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or remedy. The five years mentioned in the lately blazed in the Missouri question. The bill had as well be fifty or five hundred. The harmony of the States, and the durability of this State that would surrender its sovereignty, for confederacy, interdict the legislation of the fedeten per centum of its own money, would eclipse ral legislature upon this subject. The existence the folly of Esau, and become a proverb in the of slavery in the United States is local and secannals of folly with those who have sold their tional. It is confined to the Southern and Midbirthright for a mess of pottage.'”

die States. If it is an evil, it is an evil to them,

and it is their business to say so. If it is to be After these general objections to the principle removed, it is their business to remove it. Other and policy of the distribution project, the report | States put an end to slavery, at their own time, of the Committee on Public Lands went on to and in their own way, and without interference show its defects, in detail, and to exbibit the cieties. The rights of equality demand, for the

from federal or State legislation, or organized sospecial injuries to which it would subject the remaining States, the same freedom of thought new States, in which the public lands lay. It and immunity of action. Instead of assuming said:

the business of colonization, leave it to the slave

holding States to do as they please; and leave “The details of the bill are pregnant with in- them their resources to carry into effect their justice and unsound policy.

resolves. Raise no more money from them than “1. The rule of distribution among the States the exigencies of the government require, and makes no distinction between those States which then they will have the means, if they feel the did or did not make cessions of their vacant land inclination, to rid themselves of a burden which to the federal government. Massachusetts and it is theirs to bear and theirs to remove. Maine, which are now selling and enjoying their “5. The sum proposed for distribution, though vacant lands in their own right, and Connecti- nominally to consist of the net proceeds of the cut, which received a deed for two millions of sales of the public lands, is, in reality, to consist acres from the federal government, and sold them of their gross proceeds. The term net, as apfor her own benefit, are put upon an equal foot- plied to revenue from land offices or customing with Virginia, which ceded the immense do- houses, is quite different. In the latter, its main which lies in the forks of the Ohio and signification corresponds with the fact, and imMississippi, and Georgia, which ceded territory plies a deduction of all the expenses of collection; for two States. This is manifestly unjust. in the former, it has no such implication, for the

“ 2. The bill proposes benefits to some of the expenses of the land system are defrayed by apStates, which they cannot receive without dis- propriations out of the treasury. To make the honor, nor refuse without pecuniary prejudice. whole sum received from the land offices a fund Several States deny the power of the federal for distribution, would be to devolve the heavy government to appropriate the public moneys to expenses of the land system upon the customobjects of internal improvement or to coloniza- house revenue: in other words, to take so much tion. A refusal to accept their dividends would from the custom-house revenue to be divided subject such States to loss; to receive them, among the States. This would be no small would imply a sale of their constitutional prin- item. According to the principles of the account ciples for so much money. Considerations con- drawn up against the lands, it would embracenected with the harmony and perpetuity of our “1. Expenses of the general land office. confederacy should forbid any State to be com “2. Appropriations for surveying. pelled to choose between such alternatives. " 3. Expenses of six surveyor generals' offices.

“3. The public lands, in great part, were " 4. Expenses of forty-four land offices. granted to the federal government to pay the “5. Salaries of eighty-eight registers and redebts of the Revolutionary War; it is notorious ceivers. that other objects of revenue, to wit, duties on “6. Commissions on sales to registers and reimported goods, have chiefly paid that debt. It ceivers. would seem, then, to be just to the donors of the “7. Allowance to receivers for depositing land, after having taxed them in other ways to money, pay the debt, that the land should go in relief “8. Interest on money paid for extinguishing of their present taxes; and that, so long as any Indian titles. revenue may be derived from them, it should go 69. Annuities to Indians. into the common treasury, and diminish, by so “10. Future Indian treaties for extinguishing much, the amount of their annual contributions. title.

