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and to work downwards through the there is a hat, the brim of which is buttoned principal articles of clothing.

up in front to the crown with three butHATS.-Hats were originally made of tons. This would be a hat of the some soft material, probably of cloth or seventeenth century. Afterwards, during leather, and in order to make them fit the the eighteenth century, the brim was bent head, a cord was fastened round them, so up in two or three places, and notwithas to form a sort of contraction. This is standing that these "cocks" became illustrated on p. 524 of Fairholt's “Costume permanent, yet the hats still retained the in England,” in the figure of the head of marks of their origin in the button and an Anglo-Saxon woman, wearing a hood strap on the right side. The cockade, bound on with a head-band; and on p. I imagine, took its name from its being a 530 are figures of several hats worn during badge worn on one of the " cocks.” the fourteenth century, which were bound The modern cocked-hat, apparently of to the head by rolls of cloth; and all such an anomalous shape, proves, on examthe early hats seem provided with ination, to be merely a hat of the shape some sort of band. We may trace the above referred to; it appears further that remnants of this cord or band in the pre- the right side was bent up at an earlier sent hat-band. A similar survival may be date than the left, for the hat is not symobserved in the strings of the Scotch-cap, metrical, and the "cock” on the right side and even in the mitre of the bishop.* forms a straight crease in the (quondam)

It is probable that the hat-band would brim, and that on the left is bent rather long ago have disappeared had it not been over the crown, thus making the right made use of for the purpose of hiding the side of the hat rather straighter than the seam joining the crown to the brim. If left. The hat-band here remains in the this explanation of the retention of the shape of two gold tassels, which are just hat-band is the true one, we have here a visible within the two points of the cockpart originally of use for one purpose ap

ed-hat. plied to a new one, and so changing its A bishop's hat shows the transition function; a case which has an analogy to from the three-cocked hat to our present that of the development of the swimming- chimney-pot; and because sixty years ago bladders of fishes, used to give them beaver-fur was the fashionable material for lightness in the water, into the lungs of hats, we must now needs wear a silken mammals and birds, used as the furnace imitation, which could deceive no one into for supporting animal heat.

thinking it fur, and which is bad to resist The duties of the hat-band have been the effects of weather. Even in a lady's taken in modern hats by two running bonnet the elements of brim, crown, and strings fastened to the lining, and these hat-band may be traced. again have in their turn become obsolete, The “busby” of our hussars affords a for they are now generally represented by curious instance of survival. It would a small piece of string, by means of which now appear to be merely a fancy headit is no longer possible to make the hat fit dress, but on inspection it proves not be the head more closely.

so. The hussar was originally a Hungarian The ancestor from which our present soldier, and he brought his hat with him chimney-pot hat takes most of its charac- to our country. I found the clue to the teristics is the broad-brimmed low-crowned meaning of the hat in a picture of a Hunhat, with an immense plume falling down garian peasant. He wore a red night-cap, on to the shoulder, which was worn during something like that worn by our brewers' the reign of Charles II.f

At the end of men, r by a Sicilian peasant, but the cap the seventeenth, and during the eighteenth was edged with so broad a band of fur, century, this hat was varied by the omission that it made in fact a low “ busby.” And of the plume, and by giving of the brim now in our hussars the fur has grown various cocks." That these “cocks” enormously, and the bag has dwindled into were formerly merely temporary is shown flapping ornament, which may be detached by Hogarth's picture of Hudibras beating at pleasure. Lastly, in the new“ busby" Sidrophel and his man Whacum, where of the Royal Engineers the bag has van

ished, although the top of the cap (which * For the origin of this curious head-dress, see Fairholt, p. 564.

is made of cloth and not of fur) is still blue, + See Fairholt, p. 540.

as was the bag formerly; the top cannot, however, be seen, except from a bird's-eye figure dressed in the costume of 1696, point of view.

in an old illustration of the “ Tale of the It appears that all cockades and plumes Tub," and also in the figure of a dandy smellare worn on the left side of the hat, and ing a nosegay, in Hogarth's picture, entitled this may, I think, be explained by the fact “ Here Justice triumphs in his Easy Chair," that a large plume, such as that worn in &c., as well as elsewhere. Engravings of the time of Charles II., or that of the this transition period of dress are, however, modern Italian Bersaglieri, would impede somewhat rare, and it is naturally not the free use of the sword; and this same common to be able to get a good view of explanation would also serve to show how the part of the coat under the arms. This it was that the right side of the hat was habit of gathering in the waist will, I think, the first to receive a “cock.” A London explain how it was that, although the butservant would be little inclined to think tons and button-holes were retained down that he wears his cockade on the left side the front edges, the coat came to be worn to give his sword-arm full liberty.

