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thus the leak is completely covered on the inside or public building which may not be decorated and on the outside, and the water is kept out. with these new sheets; and, as regards style and That this means of safety can be made use of in finish, all who saw the specimens exhibited at the the open sea, and under different circumstances, reading of the paper, were made aware that the without the necessity of docking the ship, is not highest artistic effects could be achieved at pleathe least among its recommendations.
sure.-Chambers's Journal. AN ELECTRO-MAGNECTIC COPYING-PRESS.
Tree CULTURE.-An account of an experiment Signor Zuccato, an Italian, has devised an electro- interesting to arboriculturists has been published chemical method of copying writings, diagrams, in Luxemburg. As some travelers will rememor designs, which, while affording another instance of practical application of science, can hardly fail -ash, maple, and elm, alternately with poplars.
ber, the roads near that city are planted with trees of general recognition. A description of the
The space between the trees was six metres (about method is printed in the Journal of the Photographic Society. A steel plate is covered with a coat the poplars, growing fast and tall, injured the
seven and a half yards), and it was thought that of varnish, and on this, when dry, the writing or design is scratched or written with a steel point. The elms, ash, and maples had then twelve metres
other trees, and some hundreds were cut down, Should a fac-simile be required, this can be pro- in which to grow, and they profited thereby, for duced on the varnished plate by the process known
their annual growth increased from nine to eleven to photographers, and then scratched, as in the
per cent. As the observations necessary to es. former instance. The copying is effected in an
tablish this result were carried on from 1859 to ordinary copying-press, to which, above and
1871, they may be accepted as trustworthy, and below, wires from an electric battery are connected. Moist sheets of copying-paper, impregnated are, indeed, such as might have been expected. with prussiate of potash, are laid on the steel OUR PRAIRIES AND FORESTS.--Professor Lapplate, and placed in the press. Immediately that ham, of the United States Telegraph Service, has the press is screwed close, the electric current be drawn up a report on the great forest-fires of last gins to pass, and prints on all the sheets of paper, year, some of which penetrated even into the in from thirty to sixty seconds, whatever is States of New York and Pennsylvania, and he scratched on the plate. The operation may be re. shows that the great prairies of the Far West have peated as often as is desired; whereby copies can been produced and are extended by these fires, be multiplied to any extent, which in many cases aided by the operations of nature. In those rewould be highly advantageous. We hear that gions, the autumn months are exceedingly dry, this new electro-chemical copying press is soon to with prevalence of southwest winds. *These be offered for sale by an enterprising firm in Lon- conditions of climate,' says the professor, have don.
existed for ages, and hence the normal condition
of the great western plains is that of prairie; and TINFOIL HANGINGS.—Paper-hangings for walls
so long as these causes exist, this region must alare known to everybody. It is now proposed to use hangings made of metal; and an account of ways remain in this condition, unless changed by this new invention, which comes to us from Paris
, ingenious and persistently applied devices of art.
At present, a constant struggle goes on where has been read before the Society of Arts. The
prairie and forest meet; and generally it is the metal employed is tinfoil, in sheets about sixteen feet long, and from thirty to forty inches wide. lages also, and the prairie grows bigger. A sys
forest which gives way, and border towns and vilThe sheets are painted, and dried at a high tem
tem of give and take may be said to prevail; in a perature, and are then decorated with many dif
wet autumn, the forest holds its own, perhaps ferent patterns, such as foliage, flowers, geomet
encroaches a little on the prairie ; but in a dry searical figures, imitations of wood, or landscapes, son, the fires assert their supremacy, and as they When decorated, the sheets are varnished, and kill the roots of everything except prairie-grass, again dried, and are then ready for sale. Tinfoil the extension of prairie-land naturally follows. is in itself naturally tough, and the coats laid up- But, as Professor Lapham says, the prairie-soil is on it in preparing it for the market increase the
as well suited for the growth of trees as the foresttoughness. The hanging of these metallic sheets land is ; and if some united and enforced endeavor is similar to paper-hanging, except that the wall were made, millions of acres might be covered is varnished with a weak kind of varnish, and the with grateful shade, the extreme dryness of the sheet applied thereto. Thus in this way a room
atmosphere would be mitigated, and the wellor a house may be newly painted without any smell founded apprehensions that now prevail as regards of paint to annoy or harm the inmates. More
a scarcity of timber would be effectually removed. over, the tinfoil keeps out damp; and as the varnish is a damp-resister, the protection to the room
