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The Principles and Practice of Land Drainage ... Illustrated, Etc
John H. KLIPPART
Vista completa - 1861
absorbed acre Agriculture alkali ammonia amount bottom brick bushels C H A P T E R calcareous carbonate carbonic acid cent clay soil clayey condition contained cost crop cultivated deep drains depth discharge distance drain pipe drain water drainage drained land drainers drought earth evaporation experiments fall farm farmer feet deep field filled filtered filtrate foot four feet frost garden Gorlitz ground heat humus impervious inch tile inches J. J. Thomas kiln laid length less lime loam loamy soil magnesia main drain manure means mgrms minor drains moisture mole plow natron Ohio particles phosphoric acid pipe tile plants porous portion potash quantity rain retain rods roots sand saturated side silicic acid soil solution spring stagnant water strata stratum sub-main subsoil substances surface temperature three feet tion trench underdraining undrained vegetation wheat Width Width Width yards
Página 110 - It is wholly immaterial, whether the party be a proprietor above or below, in the course of the river; the right being common to all the proprietors on the river, no one has a right to diminish the quantity which will, according to the natural current, flow to a proprietor below, or to throw it back upon a proprietor above. This is the necessary result of the perfect equality of right among all the proprietors of that which is common to all.
Página 110 - ... without diminution or alteration. No proprietor has a right to use the water to the prejudice of other proprietors, above or below him, unless he has a prior right to divert it, or a title to some exclusive enjoyment. He has no property in the water itself, but a simple usufruct while it passes along. ' Aqua currit et debet currere
Página 32 - Mr. Johnston says tile-draining pays for itself in two seasons, sometimes in one. Thus, in 1847, he bought a piece of ten acres to get an outlet for his drains. It was a perfect quagmire, covered with coarse aquatic grasses, and so unfruitful that it would not give back the seed sown upon it. In 1848 a crop of corn was taken from it, which was measured and found to be eighty bushels per acre, and as, because of the Irish...
Página 84 - ... regular register has been kept of the quantity of rain-water that ran off from the surface of the earth through the upper pipe (whilst that took place), and also of the quantity of that which sank down through the three feet of earth, and ran out through the lower pipe.
Página 267 - It is wrought in the shape of a wedge, brought in the bottom to the narrowest limit which will admit the collar by tools admirably adapted to that purpose. The foot of the operator is never within 20 inches of the floor of the drain ; his tools are made of iron plated on steel, and never lose their sharpness, even when worn to the stumps; because, as the softer material, the iron, wears away, the sharp steel edge is always prominent.
Página 426 - ... to be necessary, and that the same is demanded by, or will be conducive to the public health, convenience and welfare, shall proceed to locate and establish such ditch, drain or water-course...
Página 285 - When water is heated from below, the portion first subjected to the heat rises to the surface, and every portion is successively subjected to the heat and rises, and each, having lost some of its heat at the surface, is in turn displaced. Constant motion is kept up, and a constant approximation to an equal temperature in the whole body. The application of superficial heat has no tendency to disturb the quiescence of water.
Página 110 - In virtue of this ownership, he has a right to the use of the water flowing over it, in its natural current, without diminution or obstruction. But, strictly speaking, he has no property in the water itself...
Página 107 - This, then, is the condition of undrained soil. ' ' Not only are the pores filled, but the interstitial canals are likewise full, and the consequence is that the whole process of the germination and growth of vegetables is materially interfered with. We shall here, therefore, briefly state the injurious effects of an excess of water, for the purpose of impressing more strongly on your minds the necessity of thorough draining, as the first and most essential step towards the improvement of your soil.
Página 108 - Of course all these injurious effects are at once overcome by thorough draining, the result of which is to establish a direct communication between the interstitial canals and the drains, by which means it follows that no water can remain any length of time in these canals without, by its gravitation, finding its way into the drains.