somewhat open in front. Coats.—Every one must have noticed The coat naturally fell in a number of the nick in the folded collar of the coat plaits or folds below these hip buttons ; and of the waistcoat; this is of course but in most of Hogarth's pictures, although made to allow for the buttoning round the the buttons and plaits remain, yet the neck, but it is in the condition of a rudi- creases above the buttons disappear, and mentary organ, for the nick would pro- seams appear to run from the buttons up bably not come into the right place, and under the arms. It may be worth menin the waistcoat at least there are usually tioning that in all such matters of detail neither the requisite buttons nor button- Hogarth's accuracy is notorious, and that holes.

therefore his engravings are most valuable " The modern gentleman's coat may be for the study of the dress of the period. said to take its origin from the vest or At the end of the seventeenth, and at the long outer garment, worn towards the end beginning of the eighteenth centuries, coats of the reign of Charles II.”*

This vest

seem very commonly to have been furseems to have had no gathering at the nished with slits running from the edge waist, and to have been buttoned all down of the skirt up under the arms, and these the front, and in shape rather like a loose were made to button up, in a manner bag; to facilitate riding it was furnished similar in all respects to the slit of the with a slit behind, which could be but- tails. The sword was usually worn under toned up at pleasure; the button-holes the coat, and the sword-hilt came through were embroidered, and in order to secure the slit on the left side. Later on these similarity of embroidery on each side of slits appear to have been sewed up, and the slit, the buttons were sewn on to a the buttons and button-holes died away, strip of lace matching the corresponding with the exception of two or three buttons button-hole on the other side. These but- just at the tops of the slits; thus in coats tons and button-holes left their marks in of about the year 1705, it is not uncomthe coats of a century later in the form of mon to see several buttons clustered about gold lacing on either side of the slit of the tops of all three slits. The buttons at the tails.

the top of the centre slit entirely disapIn about the year 1700, it began to be peared, but the two buttons now on the the fashion to gather in the vest or coat at backs of our coats trace their pedigree up the waist, and it seems that this was first to those on the hips. Thus it is not imdone by two buttons near the hips being probable that although our present butbuttoned to loops rather nearer to the edge tons represent those used for making the of the coat, and situated at about the level waist, as above explained, yet that they in of the waist. Our soldiers much in the part represent the buttons for fastening up same manner now make a waist in their these side slits. loose overcoats, by buttoning a short strap The fold which we now wear below the to two buttons, placed a considerable dis- buttons on the back are the descendants of tance apart on the back.

the falling plaits, notwithstanding that they This old fashion is illustrated in

appear as though they were made for, and

that they are in fact commonly used as, Fairholt, 479.

the recesses for the tail-pockets; but that

a

this was not their original object is proved was shown by the corners being turned by the fact that during the last century back. the pockets were either vertical or hori- It was not until the reign of George zontal, placed a little in front of the two III, that coats were cut back at the waist, hip buttons (which have since moved as are our present evening coats, but since, round towards the back), and had highly before that fashion was introduced, the coats embroidered flaps, buttons, and button- had become swallow-tailed in the manner holes. The horizontal pockets may now explained, it seems likely that this form of be traced in the pocket-flaps of court dress coat was suggested by the previous fashion. before alluded to; and the vertical pocket And, indeed, stages of development of a is represented by some curious braiding somewhat intermediate character may be and a row of buttons, which may be ob- observed in old engravings. In the uniserved on the tails of the tunics of the foot- forms of the last century the coats were guards. The details of the manner in double-breasted, but were generally worn which this last rudiment became reduced to open, with the flaps thrown back and butits present shape may be traced in books toned to rows of buttons on the coat. of uniforms, and one of the stages may These flaps, of course, showed the lining now be frequently seen in the livery of of the coat, and were of the same color as servants, in the form of a row of three or the tails; the button-holes were usually four buttons running down near the edge embroidered, and thus the whole of the of the tail, sewn on to a scolloped patch of front of the coat became richly laced. cloth (the pocket-flap), which is itself Towards the end of the century the coats sewed to the coat.

