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allowed five dollars per diem and necessary traveling expenses while engaged in such conferences. The commission shall make rules and regulations governing the number and selection of the members and the mode of procedure of such wage board, and shall exercise exclusive jurisdiction over all questions arising as to the validity of the procedure and of the recommendations of such wage board. The proceedings and deliberations of such wage board shall be made a matter of record for the use of the commission, and shall be admissible as evidence in any proceedings before the commission. On request of the commission, it shall be the duty of such wage board to report to the commission its findings, including therein :

1. An estimate of the minimum wage adequate to supply to women and minors engaged in the occupation, trade or industry in question, the necessary cost of proper living and to maintain the health and welfare of such women and minors.

2. The number of hours of work per day in the occupation, trade or industry in question, consistent with the health and welfare of such women and minors.

3. The standard conditions of labor in the occupation, trade or industry in question, demanded by the health and welfare of such women and minors. Power to fix wages, hours, etc.

§ 6. (a) The commission shall have further power after a public hear ing had upon its own motion or upon petition, to fix:

1. A minimum wage to be paid to women and minors engaged in any occupation, trade or industry in this state, which shall not be less than a wage adequate to supply to such women and minors the necessary cost of proper living and to maintain the health and welfare of such women and minors.

2. The maximum hours of work consistent with the health and welfare of women and minors engaged in any occupation, trade or industry in this state; provided, that the hours so fixed shall not be more than the maximum now or hereafter fixed by law.

3. The standard conditions of labor demanded by the health and welfare of the women and minors engaged in any occupation, trade or industry in this state.

(6) Upon the fixing of a time and place for the holding of a hearing for the purpose of considering and acting upon any matters referred to in subsection (a) hereof, the commission shall give public notice by advertisement in at least one newspaper published in each of the cities of Los Angeles and Sacramento and in the city and county of San Francisco, and by mailing a copy of said notice to the county recorder of each county in the state, of such hearing and purpose thereof, which notice shall state the time and place fixed for such hearing, which shall not be earlier than fourteen days from the date of publication and mailing of such notices.

(c) After such public hearing, the commission may, in its discretion, make a mandatory order to be effective in sixty days from the making of such order, specifying the minimum wage for women or minors in the occupation in question, the maximum hours; provided, that the hours specified shall not be more than the maximum for women or minors in California, and the standard conditions of labor for said women or minors; provided, however, that no such order shall become effective until after April 1, 1914. Such order shall be published in at least one newspaper in each of the cities of Los Angeles and Sacramento and in the city and county of San Francisco, and a copy thereof be mailed to the county recorder of each county in the state, and such copy shall be recorded without charge, and to the labor commissioner who shall send by mail, so far as practicable, to each employer in the occupation in question, a copy of the order, and each employer shall be required to post a copy of such order in the building in which women or minors affected by the order are employed. Failure to mail notice to the employer shall not relieve the employer from the duty to comply with such order. Finding by the commission that there has been such publication and mailing to county recorders shall be conclusive as to service. Order may be rescinded or amended.

§ 7. Whenever wages, or hours, or conditions of labor have been so made mandatory in any occupation, trade, or industry, the commission may at any time in its discretion, upon its own motion or upon petition of either employers or employees, after a public hearing held upon the notice prescribed for an original hearing, rescind, alter or amend any prior order. Any order rescinding a prior order shall have the same effect as herein provided for in an original order. License to physically defective.

§ 8. (a) For any occupation in which a minimum wage has been established, the commission may issue to a woman physically defective by age or otherwise, a special license authorizing the employment of such licensee, for a period of six months, for a wage less than such legal minimum wage; and the commission shall fix a special minimum wage for such person. Any such license may be renewed for like periods of six months.

(b) For any occupation in which a minimum wage has been established, the commission may issue to an apprentice or learner, a special license authorizing the employment of such apprentice or learner, for such time and under such conditions as the commission may determine at a wage less than such legal minimum wage; and the commission shall fix a special wage for such apprentice or learner.

(c) The commission may fix the maximum number of women, and minors under eighteen years of age, to be employed under the licenses provided for in subdivisions (11) and (b) of this section in any occupation, trade, industry or establishment in which a minimum wage has been established. | Amended, Statutes 1915, p. 950.)

Statistics.

§ 9. Upon the request of the commission, the labor commissioner shall cause such statistics and other data and information to be gathered, and investigations made, as the commission may require. The cost thereof shall be paid out of the appropriations made for the expenses of the commission.

Discharging employee who testified, misdemeanor.

§ 10. Any employer who discharges, or threatens to discharge, or in any other manner discriminates against any employee because such employee has testified or is about to testify, or because such employer believes that said employee may testify in any investigation, or proceedings relative to the enforcement of this act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor. Payment of less than minimum wage prohibited.

