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ever for the discharge of the trust confided by Secretaries had been assigned him in some cereme to him in and by the foregoing will.” mony, he disregarded the programme; and, as

And the event has proved that his judgment, the elect of the elect of all the people, took his as always, committed no mistake when it be- place next after those whom the national vote stowed that confidence. He had his peculiarities-- had elected. And in 1803, on the question to idiosyncracies, if any one pleases—but they were change the form of voting for President and born with him, suited to him, constituting a part of Vice-President, and the vote wanting one of the his character, and necessary to its completeness. constitutional number of two thirds, he resisted He never subscribed to charities, but gave, and the rule of the House which restricted the freely, according to his means—the left hand not speaker's vote to a tie, or to a vote which would knowing what the right hand did. He never make a tie,---claimed his constitutional right to subscribed for new books, giving as a reason to vote as a member, obtained it, gave the rote, the soliciting agent, that nobody purchased his made the two thirds, and carried the amendtobacco until it was inspected; and he could ment. And, what may well be deemed idiosynbuy no book until he had examined it. He cratic in these days, he was punctual in the perwould not attend the Congress Presidential Cau- formance of all his minor duties to the Senate, cus of 1824, although it was sure to nominate attending its sittings to the moment, attending his own choice (Mr. Crawford); and, when all the committees to which he was appointed, reason was wanted, he gave it in the brief answer attending all the funerals of the members that he attended one once and they cheated him, and officers of the Houses, always in time at and he had said that he would never attend | every place where duty required him; and reanother. He always wore the same dress--that fusing double mileage for one travelling, when is to say, a suit of the same material, cut, and elected from the House of Representatives to the color, superfine navy blue—the whole suit from Senate, or summoned to an extra session. He the same piece, and in the fashion of the time of was an habitual reader and student of the Bible, the Revolution; and always replaced by a new a pious and religious man, and of the Baptist one before it showed age. He was neat in his persuasion,” as he was accustomed to express it. person, always wore fine linen, a fine cambric I have a pleasure in recalling the recollections stock, a fine fur hat with a brim to it, fair top- of this wise, just, and good man, and in writing boots—the boot outside of the pantaloons, on the them down, not without profit, I hope, to rising principle that leather was stronger than cloth. generations, and at least as extending the knowHe would wear no man's honors, and when com- ledge of the kind of men to whom we are indebtplimented on the report on the Panama mission, ed for our independence, and for the form of which, as chairman of the committee on foreign government which they established for us. Mr. relations, he had presented to the Senate, he Macon was the real Cincinnatus of America, the would answer, “ Yes; it is a good report; Taze- pride and ornament of my native State, my hewell wrote it.” Left to himself, he was ready reditary friend through four generations, my to take the last place, and the lowest seat any mentor in the first seven years of my senatorial, where; but in his representative capacity he and the last seven of his senatorial life; and a would suffer no derogation of a constitutional or feeling of gratitude and of filial affection mingles of a popular right. Thus, when Speaker of itself with this discharge of historical duty to his the House, and a place behind the President's | memory.




that salutary lesson of political experience which

teaches that the military should be held suborCOMMENCEMENT OF GENERAL JACKSON'S AD- dinate to the civil power.” On the cardinal MINISTRATION.

