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waters drowned, the fire consumed, or on which the birds of the air and the beasts of the field were fed. giveth it a body,” formed according to his pleasure: and though the man is the same, as to his consciousness and essential being, yet he comes in a body of a very different kind from that in which he was formerly seen before hi death.

But why, proceeds the apostle, should - this create a difficulty? What a wonderful variety of bodies and material substances are there in nature !

39. “ All flesh is not the same flesh :"

There are even varieties here :

among themselves.

“ But there is one kind of flesh of men, another flesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another of birds. There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial; but the glory"-“ the beauty and excellency”—“ of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another." — The beauty, and excellency, and appropriate nature of these celestial bodies differ also -“ There is one glory of the sun,

and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars ; for,"—or rather, nay,” or,

moreover,"_" one star differeth from another star in glory. So also is the resurrection of the dead."

The dead are raised, indeed, in the bodies that God, according to his pleasure, will give them, but in bodies very different from what they had before ; as different as one animal is from another; as different, in its nature, as the stars which shine in the heavens are from the substances found upon the surface of the earth, or in its entrails. As different is this body from the former in its beauty, in its excellency, in its peculiar functions and adaptation of parts, as the sun is different from the moon, the moon from the stars ; and as they again are different

in the Psalms and in the ancient Prophets i especially under the symbol of “ the little horn,” in the vision of Daniel, which we have already seen to apply, almost without a possibility of doubt - history having interpreted prophecy - to the Papacy; and the reader will find, in Bishop Newton on the Prophecies, a very able and satisfactory dissertation on this prophecy of St. Paul; where the application of the symbol of “ the man of sin” is clearly shown to belong to the papacy, and to the

papacy alone.

This prophecy, then, asserts that the coming of Christ could not be looked for until after this “man of sin,”the power symbolized by the little horn of Daniel, was revealed. He had not yet been revealed; the church and the world had never seen such a character: but the apostle refers to a conversation that he had had with the Thessalonians, in which he had explained to them what, in the present state of the world, prevented the appearance of this great corrupter and persecutor.

“ And now ye know what withholdeth,” — or, “ And ye kaow what now restraineth him,' that he might be revealed in his season.

For the mystery of iniquity doth already work; only he who now letteth, will let until he be taken out of the way."

The Christian fathers universally understood the restraining power to be the Roman empire; in which opinion, whether it was derived from tradition or from conjecture, they seem to have been well founded,”i The situation of the empire, as it then stood, did not admit of the manifestation of this character in its relative position,

· Macknight. See also Bishop Newton.


45. " And so," or, “ Thus also it is written, The first man, Adam, was made a living soul; the last Adam, a quickening spirit. Howbeit, that was not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural, and afterwards that which is spiritual.”

What is meant by a " living soul” we have a proof in ourselves, in that nature which, in common with all our race, we derive from our father Adam. But the risen Saviour becomes to his people the source of a new and very different being; a germ of this spiritual existence is now fixed by the Holy Ghost within them, and being nourished from the same source from which it was taken, it must grow and increase. This is “the new," the “inner man." This reorganizes the souls and faculties

. of men into new creatures. Their animal frames, which they still wear, must fall into the earth and die: but their second Adam will quicken for them a spiritual body like his own, so that “ in body and soul they will be like him.”

The parallel here, be it again observed, is not between Christ and Adam, as two heads or stocks of the whole race of mankind, as some represent; but between Christ and Adam, as the heads of their respective children,- Adam of all mankind, Christ of the children of God, the seed which God has given himout of mankind,” to whom he is “ to give eternal life," and whom he is “ to raise up at the last day." • Christ is called Adam, because believers receive their sanctified spiritual nature and their immortal body from him, just as mankind have derived their corrupted nature and mortal body from the first Adam.” “ This clause the last Adam a vivifying spirit — is not in the passage of the ancient Scripture quoted by the apostle: these are his own words, formed upon what Christ said, John, v. 26:For as the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself. As the apostle is speaking

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little horn of the fourth beast, as joint symbols of the PAPACY, and “the wicked,” the emphatic“ lawless one," with the king that doth according to his will ; the symbol of the “

possessors of sovereign authority,” or “ political power,” in the fourth or Roman empire ---- as history has begun to explain. The apostasy that manifests itself among the professed Christians of the Roman world, first perverts the truths of the Gospel, and substitutes in their stead the demoniacal superstition and abominable idolatry of

popery ; but at length arrives at that further pitch of wickedness, that the rulers and governors of the earth throw off all disguise, and act on the avowed principles of infidelity; and, in the character of antichristian infidels, rather than in that of superstitious papists, shall, perhaps, in the last instance, make war with the Lamb,

" the

“ Whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish, because they receive not the love of the truth that they may be saved: and for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie; that they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness."

“ Whose coming” has, by most commentators, been understood of the rise of this “ man of sin” or wicked one;" but the construction of the text seems regularly to confine the application to the coming of the Lord just mentioned. The sense will be : The coming of the Lord Jesus, which you erroneously suppose to be at hand, does not take place till after this' mighty struggle of the prince of darkness, opposing the right ways of the Lord, and, by various artitices, seducing the professed followers of Christ. “ The miracles and lying wonders" mentioned in the text, as the facts of history have shown, strongly mark the rise of popery in past ages : and were we sure that mankind are now become so enlightened by philosophy, that they can no more be imposed upon by such pretended miracles, the “deceivableness of unrighteousness” will be seen to exert its powers in some other different way. The subtilty of Satan has other resources, by which the boasting reasoner may become a dupe at last. It must be so. We read, To those“ who receive not the love of the truth that they may be saved, God will send a strong delusion, that they may believe a lie, that they all might be damned that believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.” Let us remember, then, in these last days, if superstition go out of fashion with mankind, the “ energizing"1 of Satan and “ of deceit” is not at an end :

An alarm, and a snare, and a pit,
Are prepared for thee, O inhabitant of the earth.
And it shall be that he that fleeth from the sound of the alarm

shall fall into the pit,
And he that getteth up out of the pit
Shall be taken in the snare,

What St. Paul says in the fourth chapter of his first epistle to Timothy, respecting the same apostasy, may, perhaps, with advantage, be advanced in this place :

“ Now, the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith.”

The Holy Ghost, in the revelations he made to the


Ενεργεια. .

* Isaiah, xvi. 17

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