SOUTH-AFRICAN AND SOUTH-AMERICAN GEOis twofold. Experience has shown also that cor- LOGY.—The Quarterly Journal of the Geological nices, mouldings, and irregular surfaces may be Society contains interesting papers on the diamond covered with the tinfoil as readily as a flat sur- fields of South Africa, which should be read by the face; hence, there is no part of a dwelling-house enterprising folk who desire to have trustworthy scientific information about that now attractive den away, forcibly suggests the political perils of country. One of the explorers states that the former days. And one understands better how diamond gravel is not of local origin, that it has widespread these perils were, on hearing that anbeen brought from long distances, and by some other portrait of the same nobleman, which was other agency than that of water. He considers engraved and published by Vanderbanc, was that the greater part came from the Draakensberg named not Melfort, but Lundin, Lady Melfort's mountain range and its northern offshoots, and he family name—the name of Melfort being tabooed. thus sums up his views : “The vast unstratified deposits, the promiscuous piling together and inter- The Scott Statue, designed for the Central mingling of boulders, the remarkable polish of Park, is of bronze, nine feet in height, and was many of them, the terrace-like mounds and accu- cast by Steele, of Edinburgh, from the original mulations, all evince physical conditions far dif- marble statue by him in the same city. The ferent from those at present in operation ; while pedestal is of selected red Aberdeen granite, the entire absence of all recent fossils in these highly polished. The Park Commissioners have gravels almost forces on us the conviction, that finally decided to locate the work on the southern they must have been laid down under circumstan- end of the Mall, directly opposite the Shakespeare ces inimical to animal and vegetable life; and statue. It was designed for presentation to the these circumstances, judging from similar deposits Corporation of New-York by resident Scotchmen in other countries, have been brought about by and sons of Scotchmen, and will probably be in the action of ice.'
position ready for unveiling on St. Andrew's day, Another scrap of geological news appears to when the formal, presentation will be made. confirm Mr. Darwin's supposition that Brazil, and indeed the whole continent of South America, been lately discovered at St. Petersburg the only
THE Nordische Presse announces that there has is slowly rising. The group of islets known as Fernando Noronha is one hundred and ninety- work of sculpture by the hand of Raphael
, confour miles from Cape St. Roque, the most easterly sisting of a group in marble, representing a child point of the southern continent. The channel be. reposing on a dolphin. Models in plaster and tween the islets and the main is shallow when engravings of the group are well known, but the compared with the deep water on each side there original, the existence of which at Paris about of; and, as there are signs of elevation on the the year 1770 is incontestably proved, has disapislets, the inference is, that, with the gradual up- peared since then, and it is not improbable, says heaval, they will some day be connected with the
the Presse, that the group which has been found, cape by a long neck of rocky land. Those idle among other objects of art bought in the time of people who complain that the age of wonders is the Empress Catharine II., to adorn the Palace past may lay this fact to heart.
of the Taurida, is really the original by the chisel of Raphael. Nevertheless, the intelligence is
given under reserve. ART.
AN OLD PORTRAIT.—A notable discovery, according to the London Echo, has just been made
VARIETIES. by some workmen at Dumfries House, Ayrshire, which was formerly in the possession of the Earls POE'S LAST DAYS.-In the latter part of the of Kilmarnock. The house now belongs to the summer of 1849 Poe left Fordham for Virginia, Marquis of Bute, and the men, in repairing the When he got as far as Philadelphia he fell in with roof, found two half-length portraits rolled up some of his old boon companions, and was overand hidden in the rafters. On examination, one come by his old temptation. It was “hail-fellow proved to be the portrait of that Earl of Kilmar- well met” with him while his money lasted. nock, who was executed for rebellion in 1746; but when it was all gone, he was obliged to solicit the other had no name with it, and perplexed charity for the means of reaching Richmond. So those who attempted to identify it. Photographs Dr. Griswold says, and, from what occurred after of each were taken, and sent to London to an ex- Poe's arrival in Richmond, I feel sure that he was pert, with the information that in the unnamed not misinformed. When Poe was first heard of picture the nobleman represented wore the Order by his Richmond friends, he had been for several of the Thistle, with blue ribbon. As the color of days at a sort of common tavern in a part of the the ribbon of this order was changed from blue to city known as Rockets. One of these friends-a green in 1703 by Queen Anne, it was evident that man of letters—took a carriage and drove thither the picture must have been painted before that with the intention of fetching him away, but he date. It was then found that the only person, had disappeared. The tavern-keeper, a man being a Knight of the Thistle, who could be the named Jacob Mull, knew nothing of his wheresubject of the picture, was John Drummond, Earl abouts or who he was, except that he said his of Melfort, who was outlawed in 1694 and died at name was Poe, and that he had slept for a numSt. Germains in 1714. The fact that these por- ber of nights on the sanded floor of the bar-room. traits were taken from their frames, and thus hid. At the end of a week or ten days, Poe appeared one
morning at the office of his literary friend, whom recall what had occurred, and to realize his situa- . he knew only by correspondence, and introduced tion, Poe replied, "My best friend would be the himself. His garments were old and seedy, but man who would blow out my brains.” Within brushed with scrupulous care, and there were no ten minutes he was dead! signs of dissipation in his clean and fresh-shaved
