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others, would be looked to for an authoritative his great enterprise as a collector of archaic relics, and satisfactory exposition.
students will reasonably expect much at his hands. No one, for instance, could so appropriately in. Having carefully examined this book, we are struct us concerning the “ Forms of Water" as bound to say that the author has completed his Prof. Tyndall, who has done more to advance the difficult and laborious task with signal success." scientific knowledge of this subject than any
GARETH AND LYNETTE. By Alfred Tennyson. writer, living or dead. His book, though brief, is a complete and exhaustive treatise, and so very
Boston: 7. R. Osgood & Co. lucid and pleasantly written that quite young stu
Mr. Tennyson announces that this is the last of dents need not be deterred from its perusal. Once the Idylls of the King, and that its place in the thoroughly appropriated, the reader will find that series is after “ The Coming of Arthur.” Gareth, he can follow water through all its aspects and the hero, is “the last tall son of Lot and Belliforms from the vapor of the clouds to the vast cent, and tallest,” and with ambition fired by masses of the Alpine glaciers, and at the same
what he has heard of the glories of King Arthur time get a suggestive glimpse of the great princi. and his knights, he importunes his mother to perples which underlie several of the physical sciences.
mit him to seek his fortunes at the court. At last It is needless to point out that no reader who she consents, but in the hope of deterring him desires to know what modern science is, or to from the scheme, stipulates that he shall enter the keep up with its progress, can dispense with this service of the king without revealing his name or series. It ought to mark an era in popular cul. lineage, and serve for a whole year as a “kitchen ture, and especially in this country should receive menial.” Gareth accepts this, and hastens to a generous and cordial support.
Camelot, and the Idyll relates his adventures there, THE ANCIENT STONE IMPLEMENTS, WEAPONS,
and his “quest” with Lynette in relief of Lynette's AND ORNAMENTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. By of great prowess. These he overthrows, winning
sister, who was oppressed by four brother knights John Evans, F.R.S. New-York: D. Apple. ton & Co. 1872.
at the same time his own knighthood and the favor
of Lynette, who has all along scorned him as a This is a very handsome and copiously illus- “low-born kitchen scullion.” It is left in doubt, trated volume, and throws new light upon the however, whether he weds Lynette herself or subject of prehistoric archæology (treated of in " Lyonors, Lynette's sister," whose deliverance our leading article this month), drawing its mate- he had wrought. rials from a source which makes it especially There are several fine passages in “Gareth and interesting to English and American readers. Lynette” which we should be glad to quote if we The London Examiner says of it:-“The new had the space, but as a whole, it seems to us the theory of the Antiquity of Man, as based weakest of the Arthurian series. Read along with mainly upon the discoveries of works of art in the rest in its proper sequence, it adds a new lake-dwellings, in caves, and in the quaternary tint to the picture, and assists to round out the deposits of river valleys, receives very zealous whole; but read by itself as a separate poem, it support from the volume lately published by Mr. impresses us as rather disappointing. John Evans, the well-known antiquary. The
Of the great epic, now completed, we shall take geological and other branches of the inquiry into occasion to speak at some future time. the antiquity of man have had skillful exponents;
BIOGRAPHIA LITERARIA ; but something was still required to popularize the
or, Biographical this year.
Sketches of my Literary Life and Opinions. study of the implements themselves, and to enable the less scientific portion of the community,
By Samuel Taylor Coleridge. New-York:
Holt & Williams. and such persons as could not have easy access to the large collections, to appreciate the nice dis. COLERIDGE was born on October 21st, 1772, and tinctions in the types of implements used at the publishers, in recognition of this fact, give us different periods and by different races.