were made tight, and were fastened togethIn the last century when the coats had large er in front by hooks, but the vestiges of flapping skirts, it became the custom (as the flaps remained in a double line of butmay be seen in Hogarth's pictures) to but- tons, and in the front of the coat being of ton forward the two corners of the coat, a different color from that of the rest, and and also to button forward the inner being richly laced. A uniform of this nacorners, so as to separate the tails for con- ture is still retained in some foreign armies. venience in riding.* This custom left its This seems also to explain the use of the traces in the uniform of our soldiers down term “ facings” as applied to the collar and to the introduction of the modern tunic, cuffs of a uniform, since, as we shall see and such traces may still be seen in some hereafter, they would be of the same color uniforms, for example, those of a Lord as these flaps. It may also explain the Lieutenant and of the French gensdarme- habit of braiding the front of a coat, as is rie. In the uniforms of which I speak, the done in our Hussar and other regiments. coats have swallow-tails, and these are In a “ History of Male Fashions,” pubbroadly edged with a light-colored border, lished in the London Chronicle in 1762, we tapering upwards and getting broader find that “surtouts have now four laps on downwards; at the bottom of the tail, be- each side, which are called “dog's ears;' low where the borders join (at which join- when these pieces are unbuttoned, they flap ing there is usually a button), there is a backwards and forwards, like so many susmall triangle of the same color as the coat, pernumerary patches just tacked on at one with its apex at this button. This curious end, and the wearer seems to have been appearance is explained thus :—the two playing at backswords till his coat was cut corners, one of which is buttoned forwards to pieces.

Very spruce smarts and the other backwards, could not be but have no buttons nor holes upon the breast toned actually to the edge of the coat, bu of these their surtouts, save what are upon had to be fastened a little inland as it the ears, and their garments only wrap were ; and thus part of the coat was visi- over their bodies like a morning gown.” ble at the bottom of the tail : the light. These dog's ears may now be seen in a very colored border, although sewn to the coat, meaningless state on the breasts of the paevidently now represents the lining, which trol-jackets of our officers, and this is con

firmed by the fact that their jackets are not * It seems to have been in actual use in 1760, buttoned, but fastened by hooks. although not in 1794. See Cannon's “Hist. Kec. In early times, when coats were of silk of Brit. Army” (London, 1837), the 2d Dragoon or velvet, and enormously expensive, it Guards.

was no doubt customary to turn up the

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cuffs, so as not to soil the coat, and thus cuffs, which form, with the collars, the the custom of having the cuffs turn back so-called “ facings.” A picture of Lucien came in. During the latter part of the Bonaparte in Lacroix's work on Costume seventeenth and during the eighteenth cen- shows a collar so immense that were it tury, the cuffs were very widely turned turned up it would be as high as the top back, and the sleeves consequently very of his head. This drawing indicates that short, and this led to dandies wearing even the very broad stand-up collars worn large lace cuffs to their shirts.

in uniforms in the early part of this centuThe pictures of Hogarth and of others ry, and of a different color from that of the show that the coat cuffs were buttoned coat, were merely survivals of an older back to a row of buttons running round form of turn-down collar. In these days, the wrist. These buttons still exist in the notwithstanding that the same difference sleeves of a Queen's Counsel, although in color indicates that the collar was origithe cuffs are sewed back and the button- nally turned down, yet in all uniforms it is holes only exist in the form of pieces of made to stand up. braid. This habit explains why our sol- The pieces of braid or seams which run diers now have their cuffs of different col- round the wrist in ordinary coats ors from that of their coats; the color of clearly the last remains of the inversion of the linings was probably determined for the cuffs. each regiment by the colonel for the time TROUSERS.—I will merely observe that being, since he formerly supplied the cloth- we find, an intermediate stage between ing; and we know that the color of the trousers and breeches in the pantaloon, facings was by no means fixed un:il recent- in which the knee-buttons of the breeches ly. The shape of the cuff has been re- have walked down to the ankle. I have cently altered in the line regiments, so that seen also a German servant who wore a all the original meaning is gone.

row of buttons running from the knee In order to allow of turning back with to the ankle of his trousers. ease, the sleeve was generally split on the Boots.—One of the most perfect rudiouter side, and this split could be fastened ments is presented by top-boots. These together with a line of buttons and em- boots were originally meant to come broidered holes. In Hogarth's pictures above the knee; and, as may be observed some two or three of these buttons may be in old pictures, it became customary to commonly seen above the reversed cuff; turn the upper part down, so that the and notwithstanding that at first the but- lining was visible all round the top. tons were out of sight (as they ought to The lining being of unblacked leather, be) in the reversed part of the cuff

, yet formed the brown top which is now worn. after the turning back had become quite a The original boot-tag may be observed in fixed habit, and when sleeves were made the form of a mere wisp of leather sewn tight again, it seems to have been usual to fast to the top, whilst the real acting tag is have the button for the cuff sewed on to sewn to the inside of the boot. The back the proper inside, that is to say, the real of the top is also fastened up, so that it outside of the sleeve.

