rights of the youngerhis real and personal estate, and that the and in America they do both. remaining two thirds shall be equally di- It is not my purpose, in this paper,
to vided among his children. So eminently enter into an elaborate disquisition upon just is felt to be this law, and so entirely is the character of the people of the United it in harmony with the sentiments of the States, my object being simply to touch community, that very many persons never briefly upon some of their more promdeem it necessary to make a will at all, inent national traits; but there is one acbeing perfectly content with the machin- cusation brought against them which must ery the State has provided for the distribu- not pass unnoticed that of being a thortion of their property. And as there is, or oughly ill-mannered nation-an accusarather was—for I speak of the period be- tion so persistently reiterated, that it has fore the imposition of the “ war taxes”- obtained almost universal credence in this neither legacy, succession, nor probate country. duty in America, no loss accrues to a Nearly every English traveler has some man's family from the circumstance of his tale to tell of the rudeness and incivility he not having made a testamentary disposi- has met with from the lower classes in tion of his estate.
America; and, primâ facie, it would appear In fact, so far is the feeling carried in that complaints so general must be well the United States that all a man's children founded. But it is not so. The annoyshould be equal sharers in whatever prop- ances to which these gentlemen have been erty he leaves behind him, that, in those subjected have arisen, almost invariably, instances where a will has been made from their failing to properly appreciate leaving more to one son or daughter than the difference existing between the social the others, and it has been contested on system of the Americans and that of their the ground of “undue influence," the own people. courts of law have generally, in their deci- In this country the separation of the varisions, leant to the opinion that the very ous grades of society has had a marked effact of the apportionment being unequal fect upon the morale of what are termed was primâ facie evidence of undue influ- the " lower classes.” The man in fustian ence having been exercised over the testa- can not understand why he should render tor; to be rebutted only by proof that even the most trifling civility to the man in some substantial reason, and not mere ca- broadcloth without being paid for it. If price, had dictated the apparently unfair you only so much as inquire your way of preference for one child over another. man having the appearance of a mechan
The correctness of Thackeray's remarks ic, and he goes a few steps out of his path on the character of the relations existing to show it to you, he will-five times out