$ 11. The minimum wage for women and minors fixed by said commission as in this act provided, shall be the minimum wage to be paid to such employees, and the payment to such employees of a less wage than the minimum so fixed shall be unlawful, and every employer or other person who, either individually or as an officer, agent, or employee of a corporation or other person, pays or causes to be paid to any such employee a wage less than such minimum, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment for not less than thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment; and every employer or other person who, either individually or as an officer, agent or employee of a corporation, or other persons, violates or refuses or neglects to comply with the provisions of this act, or any orders or rulings of this commission, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof be punished by a fine of not less than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment for not less than thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. [Amended, Statutes 1915, p. 950.] Wage fixed presumed reasonable. Appeal.

§ 12. In every prosecution for violation of any provision of this act, the minimum wage, the maximum hours of work and the standard conditions of labor fixed by the commission as herein provided, shall be prima facie presumed to be reasonable and lawful, and to be the living wage, the maximum hours of work and standard conditions of labor required herein. The findings of fact made by the commission acting within its powers shall, in the absence of fraud, be conclusive; and the determination made by the commission shall be subject to review only in a manner and upon the grounds following: within twenty days from the date of the determination, any party aggrieved thereby may commence in the superior court in and for the city and county of San Francisco, or in and for the counties of Los Angeles or Sacramento, an action against the commission for review of such determination. In such action a complaint, which shall state the grounds upon which a review is sought, shall be served with the summons. Service upon the secretary of the commission, or any member of the commission, shall be deemed a complete service. The commission shall serve its answer within twenty days after the service of the complaint. With its answer, the commission shall make a return to the court of all documents and papers on file in the matter, and of all testimony and evidence which may have been taken before it, and of its findings and the determination. The action may thereupon be brought on for hearing before the court upon such record by either party on ten days' notice of the other. Upon such hearing, the court may confirm or set aside such determination; but the same shall be set aside only upon the following grounds:

(1) That the commission acted without or in excess of its powers. (2) That the determination was procured by fraud.

Upon the setting aside of any determination the court may recommit the controversy and remand the record in the case to the commission for further proceedings. The commission, or any party aggrieved, by a decree entered upon the review of a determination, may appeal therefrom within the time and in the manner provided for an appeal from the orders of the said superior court. [Amended, Statutes 1915, p. 951.] Employee may sue for unpaid balance.

§ 13. Any employee receiving less than the legal minimum wage applicable to such employee, shall be entitled to recover in a civil action the unpaid balance of the full amount of such minimum wage, together with costs of suit, notwithstanding any agreement to work for such lesser wage. Complaints.

§ 14. Any person may register with the commission a complaint that the wages paid to an employee for whom a living rate has been established, are less than that rate, and the commission shall investigate the matter and take all proceedings necessary to enforce the payment of a wage not less than the living wage. Biennial report.

§ 15. The commission shall biennially make a report to the governor and the state legislature of its investigations and proceedings. Appropriation. f 16. There is hereby appropriated anni

nnually out of the moneys of the state treasury, not otherwise appropriated, the sum of fifteen thousand dollars, to be used by the commission in carrying out the provisions of this act, and the controller is hereby directed from time to time to draw his warrants on the general fund in favor of the commission for the amounts expended under its direction, and the treasurer is hereby authorized and directed to pay the same.

Not board of arbitration.

§ 17. The commission shall not act as a board of arbitration during a strike or lock-out. Interpretation of act-Constitutionality.

& 18. (a) Whenever this act, or any part or section thereof, is interpreted by a court, it shall be liberally construed by such court.

(b) If any section, subsection, or subdivision of this act is for any reason held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this act. The legislature hereby declares that it would have passed this act, and each section, subsection, subdivision, sentence, clause and phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more sections, subsections, subdivisions, sentences, clauses or phrases is declared unconstitutional. Act applies to all occupations.

§ 19. The provisions of this act shall apply to and include women and minors employed in any occupation, trade or industry, and whose compensation for labor is measured by time, piece or otherwise.

HOURS OF LABOR OF CHILDREN.

An act regulating the employment and hours of labor of children-pro

hibiting the employment of minors under certain ages-prohibiting the employment of certain illiterate minors providing for the enforcement hereof by the commissioner of the bureau of labor statistics and providing penalties for the violation hereof. [Approved February 20, 1905; amended 1907, 1909, 1911, 1915, 1917;

Statutes 1905, p. 11; 1907, pp. 598, 978; 1909, pp. 211, 387; 1911, pp. 282, 910; 1913, p. 364; 1915, p. 1201 ; 1917, p. 826.]

Hours of labor of minors under fifteen.

§ 1. No minor under the age of fifteen years shall be employed, permitted or suffered to work in or in connection with any mercantile establishment, manufacturing establishment, mechanical establishment, workshop, office, laundry, place of amusement, restaurant, hotel, apartment house, or in the distribution or transmission of merchandise or messages, or in any other place of labor at any time; provided, however, that on the regular weekly school holidays and during the regular vacation of public schools of the city, county, or city and county, in which the place of employment is situated, a minor under the age of fifteen years, but over the age of twelve years, may be employed if provided with a vacation permit as hereinafter provided; and provided, further, that any minor fourteen years of age shall, upon application to the school authorities as in the case of an

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