could not by any ingenuity be turned up The early stage

seen in again into its original position. Hogarth's picture of the Guards march

Again, why do we black and polish our ing to Finchley," and the present rudi- boots ? The key is found in the French ment is excellently illustrated in the cuffs cirage, or blacking. We black our boots of the same regiments now. The curious because brown leather would, with wet buttons and gold lace on the cuffs and and use, naturally get discolored with dark collars of the tunics of the Life Guards patches, and thus boots to look well have the like explanation, but this is hard- should be colored black. Now, shooting ly intelligible without reference to a book boots are usually greased, and that it was of unifurms, as for example Cannon's formerly customary to treat ordinary boots “History of the 2nd Dragoon Guards." in the same manner is shown by the fol

The collar of a coat would in ordinary lowing verse in the ballad of “Argentile weather be turned down and the lining and Curan :"shown; hence the collar has commonly a different color from that of the coat, and

“ He borrowed on the working daies in uniforms the same color as have the

His holy russets ost,

may be

And of the bacon's fat to make

sides of railway carriages show the remHis startops black and soft.”

nants of the idea that a coach was the Startops were a kind of rustic high shoes. proper pattern on which to build them; Fairholt in his work states that " the oldest and the word “guard” is derived from the kind of blacking for boots and shoes ap- man who sat behind the coach and defendpears to have been a thick, viscid, oily ed the passengers and mails with his substance." But for neat boots a cleaner blunderbuss. substance than grease would be required, In the early trains (1838-39) of the and thus wax would be thought of; and Birmingham Railway there were special that this was the case is shown by the “mail” carriages, which were made very French word cirer, which means indiffer- narrow, and to hold only four in each ently to “ wax” or to “polish boots.” compartment (two and two), so as to be Boots are of course polished because wax like the coach they had just superseded. takes so good a polish. Lastly, patent- The words dele, stet, used in correcting leather is an imitation of common black- proof-sheets, the words sed vide or s.v., ubi ing.

sup., ibid., loc. cit., used in foot-notes, the I have now gone through the principal sign "&" which is merely a corruption of articles of men's clothing, and have shown the word et, the word finis until recently how numerous and curious are the rudi- placed at the ends of books, are all doubtments or survivals," as Mr. Tylor calls less survivals from the day when all books them; a more thorough search proves were in Latin. The mark 1 used in writthe existence of many more. For instance, ing for interpolations appears to be the rethe various gowns worn at the Universities mains of an arrow pointing to the sentence and elsewhere, afford examples. These to be included. The Royal“ broad-arrow" gowns were, as late as the reign of Queen mark is a survival of the head of “a barbed Elizabeth, simply upper garments,* but javelin, carried by serjeants-at-arms in the have survived into this age as mere badges. king's presence as early as Richard the Their chief peculiarities consist in the First's time."* Then again we probably sleeves, and it is curious that nearly all of mount horses from the left side lest our such peculiarities point to various devices swords should impede us. The small sadby which the wearing of the sleeves has dle on the surcingle of a horse, the seams been eluded or rendered less burdensome. in the backs of cloth-bound books, and those Thus the plaits and buttons in a barrister's at the backs of gloves are rudiments,—but gown, and the slit in front of the sleeve to give a catalogue of such things would be of the B.A.'s gown, are for this purpose. almost endless. I have said enough, howIn an M.A.'s gown the sleeves extend ever, to show that by remembering that there below the knees, but there is a hole in the is nihil sine causâ, the observation of even side through which the arın is passed; the common things of every-day life may be end of the sleeve is sewed up, but there is made less trivial than it might at first sight a kind of scollop at the lower part, which appear. represents the narrowing for the wrist. A It seems a general rule that on solemn barrister's gown has a small hood sewed to or ceremonial occasions men retain archaic the left shoulder, which would hardly go forms; thus it is that court dress is a suron to the head of an infant, even if it could vival of the every-day dress of the last cenbe opened out into a hood shape.

tury; that uniforms in general are richer It is not, however, in our dress alone in rudiments than common dress ; that a that these survivals exist; they are to be carriage with a postilion is de rigueur at a found in all the things of our every-day wedding; and that (as mentioned by Sir life. For instance, any one who has ex. John Lubbock) the priests of a savage naperienced a drive on a road so bad that tion, acquainted with the use of metals, still leaning back in the carriage is impossible, use a stone knife for the sacrifices—just as will understand the full benefit to be de- Anglican priests still prefer candles to gas. rived from arm-slings such as are placed in The details given in this article, although first-class railway carriages, and will agree merely curious, and perhaps insignificant that in such carriages they are mere survi- in themselves, show that the study of dress vals. The rounded tracery on the out- from an evolutional standpoint serves as See figures, pp. 254, 310, Fairholt.'

* Fairholt, p. 580.

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