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Calcutta, the Sir Thomas Grenville's crew and officers, about one hundred, volunteered. The government, in place of these, furnished three hundred of the most robust Lascars to stow the ship's cargo, &c., and at the end of two weeks they had scarcely accomplished as much as one hundred Englishmen would do in half that period. In lifting any article, however light, as many would cluster around it as nearly to hide the object. În forging a small piece of iron, four or five will station themselves around the anvil, striking at intervals. He has also seen four using one large saw, and so on with their other tools. They have smaller heads than probably any other people whatever. They appear to have remained stationary for ages.




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Apply the end of a common tape measure exactly to the meatus or opening of either ear, and draw it round horizontal, (the head being perpendicular,) to the opposite ear, and the number of inches gives the strength or size of the particular organs it covers. The same mode may be resorted to in the direction of the dotted lines, to ascertain the proportion of the other organs so specified.

The whole may be compared with the sizes here given of F. Coombs's approved bust, (but which, owing to mistake, is rather too large in Amativeness.)

This mode will afford a very simple and very correct way of ascertaining the leading phrenological character.

Superior female heads are usually rather smaller than the male head which these admeasurements represent.

The measure of the base of circumference of head will contrast with the portion immediately above it, (the dotted lines,) and serves to show the controling organs, Intellect, Caution, &c., as opposed to the propelling or animal powers, or base of brain. The measure from bottom of forehead, or Individuality, to the occipital spine, (or small, bony projection near the base of skull behind,) serves to show the intellectual and sentimental powers, and when larger here than in the bust is a very favorable indication of character.

By this method, we only obtain the general outline of character, but it clearly shows that which is most important to know, viz., the proportions which the various parts of the brain or implied leading characteristics bear to each other. This admeasurement of the head also embraces, besides those named on the cut, the organs which the tape passes over, for which reason we may take it as a general classification of the various organs, as they are embraced in groups by this measure, nearly all being of a similar character, through the line which the tape covers, and the measurements in each region give a very fair estimate of the general character, much more to be depended on than the mode of guessing by some phrenologists, who seldom resort to measuring the head, and who must consequently be more liable to error of judgment.

This mode of estimating character has been too much overlooked, and to promote this object, the tables of measures are furnished in this book, which he means to adopt as his standard, also for the purpose of eliciting truth by such measures. As an instance, should any gentleman remarkable for his philanthropy be found to measure very low in the region of Benevolence, we will abandon Phrenology, and proclaim it to be founded in error and misapprehension. But we have not the slightest fear of such a result. The tables of admeasurements show most conclusively the general characteristics of the various individuals. He will still resort to the same method, and intends to collect as many admeasurements of remarkable persons as he possibly can, for which purpose he invites all public or remarkable personages to have their heads measured, free of expense, for future publication. The admeasurements of very remarkable, pious, amiable, or exemplary ladies are also much wanted as a contrast to inferior heads.

The author extremely regrets that an admeasurement of his own head, taken by the same instrument six years ago, was lost at the printer's, as it would have conclusively shown a very considerable increase of size in that period, without an increase of personal size or weight, clearly showing that cerebral action, as in the exercise of his profession, evidently tends to enlarge the brain.

He would here take this opportunity of qualifying an expression made in a former part of this book, as to the sizes of the intellectual organs of savages, &c., as one or two of the North Western Indian Chiefs appear to be an exception to the rule of absolute size ; but then it will be seen, relatively to the other parts or base of the brain, they can scarcely be called large. Those chiefs were gigantic men, most of them weighing over two hundred pounds, and the most athletic men he has seen on the continent of America. The author had an opportunity of hearing Keokuck, the head chief, make a set speech, of nearly one hour long, before a grand council of Indians. His eloquence was the most impassioned and energetic he ever heard, and the action chaste and perfectly appropriate. The language of the Indian is exceedingly guttural, and in perfect unison with the strong, warlike passions which they so delight in expressing in their war-whoop, words, and actions. Their language is peculiarly harsh and discordant, and appears almost incapable of expressing the softer emotions. Keokuck's speech will ever remain fixed in memory, as an example of the stern, the fierce, the terrible. He has never seen it surpassed by E. Forrest himself. It was equally picturesque, and standing as he did the ardent champion of a remnant of his race, invested him with a romantic interest which will not be readily forgotten.

The author has visited amongst the North Western Indians, and also, a few years since, the Hindoos of Asia, and in boyish sport has chased many of the latter; but a whole regiment of soldiers will scarcely suffice to make the former run. They live entirely on animal food, if they can procure it. He has seen them eat flesh of any description, scarcely half sodden, which they prefer, without bread or vegetable of any kind. The females are not allowed to partake till the men have eaten. They may be said to be perfectly carniverous. (See their mcasures.) Also the East Indians, who, on the contrary, are remarkably abstemious in their diet, will scarcely destroy animals for food, but subsist chiefly on rice, vegetables, &c. Indeed, so tender are they of animal life, they have hospitals provided for many of them, and persons injuring them are compelled by law to support them and pay the doctor's fees.




