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animal refuse that falls in their way, without preparation, and then throw themselves down and sleep off the effects. Their dwellings are mudhovels, bushes, caves, or clefts in the rocks. Many go naked, without shame ; others partially cover themselves with the skins of animals they kill. 'They have no more notion of decency or cleanliness than animals, are robbers by profession, and kill everything indiscriminately which they cannot carry with them.

The Bosjesmans are far more degraded and savage than any other Hottentot tribes. Some maintain that they are different from the Hottentots, and constitute the ultimate link in the scale of humanity.

The face of the New Hollander is ugly in the extreme; projects greatly from the head, and the mouth is particularly prominent, with very thick and protuberant lips. The nose is flat and broad and the nostrils expanded. A deep sinus separates the nose from the forehead, and the frontal ridges overhang the eyes, while the forehead is low and slopes rapidly to the top of the head. The hair is often long, very coarse, and frizzled, yet rarely wnolly. They are perpetually engaged in war, and seldom if ever pardon an enemy, but generally kill and eat them. Their courtship, if such it can be called, consists in violence, and their women are treated through life with unparalleled brutality. They are to the last degree filthy and gluttonous in the extreme.

À portion of the Australian family, inhabiting the Island Andaman, are of small stature, slender limbs, protuberant abdomen, high shoulders, and large faces, exhibiting a horrid mixture of famine and ferocity.

Foster compares the people of Malicolo to monkeys, and asserts that he had seen no negroes in whom the forehead was so depressed.

This family is also found in the numerous islands near Guinea, New Britain, Admiralty, and Hermit Island, &c.

The origin of color, and other differences amongst the human family, have frequently employed the pens of historians and philosophers. Here is one opinion attempting to elucidate this subject, by Dr. Caldwell:

“ It is computed, by the Mosaic account, that about four thousand one hundred and ninety years from the creation, Noah and his family left the ark, who, from the most undoubted authority, were of the Caucassian or white race; and yet we have the most abundant historical evidences, that above three thousand years ago the Ethiopian or negro family were known as inhabiting a portion of Africa, and possessing their present characteristics. Consequently, if of the same race as the white, the change of color, features, &c., must have been effected in less than one thousand years, and then remained stationary to the present day.”

To illustrate the fact that color is not the effect of a warm climate or exposure to the sun, nor the peculiar characteristic of the negroes alone, some of the Esquimaux (eaters of raw flesh,) on the icy shores of the island of Greenland, are extremely dark and many of them at Oppemwick are quite as dark as the mullatoes. Crantz, the missionary, says that they are crafty, sensual, ungrateful, obstinate, and unfeeling. They also devour the most disgusting animals, uncleaned and uncooked. Their mental faculties present a continued childhood. They are fickle and fa

ious, and their connubial fidelity is a proverb among voyagers. In gluttony, selfishness, and ingratitude, they are perhaps unequalled by any other people in the world.

(Referred to at page 110.)

The Diary of Mr. Combe, in his late tour in the United States, is somewhat more impartial than any of the preceding English tourists, yet does not, we humbly conceive, fully appreciate the great differences in the monarchical and republican forms of government on the character of man. There appears, though to a less extent, the same carping at unimportant trifles, and a want of comprehensiveness of the magnificent whole, as presented by the entire American people, more particularly as evidenced by the gigantic strides, within a very few years, in every useful art and science, and probably in none so much as those immense public works of utility, the railroads and canals, which are intersecting every part of the Union, and uniting all the people in one community of purpose and feel. ing. In a military point of view, also, these are of incalculable importance, as by this means of communication an army of one hundred thousand men can be concentrated in any one point on the Atlantic north of the Potomac in twenty-four hours, rendering us invulnerable to any power which can be brought against the republic by sea or land. The Americans may proudly contrast with the same race of people under a monarchical form of government, but let it be a loving, a generous comparison.

We must also beg leave entirely to dissent from Mr. C., in his views as to the justice and expediency of the movements of the chartists in England, who are contending for vote by ballot and universal suffrage, and whom we conceive to be engaged in the most righteous cause that men were ever yet employed in. We insist upon it, nothing but lunacy, idiocy, or crimes can justify withholding from, or depriving any man or body of men, the privilege of managing

their own affairs. Shall we be told by Mr. Ć., or any other gentleman, that because some disorders may possibly ensue, (and this is merely his gratuitous supposition,) that we are still to continue the same villanous state of things which has reduced the true nobility of England and Ireland, (the working people,) to the condition of the poorest slaves in existence, (excepting in the actual sale of their bodies ?) And still, according to him, we are to persevere in this same course, which has so brutalized the people that he attempts to show they are unfit to exercise the privileges of men. Away with such unjustifiable legislation. Such arguments, no doubt, have their weight with the contemptible aristocracy of Great Britain, who really seem to imagine that all other people were born like beasts to bear their burthens. By a strange perversity of reasoning, totally unexpected from Mr, C., their tyranny and oppression are to be continued until these same causes which have produced this state of things have resulted in a state of things precisely dissimilar and diametrically opposite !

If we comprehend Mr. C., he deliberately advances this as his opinion, which we most solemnly protest against. "Notwithstanding our admiration for him on other subjects, on this we are enlisted body and soul, and will not give up our opinion to any man living.

