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intoxicating liquor or narcotic drug; no license must be issued authorizing the marriage of a white person with a negro, mulatto, or Mongolian : If the male is under the age of twenty-one years, or the female is under the age of eighteen years, and such person has not been previously married, no license must be issued by the county clerk unless the consent in writing of the parents of the person under age, or one of such parents, or of his or her guardian, is presented to him, duly verified by such parents, or parent, or guardian; and such consent must be filed by the clerk, and he must state such facts in the license. For the purpose of ascertaining all the facts mentioned or required in this section, the clerk, at the time the license is applied for, may, if he deems it necessary in order to satisfy himself as to matters in this section enumerated, examine the male applicant for a license on oath, which examination shall be reduced to writing by the clerk, and subscribed by him. (Amended, Statutes 1907, p. 305.] Certificate of registry of marriage.

§ 69a. All persons about to be joined in marriage must obtain from the county clerk of the county in which the marriage is to be celebrated, in addition to the license therefor provided for in section sixty-nine of the Civil Code, a certificate of registry as provided in section three thousand and seventy-six of the Political Code which shall contain among other matters as near as can be ascertained, the race, color, age, name and surname, birthplace, residence of the parties to be married, number of marriage and condition of each, whether single, widowed, or divorced, the occupation of the parties, maiden name of the female, if previously married, the names and birthplaces of the parents of each, and the maiden name of the mother of each, which said certificate of registry shall be filled out as herein provided in the presence of the county clerk issuing the marriage license and shall then be presented to the person performing the ceremony and shall be filed by him with the county recorder within three days after the ceremony. [Enacted, Statutes 1909, p. 1093.] By whom may be solemnized.

$ 70. Marriage may be solemnized by either a justice of the supreme court, justice of the district courts of appeal, judge of the superior court, justice of the peace, judge of any police court, city recorder, priestor minister of the gospel of any denomination. (Amended, Statutes 1907, p. 80.] No particular form of solemnization.

$ 71. No particular form for the ceremony of marriage is required, but the parties must declare, in the presence of the person solemnizing the marriage, that they take each other as husband and wife. Requirements by persons solemnizing marriage.

$ 72. The person solemnizing a marriage must first require the presentation of the marriage license; and if he has any reason to doubt the correctness of its statement of facts, he must first satisfy himself of its correctness, and for that purpose he may administer oaths and examine the parties and witnesses in like manner as the county clerk does before issuing the license. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 186.] Certificate of marriage.

$ 73. The person solemnizing a marriage must make, sign and indorse upon, or attach to, the license, a certificate showing: 1. The fact, time and place of solemnization; and 2. The names and places of residence of one or more witnesses to the

ceremony. (Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 187.] Certificate to parties and recorder.

$ 74. He must, at the request of, and for either party, make a certified copy of the license and certificate, and file the originals with the county recorder within thirty days after the marriage.

$ 75. Repealed. Declaration where there is no record.

§ 76. If no record of the solemnization of a marriage heretofore contracted, be known to exist, the parties may join in a written declaration of such marriage, substantially showing:

1. The names, ages, and residences of the parties. 2. The fact of marriage.

3. That no record of such marriage is known to exist. Such declaration must be subscribed by the parties and attested by at least three witnesses. (Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 187.] To be acknowledged and recorded.

$ 77. Declarations of marriage must be acknowledged and recorded in like manner as grants of real property. Testing validity of marriage.

$ 78. If either party to any marriage denies the same, or refuses to join in a declaration thereof, the other may proceed, by action in the superior court, to have the validity of the marriage determined and declared. [Amended, Statutes 1883, p. 3.] Marriage without license.

§ 79. When unmarried persons, not minors, have been living together as man and wife, they may, without a license, be married by any clergy

A certificate of such marriage must, by the clergyman, be made and delivered to the parties, and recorded upon the records of the church of which the clergyman is a representative. No other record need be made. [Enacted, Code Amdts. 1877-78, p. 75.]



Recording declaration of marriage.

§ 79a. The provisions of this chapter, so far as they relate to the solemnizing of marriages, are not applicable to members of any particular religious denomination having, as such, any peculiar mode of entering the marriage relation; but such marriages must be declared, as provided in section seventy-six, and be acknowledged and recorded, as provided in section seventy-seven. When a marriage is declared as provided in said section seventy-six, the husband must file said declaration with the county recorder within thirty days after such marriage, and upon receiving the same the county recorder must record the same; and if the husband fails to make such declaration and file the same for record, as herein provided, he is liable to the same penalties as any person authorized to solemnize marriages, who fails to make the return of such solemnization as provided by law. (Amended, Statutes 1905, p. 555.] Action to have marriage declared void.

$ 80. Either party to an incestuous or void marriage may proceed by action in the superior court, to have the same so declared. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1880, p. 4.]