a “centenary issue” of what is probably his most casy enough to understand, and it was soon gene- characteristic and certainly his least impersonal rally admitted, that primitive man used imple. work. It may be doubted if the work will meet ments and weapons of flint, and such hard the wants of any considerable number of readers; materials as readily presented themselves to him ; for besides being diffuse, rambling, and disconand, indeed, at the later stage of the controversy, nected, the world has outgrown, or at least rethere has been a liberal disposition to accept the pudiated, the German theories and speculations idea that every nation has had its Stone Age. Yet which Coleridge here endeavors to erect into a there was of necessity some difficulty then in comprehensive system of philosophy. The book assigning certain of these relics to certain nations is worth reading, however, as a record of the inand races, and to special periods in their history. ner life and thoughts of one of the greatest poets The book under notice is designed to give au. and most subtle intellects that England has prothentic information on these points, and to furnish duced, and it may appropriately find a place in a general classification of the numerous varieties every literary collection. The present edition is of stone weapons and implements ; and, bearing a very choice one, and is accompanied with an elain mind the long experience of Mr. Evans, and borate introduction and notes,
INCIDENTS OF MY LIFE. By D D. Home. New Trinità in Cava, who have given to the world the York: Holt Su Williams.
results of their labors in the rich archives of that
celebrated establishment of Benedictines. Mr. D. D. Home is well known to our readers by reputation probably, and by reason of that M. ALPHAND's great illustrated work on “ The reputation many will no doubt be deterred from Parks and Promenades of Paris," suspended by reading this book. It is worth reading, how- the war, is approaching completion. M. Rothsever, if for nothing else, because it is the latest child, the publisher, has expended above $25,000 exposition of the present attitude and claims of upon it. The parts still wanting will be issued Spiritualism. Mr. Home is a fanatic, and very likely something of a charlatan ; yet his life has been not unimportant, and the record of it is cer
A PROF. PASQUALIGO is translating the comtainly abundantly interesting.
plete works of Shakespeare into Italian prose. volume is a continuation of the narrative of He has just published a second part with the
conclusion of which the first installment was published ten
Much Ado about Nothing” (Gran years ago, and brings the record down to the cele.
chiasso per nulla), and the beginning of “The brated trial of Lyon vs. Home. The report of Tempest.” this trial occupies nearly half the volume, and is The Rev. Dr. Schiller-Szinezzy is engaged in the most interesting and suggestive portion. A carrying through the press his learned and elaThird Series, completing the narrative, is an.
borate Catalogue of the Hebrew MSS. in the nounced for next spring.
University Library of Cambridge, on the comMESSRS. APPLETON & Co. publish two more pilation of which the Doctor has been working valuable scientific works : “ Hand-book of Chem- for several years past. ical Technology,” by Rudolf Wagner, Ph.D., translated by William Brookes, F.L.S. ; and
A MEMORIAL volume, consisting of selections
from the writings of Mazzini, is to be published “ Contributions to Molecular Physics in the Domain of Radiant Heat,” by Prof. John Tyn. England. At the time of his death, Mazzini had
sor circulation among the working classes of dall. Wagner's book ranks among the best of its
not completed the revision of his collected works. class, having passed through eight editions in the original German, and the additions by the English his English admirers.
This task will, therefore, be performed by one of translator enhance its value for American stu. dents. All branches of the subject are treated of, M. PAPILLON contributes to the Revue des Deur and the book is handsomely printed, and illustrated Mondes an article “On Electricity and Life," which with 336 wood-cuts.
deserves especial attention. The whole subject “Contributions to Molecular Physics,” by Prof. of animal electricity is most carefully considered, Tyndall, comprises the valuable papers which and the action of electricity on the animal and he contributed several years ago to the “ Philo- vegetable economy, as far as the researches of sophical Transactions” of the Royal Institution.· science have developed it, is examined with great The papers have been revised for this volume kill and caution. and some additions made, and will doubtless be welcomed by all scientific students ; though, as
The sale of the copy-rights, etc., of the house •Prof. Tyndall explains in the Preface, summaries
of Bohn (not to be confounded with the English of most of them have already been given in his publisher of that name) took place lately at Haar
lem. The copy-right of the Camera Obscura, by work on “ Heat." This volume is also illustrat.
