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ARTICLE II. Who are entitled to vote.

SECTION 1. Every native citizen of the United States, every person who shall have acquired the rights of citizenship under or by virtue of the treaty of Queretaro, and every naturalized citizen thereof, who shall have become such ninety days prior to any election, of the age of twenty-one years, who shall have been resident of the state one year next preceding the election, and of the county in which he or she claims his or her vote ninety days, and in the election precinct thirty days, shall be entitled to vote at all elections which are now or may hereafter be authorized by law; provided, no native of China, no idiot, no insane person, no person convicted of any infamous crime, no person hereafter convicted of the embezzlement or misappropriation of public money, and no person who shall not be able to read the constitution in the English language and write his or her name, shall ever exercise the privileges of an elector in this state; provided, that the provisions of this amendment relative to an educational qualification shall not apply to any person prevented by a physical disability from complying with its requisitions, nor to any person who now has the right to vote, nor to any person who shall be sixty years of age and upwards at the time this amendment shall take effect. (Amendment adopted October 10, 1911.)

Support of orphans, abandoned children, or aged persons.

Sec. 22. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law, and upon warrants duly drawn thereon by the controller; and no money shall ever be appropriated or drawn from the state treasury for the purpose or benefit of any corporation, association, asylum, hospital, or any other institution not under the exclusive management and control of the state as a state institution, nor shall any grant or donation of property ever be made thereto by the state; provided, that notwithstanding anything contained in this or any other section of this constitution, the legislature shall have the power to grant aid to the institutions conducted for the support and maintenance of minor orphans, or half-orphans, or abandoned children, or aged persons in indigent circumstances-such aid to be granted by a uniform rule, and proportioned to the number of inmates of such respective institutions; provided, further, that the state shall have at any time the right to inquire into the management of such institution; provided, further, that whenever any county, or city and county, or city, or town, shall provide for the support of minor




orphans, or half-orphans, or abandoned children, or aged persons in indi. gent circumstances, such county, city and county, city, or town shall be entitled to receive the same pro rata appropriations as may be granted to such institutions under church or other control.

(Amendment adopted November 8, 1910. The above provisions were in the constitution of 1879 and were changed only slightly by the 1910 amendment, which related to other subjects.] Local and special laws prohibited.

Sec. 25. The legislature shall not pass local or special laws in any of the following enumerated cases, that is to say:

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Fifth-Granting divorces.
Sixth-Changing the names of persons or places.

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TwelfthAffecting estates of deceased persons, minors, or other persons under legal disabilities.

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Fourteenth-Giving effect to invalid deeds, wills, or other instruments.

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Seventeenth-Declaring any person of age, or authorizing any minor to sell, lease, or incumber his or her property.

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Twenty-seventh-Providing for the management of common schools.

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Thirtieth-Changing the law of descent or succession.
Thirty-first-Authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children.

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ARTICLE XX. Marriage contracts, validity of.

Sec. 7. No contract of marriage, if otherwise duly made, shall be invalidated for want of conformity to the requirements of any religious sect.

Separate property.

Sec. 8. All property, real and personal, owned by either husband or wife, before marriage, and that acquired by either of them afterwards by gift, devise, or descent, shall be their separate property. Minimum wage for women and minors.

Section 17). The legislature may, by appropriate legislation, provide for the establishment of a minimum wage for women and minors and may provide for the comfort, health, safety and general welfare of any and all employees. No provision of this constitution shall be construed as a limitation upon the authority of the legislature to confer upon any commission now or hereafter created, such power and authority as the legislature may deem requisite to carry out the provisions of this section. New section adopted November 3, 1914.] Businesses and professions open to women.

Sec. 18. No person shall, on account of sex, be disqualified from entering upon or pursuing any lawful business, vocation, or profession.


Minors, who are.

$ 25. Minors are:
1. Males under twenty-one years of age;

2. Females under eighteen years of age. Periods of minority, how calculated.

$26. The periods specified in the preceding section must be calculated from the first minute of the day on which persons are born to the same minute of the corresponding day completing the period of minority. Adults, who are.

$ 27. All other persons are adults. Unborn child.

§ 29. A child conceived, but not yet born, is to be deemed an existing person, so far as may be necessary for its interests in the event of its subsequent birth. Custody of minors.

$ 32. The custody of minors and persons of unsound mind is regulated by Part III of this division (i. e. $ 55-276). Minors can not give a delegation of power.

$ 33. A minor can not [1] give a delegation of power, nor under the age of eighteen, [2] make a contract relating to [a] real property, or [b] any interest therein, or [c] relating to any personal property not in his immediate possession or control. [Amended, Code Audts. 1873–74, p. 182.] Contracts by minors made; disaffirmance.

$ 34. A minor may make any other contract than as above specified, in the same manner as an adult, subject only [1] to his power of disaffirmance under the provisions of this title, and subject [2] to the provisions of the titles on sal marriage, and on 11'| master and servant. [Amended, Code Amdts. 1873 74, p. 183.|| When minors may disaffirm.

$ 35. In all cases other than those specilied in sections thirty-six and thirty-seven, the contract of a minor, if made whilst he is under the age of eighteen, may be disaffirmed [1] by the minor himself,

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