doctrine of economy, and freedom froin public

debt, he said : " Under every aspect in which it On the 4th of March, 1829, the new President can be considered, it would appear that advantage was inaugurated, with the usual ceremonies, must result from the observance of a strict and and delivered the address which belongs to the faithful economy. This I shall aim at the more occasion ; and which, like all of its class, was a anxiously, both because it will facilitate the exgeneral declaration of the political principles by tinguishment of the national debt-the unneceswhich the new administration would be guided. sary duration of which is incompatible with real The general terms in which such addresses are independence ;-and because it will counteract necessarily conceived preclude the possibility of that tendency to public and private profligacy minute practical views, and leave to time and which a profuse expenditure of money by the events the qualification of the general declarations. government is but too apt to engender.” Reform Such declarations are always in harmony with of abuses and non-interference with elections, the grounds upon which the new President's were thus enforced : “ The recent demonstration election had been made, and generally agreeable of public sentiment inscribes, on the list of exto his supporters, without being repulsive to his ecutive duties, in characters too legible to be opponents; harmony and conciliation being an overlooked, the task of reform, which will reespecial object with every new administration. quire, particularly, the correction of those abuses So of General Jackson's inaugural address on that have brought the patronage of the federal this occasion. It was a general chart of demo- government into conflict with the freedom of cratic principles; but of which a few paragraphs elections.” The oath of office was administered will bear reproduction in this work, as being by the venerable Chief Justice, Marshall, to whom either new and strong, or a revival of good old that duty had belonged for about thirty years. principles, of late neglected. Thus: as a military The Senate, according to custom, having been man his election had been deprecated as possibly convened in extra session for the occasion, the leading to a military administration : on the con- cabinet appointments were immediately sent in. trary he thus expressed himself on the subject and confirmed. They were, Martin Van Buren, of standing armies, and subordination of the of New York, Secretary of State (Mr. James A. military to the civil authority: “Considering Hamilton, of New-York, son of the late General standing armies as dangerous to free govern- Hamilton, being charged with the duties of the ment, in time of peace, I shall not seek to en- office until Mr. Van Buren could enter upon large our present establishment; nor disregard them); Samuel D. Ingham, of Pennsylvania,



Secretary of the Treasury ; John H. Eaton, of New HAMPSHIRE-John Brodhead, Thomas
Tennessee, Secretary at War; John Branch, of Chandler, Jossph Hammons, Jonathan Harvey,
North Carolina, Secretary of the Navy; John M. Henry Hubbard, John W. Weeks 6.

MASSACHUSETTS—John Bailey, Issac C. Bates,
Berrien, of Georgia, Attorney General; William B. W. Crowninshield, John Davis, Henry W.
T. Barry, of Kentucky, Postmaster General ; Dwight, Edward Everett, Benjamin Gorham,
those who constituted the late cabinet, under George Grennell

, jr., James L. Hodges, Joseph Mr. Adams, only one of them, (Mr. John G. Kendall, John Reed, Joseph Richardson,

John Varnum-13. McLean, the Postmaster General,) classed poli

Rhode ISLAND—Tristam Burgess, Dutee J. tically with General Jackson; and a vacancy Pearce—2. having occurred on the bench of the Supreme CONNECTICUT-Noyes Barber, Wm. W. EllsCourt by the death of Mr. Justice Trimble, of worth, J. W. Huntington, Ralph J. Ingersoll,

W. L. Storrs, Eben Young -6. Kentucky, Mr. McLean was appointed to fill it;

VERMONT-William Cahoon, Horace Everett, and a further vacancy soon after occurring, the Jonathan Hunt, Rollin C. Mallary, Benjamin death of Mr. Justice Bushrod Washington Swift-5. (nephew of General Washington), Mr. Henry

New-York-William G. Angel, Benedict Ar

nold, Thomas Beekman, Abraham Bockee, Peter Baldwin, of Pennsylvania, was appointed in his I. Borst, C. C. Cambreleng, Jacob Crocheron, place. The Twenty-first Congress dated the Timothy Childs, Henry B. Cowles, Hector Craig, commencement of its legal existence on the day Charles G. Dewitt

, John D. Dickinson, Jonas of the commencement of the new administration, Earll, jr., George Fisher, Isaac Finch, Michael Hoff

man, Joseph Hawkins, Jehiel H. Halsey, Perkins and its members were as follows:

King, James W. Lent, John Magee, Henry C. SENATE.

Martindale, Robert Monell, Thomas Maxwell, E. MAINE-John Holmes, Peleg Sprague.