DIVORCE. Causes for annulling marriages.

$ 82. A marriage may be annulled for any of the following causes, existing at the time of the marriage:

1. That the party in whose behalf it is sought to have the marriage annulled was under the age of legal consent, and such marriage was contracted without the consent of his or her parents or guardian, or person having charge of him or her; unless, after attaining the age of consent, such party for any time freely cohabited with the other as husband or wife.

2. That the former husband or wife of either party was living, and the marriage with such former husband or wife was then in force.

3. That either party was of unsound mind, unless such party, after coming to reason, freely cohabit with the other as husband or wife.

4. That the consent of either party was obtained by fraud, unless such party afterwards, with full knowledge of the facts constituting the fraud, freely cohabited with the other as husband or wife.

5. That the consent of either party was obtained by force, unless such party afterwards freely cohabited with the other as husband or wife.

6. That either party was, at the time of marriage, physically incapable of entering into the marriage state, and such incapacity continues, and appears to be incurable. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 187.] Actions therefor, when commenced.

$ 83. An action to obtain a decree of nullity of marriage, for causes mentioned in the preceding section, must be commenced within the periods and by the parties, as follows:

1. For causes mentioned in subdivision one: by the party to the marriage who was married under the age of legal consent, within four years after arriving at the age of consent; or by a parent, guardian, or other person having charge of such nonaged male or female, at any time before such married minor has arrived at the age of legal consent.

2. For causes mentioned in subdivision two: by either party during the life of the other, or by such former husband or wife.

3. For causes mentioned in subdivision three : by the party injured, or relative or guardian of the party of unsound mind, at any time before the death of either party.

4. For causes mentioned in subdivision four: by the party injured, within four years after the discovery of the facts constituting the fraud.

5. For causes mentioned in subdivision five: by the injured party, within four years after the marriage.

6. For causes mentioned in subdivision six: by the injured party, within four years after the marriage. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 188. ] Children of annulled marriage.

$ 84. A judgment of nullity of marriage does not affect the legitimacy of children begotten before the judgment. [Amended, Statutes 1905, p. 555.] Custody of children.

§ 85. The court must award the custody of the children of a marriage annulled on the ground of fraud or force to the innocent parent, and may also provide for their education and maintenance out of the property of the guilty party. Effect of judgment of nullity.

$ 86. A judgment of nullity of marriage rendered is conclusive only as against the parties to the action and those claiming under them. Marriage, how dissolved.

$ 90. Marriage is dissolved only: 1. By death of one of the parties; or, 2. By the judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction decreeing a divorce of the parties. (Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 189.] Effect of divorce.

$ 91. The effect of a judgment decreeing a divorce, is to restore the parties to the state of unmarried persons. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 189.] Causes for divorce.

$ 92. Divorces may be granted for any of the following causes :
1. Adultery.
2. Extreme cruelty.
3. Wilful desertion.

4. Wilful neglect.
5. Habitual intemperance.

6. Conviction of felony. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 189.] Adultery defined.

$ 93. Adultery is the voluntary sexual intercourse of a married person with a person other than the offender's husband or wife. Extreme cruelty.

& 94. Extreme cruelty is the wrongful infliction of grievous [1] bodily injury, or grievous [2] mental suffering, upon the other by one party. to the marriage. [Amended, Statutes 1905, p. 75.] Desertion.

$ 95. Wilful desertion is the voluntary separation of one of the married parties from the other with intent to desert. Desertion, how manifested.

$ 96. Persistent refusal [1]to have reasonable matrimonial intercourse as husband and wife, when health or physical condition does not make such refusal reasonably necessary, or [2] the refusal of either party to dwell in the same house with the other party, when there is no just cause for such refusal, is desertion. In case of stratagem or fraud.

$ 97. When one party is induced, by the stratagem or fraud of the other party, to leave the family lwelling place, or to be absent, and during such absence the offending party departs with intent to desert the other, it is desertion by the party committing the stratagem or fraud, and not by the other. In case of cruelty.

$ 98. Departure or absence of one party from the family dwellingplace, caused by cruelty or by threats of bodily harm from which danger would be reasonably apprehended from the other, is not desertion by the absent party, but it is desertion by the other party. Separation by consent not desertion.

$ 99. Separation by consent, with or without the understanding that one of the parties will apply for divorce, is not desertion. Absence becomes desertion, when.

$ 100. Absence or separation, proper in itself, becomes desertion whenever the intent to desert is fixed during such absence or separation. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1873-74, p. 189.) Consent to separate revocable.

& 101. Consent to a separation is a revocable act, and if one of the parties afterwards, in good faith, seeks a reconciliation and restoration, but the other refuses it, such refusal is desertion.

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