Hildebrand (Nicolas Beets), the most noted work ed.
in modern Dutch literature, was sold for 12,000
florins; that of the Poems of the same author FOREIGN LITERARY NOTES. fetched 5,000 florins. A YOUNG Sicilian poetess, Carmelina Mangan- It appears from a statement in a Russian aro, sixteen years of age, has published, in Mes- journal that the number of periodicals published sina, a volume of “ Saggi Poetici,” edited by in the Empire of Russia is 337. Of these, 286 Prof. Letterio Lizio Bruno.
reviews and journals are in the Russian language, ANOTHER part of Prof. Giesebrecht's important Moscow, and 147 in other towns. There are 40
189 being published in St. Petersburg, 30 in work, Die Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit, has appeared, which contains the history of the period publications in Polish, 6 in French, 30 in German,
4 in Lettish, 5 in Esthonian, 2 in Finnish, and from A.D. 1125-1152.
3 in Hebrew. MR. CHILDERS, a gentleman who was in the
Ay English translation of the text contained Ceylon Civil Service, is preparing the first Páli.
in the eighth edition of Tischendorf's Greek English dictionary that has ever been attempted. Testament, by Dr. Davidson, is in the press, The first part is to be published this month.
which will be an exact representation of the most A PUBLICATION which deserves notice is by recent and best critical text, as well as a revision two of the Fathers of the monastery of La of the received English version. The work is meeting of the British Association, which he had * By the four opposing coigns
printed by Giesecke & Devrient, of Leipzig, and down in D. Another effort, begun in 1844, has will have two introductions, by Tischendorf and lingered till now, but can scarcely be expected to Davidson.
survive long. Finally, Dr. Fr. Domingos Vieira,
of whose capacity nothing particular is known, THE Atheneum says the Rev. Charles New, o has undertaken the herculean task, and the the Livingstone Search and Relief Expedition, is Grande Diccionario Portuguez, ou Thesouro du engaged on a work entitled “Life, Wanderings Lingua Portugeza, is now appearing in parts, of and Labors in Eastern Africa, with an Account of which the sixtieth has been reached, making two the First Successful Ascent of the Equatorial volumes of some 2,400 pages, and carrying the Snow-mountain, Kilima-Njaro, with Remarks on work to the end of C. There are Portuguese dicthe East African Slave Trade.” It is to be pub. tionaries; but they leave much to be desired. lished by Messrs. Hodder and Stoughton of That of the Brazilian Antonio de Moraes Silva is London.
the best now in use. For definitions ConstanMR. EDWARD JENKINS, author of “Ginx's
cio's is valuable, but it is full of Gallicisms and
Edward de Baby,” etc., intends to publish a Christmas story,
is disagreeably dogmatic in tone. which will take up the question of the agricultural Faria's, with notes by Senor Lacerda, is barely laborer. It will be entitled “Little Hodge," and
passable. is to be issued in the style of Charles Dickens's The now famous Utrecht Latin MS. containing Christmas stories, at one shilling. He has also the Psalter has been examined by one clergyman nearly completed a novel intended to illustrate the at least, and will be inspected by more. Coolie system, and the relations of the races in which contains the Athanasian Creed has been the West Indies.
photographed by the authorities, and a few copies A FIND, which may turn out to be an interest.
of the photograph have been sent to this country.
An examination of one of these has led those who ing one, has been made by Dr. Grant, of the American mission at Cairo, in the shape of a
inspected it to assign the MS. to the ninth, or Hebrew MS. of portions of the Bible. It was
perhaps to the eighth century. This is the found in a synagogue in the neighborhood of opinion of scholars familiar with all kinds of MSS., Cairo, reported to have been built forty-five years
and competent, as few are, to determine their before the second temple was destroyed. It was
ages. If the codex be so old, the origin of the
Creed must be carried back at least a century carefully deposited in a niche in the wall, ten feet above the ground, and had to be secured. by proceeded from the age of Paulinus of Aquileia,
earlier ; so that the composition can hardly have the means of a ladder. Portions, at least, of this MS., which still awaits proper examination, are
or Alcuin, (1 804,) or Charlemagne (t 814.) It
should be stated, however, that the librarian at supposed to be very old. - Athenæum.