Oh ! let him pass! he hates him face. He asked permission to have his letters di- That would upon the rack of this rough world
Stretch him out longer. rected to his friend's box, and room enough in his office to write in, both of which requests were, of He was buried on the 8th of October, in the course, cordially granted. A desk was given him, burial-ground of the Westminster Church, at the and he was soon at his literary work, a portion of corner of Fayette and Green streets. The funeral which consisted of the sharp paragraphs entitled was attended by a cousin, a member of the Balti" Marginalia,” which were published from time more bar, a class-mate, who was afterward judge to time in the first magazine that he had ever
of the Baltimore Superior Court, and a Methodist
The spot edited—the Southern Literary Messenger. What minister, a relative by his marriage. Mr. Kennedy had done for him about fifteen years selected for his grave was near the grave of his before was done now—he was rejuvenated as re. grandfather, General David Poe. There was a gards his clothing, and made presentable in socie
vacant place left, but it was filled several months ty by the tailor of his friend. For a time all went since by the body of Mrs. Clemm, who died, up. well with him, but at last he disappeared. At the wards of eighty years old, in the same hospital end of several days he returned with a damaged where her " dear Eddie” expired some twentyeye. He had been mistaken for some one else by two years before, and was buried at her own rea ruffian in a bar-room, and knocked down with quest by his side.-Harper's Magazine. out a word. He returned to his work, to disap- NIAGARA.—About 9,800 cubic miles of waterpear again. He was next heard of at a fashion- nearly half the fresh water on the globe--are in able drinking-saloon called the “ Alhambra,” the upper lakes, and 18,000,000 cubic feet of this where he was found explaining “Eureka" to plunge over Niagara Falls every minute, all the a motley crowd of bar-room loungers. He water of the lakes making the circuit of the Falls, returned to his work again, and seemed in a the St. Lawrence, the ocean, vapor, rain, and lakes fair way to reform. He joined a temperance again, in 152 years. Through the Illinois Canal society, and gave a lecture, which was about 8,000 cubic feet of water are taken every tended by the best people in Richmond. He minute from Lake Michigan to the Illinois River'; renewed acquaintance with a lady whom he through the Welland Canal 14,000 cubic feet flow had loved in youth, and who was now every minute; from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, ' widow, and became engaged to her. He had but and through Erie Canal 30,000 cubic feet pass two things to do before they were married-one every minute, from the same lake into the Hudson. was to go to Philadelphia and write a preface for Thus, 52,000 cubic feet of water, which nature a volume of poems by a lady, the other was to go would give to Niagara, are diverted every minute to Fordham and fetch Mrs. Clemm to the wed by artificial channels, some into the Mexican Gulf ding. He started from Richmond on the ed or and some into the bay of New York. Add this to 3d of October. What happened during the next 18,000,000, it is as a drop in the bucket, and would four or five days is involved in considerable ob- make no appreciable difference in the character of scurity, but the facts, as far as they can be ascer. the Falls or their rate of recession. Was there tained, appear to be these: He arrived at Balti- ever a time when the Niagara was appreciably a more safely, but between trains unfortunately, greater river than now? We assume, then, from took a drink with a friend, the consequence of all the monuments the river has left of its own which was that he was brought back from Havre history, that the present rate of recession would de Grace, by the conductor of the Philadelphia be a fair measure of the past, except at the Whirltrain, in a state of delirium. It was the eve of pool and Ferry Landing. Six inches a year, an exciting municipal election, and as he wandered measured on the channel, would place the Falls at up and down the streets of Baltimore he was Lewiston 74,000 years ago. We have no means seized by the lawless agents of some political club, of knowing how long the quartzose sand-stone, and shut up all night in a cellar. The next morn- which forms the lowest part of the bank at the ing he was taken out in a state of frenzy, drugged, Whirlpool, would have arrested the cataract. This and made to vote in eleven different wards. The stratum is twenty-five feet thick, and, as its southfollowing day he was found in the back-room of a ward dip is twenty feet a mile, and the slope of the "head-quarters," and removed to a hospital on river-channel fifteen feet a mile, the Falls would Broadway, north of Baltimore street. He was have to cut back through this rock more than half insensible when found, and remained so until a mile. The halt may have been many thousand Sunday morning, October 7. A doctor and nurse years. Add another period for the halt at the were with him when he first showed conscious landing, and the age of the channel from Lewiston ness. “Where am I?” he asked. The doctor to the Horseshoe may not fall below 200,000 answered, “You are cared for by your bes years. Unquestionably the channel has been exfriends.” After a pause, in which he appeared to cavated since the close of the glacial epoch, which
science has well-nigh demonstrated occurred about within the circular trench. In 1720, Doctor 200,000 years ago. But this channel is only the Stukeley found only twenty-three remaining; and last chapter in the history of Niagara.- Popular in 1812, Sir}Richard Hoare found but seventeen. Science Monthly.