“4. The colonization of free people of color, "11. Expenses of annual removal of Indians. on the western coast of Africa, is a delicate “These items exceed a million of dollars. They question for Congress to touch. It connects it- are on the increase, and will continue to grow at self indissolubly with the slave question, and least until the one hundred and thirteen million cannot be agitated by the federal legislature, five hundred and seventy-seven thousand eight without rousing and alarming the apprehensions hundred and sixty-nine acres of land within the of all the slaveholding States, and lighting up limits of the States and territories now covered the fires of the extinguished conflagration which by Indian title shall be released from such title.


The reduction of these items, present and to lands, the titles to which in but few instances come, from the proposed fund for distribution, ever had been perfected into complete grants; and must certainly be made to avoid a contradiction the want of which was not felt in a new country between the profession and the practice of the bill; and this reduction might leave little or no- where land was a gratuitous gift to every cultithing for division among the distributees. The vator, and where the government was more gross proceeds of the land sales for the last year anxious for cultivation than the people were to were large; they exceeded three millions of dol- give it. The transfer of the province from France lars; but they were equally large twelve years and Spain to the United States, found the mass ago, and gave birth to some extravagant calculations then, which vanished with a sudden de- of the land titles in an inchoate state; and comcline of the land revenue to less than one mil- ing under a government which made merchandise lion. The proceeds of 1819 were $3,274,422 ; out of the soil

, and among a people who had the those of 1823 were $916,523. The excessive sales twelve years ago resulted from the exces- Anglo-Saxon avidity for landed property, some sive issue of bank paper, while those of 1831 legislation and tribunal was necessary to separate were produced by the several relief laws passed the perfect from the imperfect titles; and to by Congress. A detached year is no evidence provide for the examination and perfection of the of the product of the sales; an average of a series of years presents the only approximation to cor

latter. The treaty of cession protected every rectness; and this average of the last ten years thing that was “ property;” and an inchoate title would be about one million and three quarters. fell as well within that category as a perfect So that after all expenses are deducted, with the five per centum now payable to the new States, nations would have operated the same protec

Without the treaty stipulation the law of and ten per centum proposed by the bill, there may be nothing worth dividing among the States; tion, and to the same degree; and that in the certainly nothing worth the alarm and agitation case of a conquered as well as of a ceded people. which the assumption of the colonization ques. The principle was acknowledged: the question tion must excite among the slaveholding States; nothing worth the danger of compelling the old

was to apply it, and to carry out the imperfect titles States which deny the power of federal internal as the ceding government would have done, if it improvement, to choose between alternatives had continued. This was attempted through which involve a sale of their principles on one boards of commissioners, placed under limitaside, or a loss of their dividends on the other; tions and restrictions, which cut off masses of certainly nothing worth the injury to the new States, which must result from the conversion claims to which there was no objection except of their territory into the private property of in the confirming law; and with the obligation those who are to have the power of legislation of reporting to Congress for its sanction the over it, and a direct interest in using that power claims which it found entitled to confirmation: to degrade and impoverish them.”

-a condition which, in the distance of the The two sets of reports were printed in extra lands and claimants from the seat of government, numbers, and the distribution bill largely debated their ignorance of our laws and customs, their in the Senate, and passed that body: but it was habitude to pay for justice, and their natural disarrested in the House of Representatives. A trust of a new and alien domination, was equivmotion to postpone it to a day beyond the session alent in its effects to the total confiscation of -equivalent to rejection—prevailed by a small most of the smaller claims, and the quarter or majority: and thus this first attempt to make the half confiscation of the larger ones in the distribution of public property, was, for the division they were compelled to make with time, gotten rid of.

agents-or in the forced sales which despair, or necessity forced upon them. This state of things had been going on for almost thirty years in all

Louisiana-ameliorated occasionally by slight CHAPTER LXXI.