Norton, Gershom Powers, Robert S. Rose, Hen

ry R. Storrs, James Strong, Ambrose Spencer, New HAMPSHIRE-Samuel Bell, Levi Wood- John W. Taylor, Phineas L. Tracy, Gulian. C. bury.

Verplanck, Campbell P. White-34. MASSACHUSETTS-Nathaniel Silsbee, Daniel

NEW JERSEY-Lewis Condict, Richard M. Webster. CONNECTICUT—Samuel A. Foot, Calvin Willey. James F. Randolph, Samuel Swan—6.

Cooper, Thomas H. Hughes, Isaac Pierson, RHODE ISLAND-Nehemiah R. Knight, Asher

PENNSYLVANIA-James Buchanan, Richard Robbins. VERMONT-Dudley Chase, Horatio Seymour. Chauncey Forward, Joseph Fry, jr., James Ford,

Coulter, Thomas H. Crawford, Joshua Evans, New-York-- Nathan Sanford, Charles È. Dud- Innes Green, John Gilmore, Joseph Hemphill

, ley. NEW JERSEY--Theodore Frelinghuysen, Mah. George G. Leiper, H. A. Muhlenburg, Alem

Peter Ihrie, jr., Thomas Irwin, Adam King, lon Dickerson. PENNSYLVANIA-William Marks, Isaac D. liam Ramsay, John Scott

, Philander Stephens,

Marr, Daniel H. Miller, William McCreery, WilBarnard. DELAWARE—John M. Clayton, (Vacant.)

John B. Sterigere, Joel B. Sutherland, Samuel

Smith, Thomas H. Sill—25. (One vacant.) MARYLAND—Samuel Smith, Ezekiel F. Cham

DELAWARE-Kensy Johns, jr.-1. bers.

MARYLAND— Elias Brown, Clement Dorsey, VIRGINIA-L. W. Tazewell, John Tyler. North Carolina-James Iredell, (Vacant.) chael C. Sprigg, Benedict I. Semmes, Richard

Benjamin C. Howard, George E. Mitchell, MiSouth Carolina-William Smith, Robert Y. Spencer, George C. Washington, Ephraim K. Hayne.

Wilson—9. GEORGIA-George M. Troup, John Forsyth.

VIRGINIA-Mark Alexander, Robert "Allen, KENTUCKY-John Rowan, George M. Bibb. TENNESSEE-Hugh L. White, Felix Grundy. Barbour, Philip P. Barbour, J. T. Boulding,

Wm. S. Archer, Wm. Armstrong, jr., John S. 0110—Benjamin Ruggles, Jacob Burnet. LOUISIANA—Josiah S. Johnston, Edward Liv- Robert B. Craig, Philip Doddridge, Thomas

Richard Coke, jr., Nathaniel H. Claiborne, ingston.

Davenport, William F. Gordon, Lewis MaxINDIANA–William Hendricks, James Noble. Mississippi-Powhatan Ellis, (Vacant.)

well, Charles F. Mercer, William McCoy,

Thomas Newton, John Roane, Alexander Smyth, ILLINOIS-Elias K. Kane, John McLane. ALABAMA- John McKinley, William R. King. Trezvant-22.

Andrew Stevenson, John Taliaferro, James MISSOURI—David Barton, Thomas H. Benton.

North Carolina-Willis Alston, Daniel L. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.

Barringer, Samuel P. Carson, H. W. Conner,

Edmund Deberry, Edward B. Dudley, Thomas MAINE-John Anderson, Samuel Butman, H. Hall, Robert Potter, William B. Shepard, George Evans, Rufus McIntire, James W. Ripley, Augustine H. Shepperd, Jesse Speight, Lewis Joseph F. Wingate—6. (One vacant.) Williams-12. (One vacant.)

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SOUTH CAROLINA—Robert W. Barnwell, James meas

easures, is looked to with more interest than Blair, John Campbell, Warren R. Davis, Wil- the inaugural address, confined as this latter liam Drayton, William D. Martin, George must be, to a declaration of general principles. McDuffie, William T. Nuckolls, Starling Tucker -9.