[Referred to at page 108.) Bleumanbach divides the human family into five different varieties, but which perhaps may be more properly called races. In their physiognomi. cal and other peculiarities he thús classifies and describes :

The Caucassian race, inhabiting the greater portion of Europe, including the United States of America and some portion of Asia, are distinguished by a beautifully, soft, fair, and transparent skin, susceptible of every variety of tint; the hair fine, long and curling, of various colors. The skull is large and oval, and its anterior or intellectual region full and elevated. The face is proportionably small, of an oval form, and delicately formed features. The chin full and rounded, and the teeth nearly perpendicular. Portions of this race early attained the highest degree of civilization and intellectual attainments.

2. The Mongolian race, inhabiting central and eastern Asia and some portion of the North American continent, are characterized by a sallow or Olive skin, straight hair and thin beard; the nose broad and short; the eyes small, black, and oblique; the lips curled; the cheek-bones broad and flat. The skull is oblong-oval, flattened at the sides, with a very low forehead. In their intellectual character they exhibit considerable talents and are somewhat susceptible of education and improvement.

The Malay race are inhabitants of the Polynesian group of islands; also Madagascar, Borneo, &c.

This race are characterized by a dark complexion, varying from a tawny hue to a very dark brown. Their hair is black, coarse, and lank, and their eyelids drawn obliquely upwards at the outer angle. The mouth and lips are large; the nose is short and broad, and apparently broken at its roots. The face is flat and expanded, the upper jaw projecting, the teeth salient. The skull is high and rounded, and the forehead low and broad. This race exhibit great difference anıl varieties amongst them. Some are active and ingenious, but very degraded on the whole, and are nearly the lowest in the scale of humanity.


The head of the Malay is large, and the nose short, depressed, and flat at the nostrils. The eyes are small, black, oblique, and expressive. The face is broad and very prominent, and the mouth and lips are large. Their color is a brown, with a bronze tint.

The skull of the Malay is very low in the forehead ; the cheek-bones are high and expanded; the jaws are greatly projected, and the upper jaw, with the teeth, is much inclined outwards, and nearly horizontal. The teeth remarkably fine and strong.

A portion of this family, living on the Island of Battas, are the most remorseless and habitual cannibals on the face of the earth. Nay more, they not only eat their victims, but eat them alive, or do not previously put them to death, and these are not unfrequently their own people and relations. Prisoners of war are eaten at once, and the slain devoured without cooking,

In the great Island of Borneo, the Malays have possession of the entire coast, and the mountainous region of the interior is peopled by the savage Dayacks and Eidahous, who are represented as being fairer than the Malays, but still more sanguinary and ferocious.

The Polynesian family, a portion of whom, the New Zealanders, are the most sanguinary and intractable. Their combined treachery, cruelty, and cannibalism have made them proverbial since the discovery of their island. Capt. Crozet, whose crew they attempted to destroy, thus describes them :-" They treated us (says he) with every show of friendship for thirty-three days, with the intention of eating us on the thirty-fourth.

The Fegee Islanders vie with the New Zealanders in treachery and cannibalism. Capt. Dillon gives a heart-rending account of the murder of fourteen of his men, who were subsequently baked in ovens, and afterwards devoured in his presence.

4. The American race is marked by a brown complexion, long, black, lank hair, and deficient beard. The eyes are black and deep-set, the brow low, the cheek-bones high, the nose large and aquiline, the mouth large, and the lips tumid and compressed. The skull is small, wide between the parietal bones, prominent at the vertex. Their characteristics are slowness and distaste for acquiring knowledge, stern, unyielding, proud, revengeful and cruel. [See table of admeasurements of distinguished chiefs, who are mostly gigantic men, and have unusually fine heads for savages, far the best in the collection.]

5. The Ethiopian variety, inhabiting the greater portion of Africa and the continent (it may be called) of New Holland, and islands adjacent, are characterized by black complexion, black, woolly hair, eyes large and prominent, the nose broad and sat, the lips thick, and the mouth wide. The head is long and narrow, and the forehead 'low; the cheek-bones prominent, the jaws projecting, and the chin small. The several nations comprised in this variety are rather diversified, but extremely low, and amongst the most degraded of the human species; amongst whom are the Hottentots, whose complexion is of a yellow brown, or bright olive; the hair black and woolly, and very small beard; the backhead large; receding forehead, and wide, large face; the eyes far apart, the nose broad and flat; and the women if possible more repulsive than the men. They are inveterately indolent and gluttonous, devouring every kind of

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