enlargements of the powers of the boards, and

afterwards of the courts to which the business SETTLEMENT OF FRENCH AND SPANISH LAND

was transferred, but failing at two essential

points, first, of acknowledging the validity of all It was now near thirty years since the pro- claims which might in fact have been completed vince of Louisiana had been acquired, and with if the French or Spanish government had conit a mass of population owning and inhabiting tinued under which they originated; secondly,


in not providing a cheap, speedy and local tri- land titles was closed (nearly), in that part of bunal to decide summarily upon claims, and Upper Louisiana, now constituting the State of definitively when their decisions were in their Missouri. The commissioners executed the act favor.

in the liberal spirit of its own enactment, and In this year—but after an immense number Congress confirmed all they classed as coming of people had been ruined, and after the country under the principles of the act. In other parts had been afflicted for a generation with the curse of Louisiana, and in Florida, the same harassing of unsettled land titles—an act was passed, and ruinous process had been gone through in founded on the principle which the case required, respect to the claims of foreign origin— limitaand approximating to the process which was tions, as in Missouri, upon the kind of claims necessary to give it effect. The act of 1832 ad- which might be confirmed, excluding minerals mitted the validity of all inchoate claims—all and saline waters—limitations upon the quantithat might in fact have been perfected under the ty to be confirmed, so as to split or grant, and previous governments; and established a local divide it between the grantee and the governtribunal to decide on the spot, making two ment—the former having to divide again with classes of claims-one coming under the princi- an agent or attorney-and limitations upon the ple acknowledged, the other not coming under inception of the titles which might be examined, that principle, and destitute of merit in law or so as to confine the origination to particular equity-but with the ultimate reference of their officers, and forms. The act conformed to all decisions to Congress for its final sanction. The previous ones, of requiring no examination of a principle of the act, and its mode of operation, title which was complete under the previous was contained in the first section, and in these governments. words:

6 That it shall be the duty of the recorder of land titles in the State of Missouri, and two commissioners to be appointed by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and

CHAPTER LXXII. consent of the Senate, to examine all the unconfirmed claims to land in that State, heretofore

“ EFFECTS OF THE VETO," filed in the office of the said recorder, according to law, founded upon any incomplete grant, concession, warrant, or order of survey, issued by

UNDER this caption a general register comthe authority of France or Spain, prior to the menced in all the newspapers opposed to the tenth day of March, one thousand eight hun-election of General Jackson (and they were a dred and four; and to class the same so as to great majority of the whole number published), show, first, what claims, in their opinion, would, in fact, have been confirmed, according to the immediately after the delivery of the veto meslaws, usages, and customs of the Spanish goy- sage, and were continued down to the day of ernment, and the practices of the Spanish au- election, all tending to show the disastrous conthorities under them, at New Orleans, if the sequences upon the business of the country, and government under which said claims originated had continued in Missouri; and secondly, what upon his own popularity, resulting from that claims, in their opinion, are destitute of merit

, act. To judge from these items it would seem in law or equity, under such laws, usages, cus- that the property of the country was nearly toms, and practice of the Spanish authorities destroyed, and the General's popularity entirely ; aforesaid ; and shall also assign their reasons for and that both were to remain in that state unthe opinions so to be given. And in examining and classing such claims, the recorder and com- til the bank was rechartered. Their character missioners shall take into consideration, as well was to show the decline which had taken place the testimony heretofore taken by the boards in the price of labor, produce, and property—the of commissioners and recorder of land titles

stoppage and suspension of buildings, improveupon those claims, as such other testimony as may be admissible under the rules heretofore ments, and useful enterprises—the renunciation existing for taking such testimony before said of the President by his old friends—the scarcity boards and recorder: and all such testimony of money and the high rate of interest—and the shall be taken within twelve months after the consequent pervading distress of the whole compassage of this act."