That of General Jackson, delivered the 8th of Georgia- Thomas F. Forster, Charles E. December, 1829, was therefore anxiously looked Haynes, Wilson Lumpkin, Henry G. Lamar, for; and did not disappoint the public expectaWiley Thompson, Richard H. Wilde, James M.

tion. It was strongly democratic, and contained Wayne—7.

Kentucky—James Clark, N. D. Coleman, many recommendations of a nature to simplify, Thomas Chilton, Henry Daniel, Nathan Gaither, and purify the working of the government, and R. M. Johnson, John Kink aid, Joseph Lecompte, to carry it back to the times of Mr. JeffersonChittenden Lyon, Robert P. Letcher, Charles to promote its economy and efficiency, and to A. Wickliffe, Joel Yancey—12.

TENNESSEE—John Blair, John Bell, David maintain the rights of the people, and of the Crockett, Robert Desha, Jacob C. Isacks, Cave States in its administration. On the subject of Johnson, Pryor Lea, James K. Polk, James electing a President and Vice-President of the Standifer-9.

United States, he spoke thus : OH10—Mordecai Bartley, Joseph H. Crane, William Creighton, James Findlay, John M. “I consider it one of the most urgent of my Goodenow, Wm. W. Irwin, Wm. Kennon, Wm. duties to bring to your attention the propriety Russell. William Stanberry, James Shields, John of amending that part of our Constitution which Thomson, Joseph Vance, Samuel F. Vinton, relates to the election of President and ViceElisha Whittlesey-14.

President. Our system of government was, by Louisiana Henry H. Gurley, W. H. Over- its framers, deemed an experiment; and they, ton, Edward D. White-3.

therefore, consistently provided a mode of remeINDIANA-Ratliff Boon, Jonathan Jennings, dying its defects. John Test-3.

" To the people belongs the right of electing ALABAMA—R. E. B. Baylor, C. C. Clay, Dix- their chief magistrate : it was never designed on H. Lewis.-3.

that their choice should, in any case, be defeated, MISSISSIPPI—Thomas Hinds-1.

either by the intervention of electoral colleges, ILLINOIS—Joseph Duncan-1.

or by the agency confided, under certain continMISSOURI—Spencer Pettis-1.

gencies, to the House of Representatives. Expe

rience prores, that, in proportion as agents to DELEGATES.

execute the will of the people are multiplied, MICHIGAN TERRITORY—John Biddle-1. there is danger of their wishes being frustrated. ARKANSAS TERRITORY-A. H. Sevier-1. Some may be unfaithful : all are liable to err. FLORIDA TERRITORY —Joseph M. White-1. So far, therefore, as the people can, with conve

nience, speak, it is safer for them to express

their Andrew Stevenson, of Virginia, was re-elected own will. speaker of the House, receiving 152 votes out of

“In this, as in all other matters of public con191; and he classing politically with General cern, policy requires that as few impediments as

possible should exist to the free operation of the Jackson, this large vote in his favor, and the public will. Let us, then, endeavor so to amend small one against him (and that scattered and our system, as that the office of chief magistrate thrown away on several different names not can- may not be conferred upon any citizen but in didates), announced a pervading sentiment among

pursuance of a fair expression of the will of the

majority the people, in harmony with the presidential elec- “I would therefore recommend such an amendtion—and showing that political principles, and ment of the constitution as may remove all innot military glare, had produced the G neral's termediate agency in the election of President election.

and Vice-President. The mode may be so regulated as to preserve to each State its present relative weight in the election; and a failure in the first attempt may be provided for, by confining the second to a choice between the two

highest candidates. In connection with such an CHAPTER XLI.

amendment, it would seem advisable to limit the service of the chief magistrate to a single term,

of either four or six years. If, however, it should FIRST ANNUAL MESSAGE OF GENERAL JACKSON not be adopted, it is worthy of consideration TO THE TWO HOUSES OF CONGRESS.

whether a provision disqualifying for office the

Representatives in Congress on whom such an The first annual message of a new President, election may have devolved, would not be being always a recommendation of practical proper."