Utrecht is inclined to give the MS. a later date, “SHAKESPEARE AND TYPOGRAPHY, a work though we are ignorant of his reasons for doing just brought out by Trübner, cites many instances 'so. As far as is known at present, this is the of the great dramatist's familiarity with the oldest copy of the Creed; and though two or technical terms of the “art preservative of arts." three minute points may appear to detract from Among them these two :-1. “ Come we to full
an eighth or ninth century date, yet the photopoints here ? And are et cæteras nothing ?”—2 graph, as a whole, scarcely justifies a later period.. Henry IV., ii. 4.
The Deputy-keeper of the Public Records has 2. “If a book is folio, and two pages of type been requested by the bishops to report upon it. have been composed, and they are placed in proper position upon the imposing stone, and inclosed within an iron or steel frame, called a
SCIENCE. 'chase,' small wedges of hard wood, termed
Sir JOHN LUBBOCK'S TAME WASP.-Sir J. coigns' or 'quoins,' being driven in at opposite Lubbock exhibited a tame wasp, at the recent sides to make all tight.
brought with him from the Pyrenees, and which Which the world together joins.'
Pericles, iii. 1.
had been in his possession for about three months. This is just the description of a form in folio,
The wasp was of a social kind, and he took it in where two quoins on one side are always opposite its nest formed of twenty-seven cells, in which to two quoins on the other, thus together join
there were fifteen eggs; and, had the wasp been ing and tightening all the separate stamps.”
allowed to remain there, by this time there would
have been quite a little colony of wasps. None of The Portuguese are to have a dictionary equal the eggs, however, came to maturity, and the to those of other peoples-some time. The Royal wasp had laid no eggs since it had been in his Academy of Science at Lisbon began the work possession. The wasp was now quite tame, toward the end of the last century, but abandoned though at first it was rather tro ready with its it in B; leaving, however, a volume of 750 pages. sting. It now ate sugar from his hand and al. In 1822, a fresh attempt was made, which broke lowed him to stroke it. The wasp had every ap
pearance of health and happiness; and, although and with the internal casts of the same species of it enjoyed an outing occasionally, it readily re- foraminifera as are to be found in the
chalk. turned to its bottles, which it seemed to regard Flint seems to be forming in the same manner as a home. This was the first tame wasp kept by now, especially in the deeper parts of the sea. itself he had ever heard of.
The casts of recent foraminifera and corals have
been repeatedly dredged up, to show that the VITAL MOVEMENTS AND ELECTRICITY.–This
process which subserved such a wonderful end in subject was part of that of a paper by Dr. C. B. the cretaceous period, well as when the chert Radcliffe, read before the British Association. beds of the older limestones were formed, is The paper was entitled, “Whether the Causes of still silently gong on. Surely we may say of Vital Movement are yet clearly Appreciated.” these sponges, as Montgomery, in his 'Pelican The paper commenced with a résumé of the opin. Island' did of the coral : ions of ancient and modern writers on the sub
Slime their material, but the slime was turned ject of vital movement. He ridiculed the current
To adamant by their petrific touch ; doctrine which, he said, assumes that vital move.
Frail were their frames, ephemeral their lives, ments are distinct from those manifested in inert
Their masonry imperishable. All matter, and which can at best be only regarded as
Life's needful functions, food, exertion, rest, a hasty deduction from superficial observations.