munity. These lugubrious memorandums of Under this act a thirty years' disturbance of calamities produced by the conduct of one man

were duly collected from the papers in which ladelphia. A call, signed by above two thousand they were chronicled and registered in “ Niles' naturalized Irishmen, seceding from General Register," for the information of posterity; and Jackson, invited their fellow-countrymen to

meet and choose between the tyrant and the a few items now selected from the general regis- bank, and gave rise to a numerous assemblage tration will show to what extent this business in Independence Square, at which strong resoluof distressing the country—(taking the facts to tions were adopted, renouncing Jackson and his be true), or of alarming it (taking them to be measures, opposing his re-election and sustaining

the bank.”—The New Orleans emporium menfalse), was carried by the great moneyed corpo- tions, among other deleterious effects of the bank ration, which, according to its own showing, had veto, at that place, that one of the State banks power to destroy all local banks; and conse- had already commenced discounting four months' quently to injure the whole business of the paper, at eight per centum.”_“Cincinnati farcommunity. The following are a few of these several merchants in this city, in making con

mers look here! We are credibly informed that items—a small number of each class, by way of tracts for their winter supplies of pork, are ofshowing the character of the whole:

fering to contract to pay two dollars fifty cents

per hundred, if Clay is elected, and one dollar On the day of the receipt of the President's effect of the veto. This is something that peo

fifty cents, if Jackson is elected. Such is the bank veto in New-York, four hundred and thir

ple can understand.”—“ Baltimore.

A great ty-seven shares of United States Bank stock were sold at a decline of four per centum from many mechanics are thrown out of employment the rates of the preceding day. We learn from ahead is, that we shall have a very distressing

by the stoppage of building. The prospect Cincinnati that, within two days after the veto winter. "There will be a swift reduction of prices reached that city, building-bricks fell from five to the laboring classes. Many who subsisted dollars to three dollars per thousand. A general upon labor, will lack regular employment, and consternation is represented to have pervaded have to depend upon chance or charity ; and the city. An intelligent friend of General Jackson, at Cincinnati, states, as the opinion of the many will go supperless to bed who deserve to

be filled.” — “Cincinnati. Facts are stubborn best informed men there, that the veto has

things. It is a fact that, last year, before this caused a depreciation of the real estate of the city, of from twenty-five to thirty-three and time, $300,000 had been advanced, by citizens of one third per cent.”—“A thousand people as- dollar. So much for the veto.”—“Brownsville,

this place, to farmers for pork, and now, not one sembled at Richmond, Kentucky, to protest Pennsylvania. We understand, that a large against the veto.”—“The veto reached a meeting manufacturer has discharged all his hands, and of citizens, in Mason county, Kentucky, which had others have given notice to do so. We underassembled to hear the speeches of the opposing stand, that not a single steamboat will be built candidates for the legislature, on which two of this season, at Wheeling, Pittsburg, or Louisthe administration candidates immediately with


No King drew themselves from the contest, declaring that of England has dared a practical use of the word

."—"Niles' Register editorial. they could support the administration no long- ' veto, for about two hundred years, or more; er"}_“Lexington, Kentucky: July 25th. A call, and it has become obsolete in the United Kingsigned by fifty citizens of great respectability, dom of Great Britain; and Louis Philippe would formerly supporters of General Jackson, announced their renunciation of him, and invited hardly retain his crown three days, were he to

veto a deliberate act of the two French Chamall others, in the like situation with themselves, to assemble in public meeting and declare their bers, though supported by an army of 100,000 sentiments. A large and very respectable meeting ensued.”—“ Louisville, Kentucky: July 18. All this distress and alarm, real and factitious, Forty citizens, ex-friends of General Jackson, was according to the programme which precalled a meeting, to express their sentiments on the veto, declaring that they could no longer scribed it, and easily done by the bank, and its support him. In consequence, one of the largest branches in the States : its connection with momeetings ever held in Louisville was convened, ney-dealers and brokers; its power over its and condemned the veto, the anti-tariff and anti- debtors, and its power over the thousand local internal improvement policy of General Jackson, and accused him of a breach of promise, in be- banks, which it could destroy by an exertion of coming a second time a candidato for the Presi- its strength, or raise up by an extension of its dency.”—“At Pittsburg, seventy former friends favor. It was a wicked and infamous attempt, of General Jackson called a meeting of those on the part of the great moneyed corporation, who had renounced him, which was numerously and respectably attended, the veto condemned, to govern the election by operating on the busiand the bank applauded as necessary to the pros-ness and the fears of the people—destroying perity of the country.”—“Irish meeting in Phi- some and alarming others.