This recommendation in relation to our elec- tion to members of Congress, and to exclude tion system has not yet been carried into effect, them generally from executive appointments; though doubtless in harmony with the principles and especially from appointments conferred by of our government, necessary to prevent abuses, the President for whom they voted. The evil and now generally demanded by the voice of the is the same whether the member votes in the people. But the initiation of amendments to the House of Representatives when the election goes federal constitution is too far removed from the to that body, or votes and manages in a Congress people. It is in the hands of Congress and of caucus, or in a nominating convention. The act the State legislatures; but even there an almost in either case opens the door to corrupt practices; impossible majority—that of two thirds of each and should be prevented by legal, or constituHouse, or two thirds of the State legislatures- tional enactments, if it cannot be restrained by is required to commence the amendment; and a the feelings of decorum, or repressed by public still more difficult majority — that of three opinion. On this point the message thus recomfourths of the States—to complete it. Hitherto mended: all attempts to procure the desired amendment “ While members of Congress can be constihas failed; but the friends of that reform should tutionally appointed to offices of trust and profit

, not despair. The great British parliamentary

it will be the practice, even under the most conreform was only obtained after forty years of such stations as they are believed to be better

scientious adherence to duty, to select them for annual motions in parliament; and forty years qualified to fill than other citizens ; but the of organized action upon the public mind through purity of our government would doubtless be societies, clubs, and speeches; and the incessant promoted by their exclusion from all appointaction of the daily and periodical press. In the ments in the gift of the President in whose elec

tion they may have been officially concerned. The meantime events are becoming more impressive nature of the judicial office, and the necessity advocates for this amendment than any language of securing in the cabinet and in diplomatic stacould be. The selection of President has gone tions of the highest rank, the best talents and

political experience, should, perhaps, except these from the hands of the people-usurped by irre

from the exclusion. sponsible and nearly self-constituted bodies-in which the selection becomes the result of a jug

On the subject of a navy, the message congle, conducted by a few adroit managers, who tained sentiments worthy of the democracy in its baffle the nomination until they are able to early day, and when General Jackson was a govern it, and to substitute their own will for member of the United States Senate.

The re that of the people. Perhaps another example is publican party had a policy then in respect to not upon earth of a free people voluntarily relin- a navy: it was, a navy for DEFENCE, instead of quishing the elective franchise, in a case so great CONQUEST; and limited to the protection of our as that of electing their own chief magistrate, coasts and commerce. That policy was imand becoming the passive followers of an irre pressively set forth in the celebrated instructions sponsible body-juggled, and baffled, and govern

to the Virginia senators in the year 1800, in ed by a few dextrous contrivers, always looking

which it was said: to their own interest in the game which they

“ With respect to the nary, it may be proper play in putting down and putting up men.

to remind you that whatever may be the pro

posed object of its establishment, or whatever Certainly the convention system, now more un

may be the prospect of temporary advantages fair and irresponsible than the exploded congress resulting therefrom, it is demonstrated by the caucus system, must eventually share the same experience of all nations, who have ventured far fate, and be consigned to oblivion and disgrace. into naval policy, that such prospect is ultimateIn the meantime the friends of popular election been known more as an instrument of power,

ly delusive ; and that a navy has ever in practice should press

the constitutional amendment which a source of expense, and an occasion of collisions would give the Presidential election to the peo- and wars with other nations, than as an instruple, and discard the use of an intermediate body ment of defence, of economy, or of protection to

commerce." which disregards the public will and reduces the people to the condition of political automatons. These were the doctrines of the republican

Closely allied to this proposed reform was party, in the early stage of our government-in another recommended by the President in rela- the great days of Jefferson and his compeers

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