By nice economy of Providence, The highest aspirations of philosophy, he contend
Were overruled to carry on the work ed, are in direct contradiction to this assumption :
Which out of water brought forth solid rock. and the doctrine of the correlation of physical and vital forces implies a grand centralisation, by
GEYESIS OF THUNDER-STORMS.- Professor which what have been regarded as separate forces
Palmieri's experiments at his observatory half are made to appear as various aspects of some
way up Mount Vesuvius really throw great light central force. Dr. Radcliffe then referred to some investigations which he had recently made ing watched the changes of atmospheric electrici.
on the philosophy of our thunder-storms. Hav. with Sir William Thompson's electrometer, and
ty there for nearly a quarter of a century, he bewhich had tended to confirm the views of Galvani.
lieves he has detected their obedience to certain He mentioned, by way of illustration, a singular definite laws. One of the facts he has established experiment that he had made with a strip of India. is, that the electricity of any station is always rubber, coated on the two surfaces with metal, positive if there be no shower of rain, hail, of which was elongated by the attraction of two op
snow falling within a distance of fifty miles, and posite charges; the discharge causing the India- provided there be no projection of ashes from rubber to contract to its original length.
the crater of the mountain. If a shower be fall. A NEW VEGETABLE INK.-In a recent num
ing within this radius, the following law holds ber of Les Mondes, the editor states that experi- good : At the place there is a strong developments are being made to acclimatize in Europe the
ment of positive electricity, round this there is a Coriaria thymifolia, or ink-plant of New Grenada.
zone of negative, and beyond this again positive The juice of this plant, locally termed chanchi, is electricity. Should negative electricity be obat first of a somewhat reddish color, but becomes
served during the shower, it will be found to be intensely black in a few hours. This juice can be induced by a more powerful one of positive elecused for writing without requiring any further tricity further away. All this has been ascerpreparation; it corrodes steel pens less than or
tained by means of telegraphic communication dinary ink, and has, moreover, the advantage of with both neighboring and distant regions. better resisting chemical agents. When the por
There is no usual development of electricity extion of America named above was under Spanish cept where and when the moisture of the air is dominion, all public documents were written with being condensed. In a cloud from which no rain chanchi, which was not removed from paper by is falling there is no greater electrical activity sea-water.
than elsewhere. But the moment aqueous va.
por begins to condense into drops, positive electri. SPONGES.-Sponges have served a wonderful city is thereby created, and the greater in quanpart in the scheme of creation. By the decom- tity the greater the precipitation by changes of position of their protoplasm, or sarcode, chemi- temperature. When, therefore, this condensacal changes have been naturally promoted which tion is extremely rapid, a superabundance of elechave had very important results. The silicates tricity accumulates, which must find its way to of soda held in solution by sea-water have been the negative zone, perhaps, or to the earth below, precipitated by such action, and the result has by lightning discharges-in other words, thunderbeen the formation of bands and nodules of flint, storms are produced. such as we may see intersecting and alternating in any old chalk quarry. The spongeous origin
THE AMOUNT OF CAFFEIN IN COFFEE, AND of the greater part of such flints is now regarded
ITS ACTION ON THE BODY.—Dr. Aubert, in an as more or less settled. You can hardly chip off essay contained in the last part of Pflüger's Ara thin fake, but you find it crowded with spicules, chiv, states that though it is well known that
coffee-berries and tea-leaves contain the same recent Admiralty surveys, makes known that the very poisonous alkaloid, caffein or thein, no re- rate of variation is rapidly increasing, and is searches have been undertaken to show how much greatest in amount in the highest latitudes; for caffein is contained in an ordinary cup of coffee. example, on the north-east coast of Scotland, and It is also an open question, remarks the Lancet, thence to the Shetland Islands. This being the whether the coffee-berries should be lightly or case, it is clear that the compass-bearings, as laid strongly roasted, though it appears that experi- down on charts and sailing directions, must be ence has taught mankind the mode of prepara- rectified, if ships and seamen are to escape distion by which the largest quantity of the alka- aster. Of course the Admiralty will take care loid is best extracted. Dr. Aubert has made a
that charts properly corrected shall be published; series of researches on these points in conjunc. and Captain Evans' paper, with a chart corrected tion with Dr. Haas. Dr. Aubert's mode of de.