tuting official station to party intrigue and elevation, and humbling his country before Great

Britain to obtain as a favor what was due as a CHAPTER LXXIII.

right. He had also been accused of breaking up friendship between General Jackson and Mr. Cal

houn, for the purpose of getting a rival out of GENERAL JACKSON and Mr. Van Buren were the way—contriving for that purpose the dissothe candidates, on one side ; Mr. Clay and Mr. lution of the cabinet, the resuscitation of the Jolin Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, on the other, buried question of the punishment of General and the result of no election had ever been look- Jackson in Mr. Monroe's cabinet, and a system ed to with more solicitude. It was a question of intrigues to destroy Mr. Calhoun-all brought of systems and of measures, and tried in the forward imposingly in senatorial and Congress persons of men who stood out boldly and un- debates, in pamphlets and periodicals, and in equivocally in the representation of their re- every variety of speech and of newspaper pubspective sides. Renewal of the national bank lication; and all with the avowed purpose of charter, continuance of the high protective po- showing him unworthy to be elected Vice-Prelicy, distribution of the public land money, in-sident. Yet, he was elected, and triumphantly ternal improvement by the federal government, | -receiving the same vote with General Jackson, removal of the Indians, interference between except that of Pennsylvania, which went to one Georgia and the Cherokees, and the whole Ame- of her own citizens, Mr. William Wilkins, then rican system were staked on the issue, repre- senator in Congress, and afterwards Minister to sented on one side by Mr. Clay and Mr. Sergeant, Russia, and Secretary of War. Another circumand opposed, on the other, by General Jackson stance attended this election, of ominous characand Mr. Van Buren. The defeat of Mr. Clay, ter, and deriving emphasis from the state of the and the consequent condemnation of his mea- times. South Carolina refused to vote in it; sures, was complete and overwhelming. He that is to say, voted with neither party, and received but forty-nine votes out of a totality of threw away her vote upon citizens who were two hundred and eighty-eight! And this re- not candidates, and who received no votę but sult is not to be attributed, as done by Mons. her own; namely, Governor John Floyd of de Tocqueville, to military fame. General Jack- Virginia, and Mr. Henry Lee of Massachusetts: son was now a tried statesman, and great issues a dereliction not to be accounted for upon any were made in his person, and discussed in every intelligible or consistent reason, seeing that the form of speech and writing, and in every forum, rival candidates held the opposite sides of the State, and federal—from the halls of Congress system of which the State complained, and that to township meetings—and his success was not the success of one was to be its overthrow; of only triumphant but progressive. His vote was the other, to be its confirmation. This circuma large increase upon the preceding one of 1828, stance, coupled with the nullification attitude as that itself had been upon the previous one which the State had assumed, gave significance of 1824. The result was hailed with general to this separation from the other States in the satisfaction, as settling questions of national dis- matter of the election : a separation too marked turbance, and leaving a clear field, as it was not to be noted, and interpreted by current hoped, for future temperate and useful legisla- events too clearly to be misunderstood. Another tion. The vice-presidential election, also, had circumstance attended this election, of a nature a point and a lesson in it. Besides concur- not of itself to command commemoration, but ring with General Jackson in his systems of worthy to be remembered for the lesson it policy, Mr. Van Buren had, in his own person, reads to all political parties founded upon one questions which concerned himself, and which idea, and especially when that idea has nothing went to his character as a fair and honorable political in it; it was the anti-masonic vote of

He had been rejected by the Senate as the State of Vermont, for Mr. Wirt, late United minister to the court of Great Britain, under States Attorney-General, for President; and for circumstances to give éclat to the rejection, being Mr. Amos Ellmaker of Pennsylvania, for Vicothen at his post; and on accusations of prosti- President. The cause of that vote was this:


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