At present only two monoliths of the great west
ern avenue are standing. The rest have been THE FRENCH FLAG.–The Comte Louis de Bou- broken into pieces, and removed—possibly to illé has been publishing an essay (which we find crit- build pig-sties, possibly to build barns or outicised in the Revue des Deux Mondes) on the French houses for the greedy or unthinking depredators, flag. If the Count's antiquarian conclusions are who never heard of the difference between a Druwell founded, it would seem that there is, proper- idical high-priest who lived three thousand years ly speaking, no French flag—that the famous ago, and a clodhopper who perpetrated these acts Drapeau Tricolore is a scratch flag, made up of of vandalism the day before yesterday. For some odds and ends; the Drapeau Blanc a mere histori- time past, the antiquaries and scholars" of Wiltcal mistake. Clovis went to war against the Visi
shire and elsewhere have been up in arms to pregoths, an heretical race, under the blue flag, because vent these encroachments—but “may not a man blue was the color of the “chappe,” hood, of his do what he will with his own ?" And as the favorite sajnt, Martin of Tours-that saint whom scholars and antiquaries were either unable or he described as a " stout ally in battle, but hard unwilling to purchase the land and its precious relics at a bargain,” in allusion to the heavy expenses from the legal owners, these latter did as seemed which his devotion had occasioned. The red was best in their own eyes, and left scholarship and the color of Saint Denis, of whose famous abbey antiquarianism to show their teeth in the approved the kings of France acquired the patronage under British fashion-without biting. Fortunately one the second dynasty. In the middle ages, the blue gentleman with the means, the knowledge, and seems to have been borne by the troops of the the public spirit, was found to do what ought Crown, the red by those of the Communes, with long ago to have been done by the State. Sir whom St. Denis was always a popular personage. John Lubbock stepped forth to the rescue of The white seems to have slipped in, no one knows Avebury, and by his liberality its monuments how; it was the color of the maid of Arc; it be will be preserved as they stand--safe from all came afterward radical and revolutionary, having further danger.-All the Year Round. been worn at Jarnac and elsewhere by the Huguenots, in opposition to the Royal Blue; but it
A PICTURE. was also commonly the color of command, appro- Through heather, moss, and golden rod, priated to those who immediately followed the
We wandered in the summer weather, chief in battle. Whether the Count is endeavor. And heeding scarce the way we trod, ing, in a sarcastic way, to “sap a solernn creed
Were glad, because we were together. with solemn sneer,” or whether he is merely a painstaking examiner of authorities, we can not And when the noonday sun was high, say. But if he is right, the tricolor would seem A purple rock gave shelter cool, to be more conservative of past usages and mem- Where, hidden from the summer sky, ories than the latitudinarian white.
And flecked with shadows, lay a pool.
It seemed a jewel, bright yet dim: STONEHENGE.—Had our ancestors been as wise
Wet ferns half strove to cover it; and provident as they might have been, even so
Enticed by thyme, about the brim late as three centuries ago, these singular rem
The wild bees murmured over it. nants of a dead religion and a worn-out civilization might have been made national property, “And this the wishing well,' she cried, and preserved at the national expense from the • Where they who drink a boon may crave;' hands of the spoiler. But this unfortunately was And kneeling there, the spell she tried; not done, and of the great temples of Avebury And though she smiled, her eyes were grave. and Stonehenge, but little now remains to testify Small hands together lightly pressed to the Titanic architecture of the people who inhabited the British Isles a thousand years before And half in earnest, half in jest,
From the cool spring she lifted up. the invading hosts of Julius Cæsar set foot upon
She offered me the rosy cup. the shore. The Avebury stones have suffered greatly from the depredations of 'the Wiltshire And in the pool her shadow came, farmers and proprietors. In the year 1648, when A picture ne'er to be forgot! John Aubrey, the antiquary, visited the place, he Sweet eyes and falling hair, in frame counted sixty-three of the pillars still standing Of foxglove and forget-me-not.