up to January, 1872, will be printed in due time termining the amount of caffein present in any
in the Philosophical Transactions, so that mariners given specimen is based upon its great solubility may provide themselves with safe guides. in chloroform, and especially in hot chloroform,
The variation, as above mentioned, is not only whilst most of the other constituents of the berry greater in the north than in the south, but is are insoluble in it. His results show the pres- greater in the east than in the west; thus showing ence of a larger amount of caffein than that given a difference on all our coasts. We may perhaps by most other experimenters, with the exception remark further, that the westerly variation is now, of Graham, Stenhouse, and Campbell, with whose
and has been for some time, decreasing; the analysis his own nearly coincided. The quantity needle is going back to the north and east, whence, he and they obtained is about 8 or 9 per cent.
in the next century, another mysterious oscillation Aubert thinks that a cup of coffee prepared from
will bring it back to the west. Chambers's about one ounce of coffee contains from four to
Journal. five grains of caffein. His experiments on the effects of various degrees of roasting show that
A USEFUL INVENTION.—The material producthere is little caffein lost even when the coffee ber
ed by Colonel Szerelmy, and called by the Arabicries are roasted black; in this respect he is in antagonism with Liebig. He obtains from the best varnish, or glue, or rather a substance combining
sounding name of Zopissa, is a species of paint, Pekoe tea from 2.149 to 2.423 per cent of caffein,
the special qualities of each of these bodies with the greater portion of which is extracted by the others peculiar to itself. It can be employed simple process of infusion. As regards the
with the facility of paint. It is as preservative of physiological action of caffein, he coincides with
surface and of lustre as the most successful varprevious experimenters in considering that it
nish. It holds with a tenacity equal to that of causes increased reflex excitability and tetanus,
the best marine glue, not only wood, paper, the action resembling that of strychnia. If, how
and cloth, but stone, glass, and iron. It is imever, one sciatic nerve be divided before the poi.
pervious to water. It is incombustible by fire. soning, that limb is not convulsed; hence it acts
It is an almost absolute non-conductor of heat. on the nerve-centres. A frog is tetanized by the
While qualities such as these are enough to give subcutaneous injection of a quantity not exceed
a very high commercial value to a chemical proing 0.005 of a gramme. 0.120 of a gramme in
duct, the cost of production is said to be very jected into the jugular of a rabbit tetanizes it,
low. We have not space to enter into the interand a cat or dog is tetanized by 0.2 of a gramme.
esting details of the manner in which Colonel It is remarkable that by maintaining artificial res.
Szerelmy was led to the discovery of this importpiration for some time, the symptoms of tetanus
ant material. He believes that it is the very entirely disappear. Its action on the heart of mammals is that it causes acceleration of the bility to the sarcophagi, the mummy cloths, and
secret that has imparted so imperishable a dura. beats, with diminution of the wood-pressure; this last effect he attributes to the poison paraly. There is, it is certain, a wonderfully Egyptian
the mural paintings of the ancient Egyptians. zing the ganglionic nerves of the heart.
look about the panels, and cloths, and piles, and
beams, and sleepers, prepared by this process. MAGNETIC DECLINATION ON THE COAST OF Some of them have been for years under water. ENGLAND.-Staff-Captain Evans of the Admiralty Some of them have been exposed to jets of flamhas made a communication to the Royal Society, ing gas. They appear to have been little affected which is well worth the attention of all who are by either. Human life is not of adequate length interested in navigation. It is, On the Present to apply the tests to which the inventor proposes Amount of Westerly Magnetic Declination on the to submit the timbers he has prepared. But when Coasts of Great Britain, and its Annual Changes. we say that not only a very large proportion of This magnetic declination is commonly known as the newspaper press of the country has called at. variation of the compass, that is, the amount by tention to the results of experiment, but that Dr. which the compass-needle varies, from the true Faraday and Sir Roderick Murchison, in an offinorth. At present, the variation is to the west of cial report which the House of Commons ordered north, and Captain Evans, taking his facts from to be printed on the 16th of May, 1860, bear