By the same parity of reasoning, the kind and generous slave-holder thinks he is doing good service in retaining his slave in his obedience until he has qualified him for what he conceives to be necessary for his happiness and comfort, and is competent to enjoy and make a rational use of his liberty. Abolitionists will tell you how får distant such a day will be with those whose optics are so blinded by prejudice, they can only see the ignorance and debasement of the slave, and not the causes which have led to it, or the unalienable rights of man to be free. Both these systems of slavery in England and America equally tend to brutalize man. And those who hold them in bondage have the same kind charity for them to take care of them until they are fit, in their estimation, to receive their freedom,

Such are the robberies and exactions on the poor working citizens of Great Britain, that this class have rarely the means to purchase books of popular authors, from the price being usually three or fourfold the price the same books are sold for in this country. Hence the press and nearly the whole of English literature is and must be purely aristocratic.

Mr. C. also complains of us in this respect, as doing a great injustice to authors; but Mr. C. might equally well complain of the whole world besides, for all freely avail themselves of English, French, and German literature, without this complaint being brought against them, and we see no injustice in our availing ourselves of the same privilege on a larger, which others do on a smaller scale; for we see no reasons to make distinctions of persons. If English authors appeal to the generosity of the AI erican people for some remuneration for their works, we think it would be conceded; but we cannot conceive why they should levy contributions, on this score, upon us more than any other people whatever, from whom we never heard of their making any such demands as from

That the Americans and the whole civilized world are deeply, immeasurably indebted to English literature, must be conceded; whilst it may also be complained of that the spirit of English literature is decidedly aristocratic and extremely injurious, as it so largely contributes to the formation of character; and most of the vices of aristocracy in this country are the injurious effects of English literature on public taste, which is and must be decidedly aristocratic until a new order of things appear in England, which we hope is not far distant, when the sovereign people will sweep their barbarous oppressors like chaff before the wind, by the force of public opinion, when once they are thoroughly aroused to their own rights by the agitations, &c., of the chartists. America, we hope, is destined largely to contribute to this change. Then will the English and Americans be united as one people in a noble and generous rivalry of love; but this can never be until the whole people of England have assumed or possess a share in conducting the affairs of the government, and have driven their present tyrants and enemies of all mankind from the power which they have so unjustly usurped, and made themselves odious in the sight of all mankind, from India to the poles.

us.

Mr. C. relates an amusing incident occurring on board the steamboat, as he was proceeding to Albany. It appears a passenger had unwittingly supposed that, as Mr. Combe was a phrenologist, he also examined heads. But Mr. C. informs us he does not in public, or for pay; which we think is to be regretted.

On the same page, (54, vol. 2,) Mr. C. does an injustice to a most worthy, sensitive young gentleman of Kentucky, (Mr. Porter,) whom Mr. C. says we made a show of, to add to the attractions of Phrenology. Now, the fact is, Mr. P., (the Kentucky Giant, as he is usually called, being the tallest man in the world,) had actually refused ten thousand dollars a year, if he would consent to be exhibited, but he declined. [See his Self-Esteem.] Major Stevens, also alluded to, was engaged as secretary. Mr. C. examined their very singular and most extraordinary heads in public, and lectured before twenty thousand persons in New York, in five weeks, of course owing to this aitraction. (N. B. Wanted just such another couple of extraordinary heads to lecture from. See their admeasurements. ]

Mr. C. is not the only person to whom ludicrous mistakes have occurred from similarity of names. Whilst the author was at Saratoga, an unfortunate tailor of Albany sent a bill and pair of pants, (not G. M.,) to Congress Hall, addressed “Mr. Combs, Phrenologist,” whilst he was at that house. This was rather ludicrous, as they were a complete misfit, and the author never ordered or purchased a pair in the city of Albany in his itinerising.

As to the similarity of names, F. Coombs will be here excused for mentioning that his family are, and have been for fifty years past, extensively engaged as architects and builders, 9 and 10 Benett's Hill, St. Paul's, London. One of his relatives also is the architect of the most costly public edifices now erecting in the United States.

F. Coombs having had twenty years' experience in Europe, eight years in the United States and Canada, and several months' residence in the East Indies, hopes at a future day to give his impressions of the AngloSaxon family, as elicited under the governments republican, monarchical, and colonial. He had, previous to his last visit to England, foresworn allegiance to the British crown. America is now his home, and although born within the very shadow of St. Paul's, London, he shall call himself a Yankee phrenologist. He detests monarchical abuses and robberies, and none so much as the British tories, whom he conceives the greatest and most impudent robbers on this earth, not only of their own victimised, impoverished people, but of all creation, wherever they have the power; as witness their robberies in India, China, &c. But thank God, this they could not do for · Jonathan' when in his infaney of growth, and he has nothing to fear now from all the tories in the world.

We are tempted to preach a crusade against these human harpies, or thieving tories, who are the curse of this earth. They have impoverished and nearly ruined dear old England, and reduced her noble sons and daughters to the condition of the veriest slaves on earth. Great God ! shall such things always be ?

Some of these hireling tourists are their strongest allies and supporters, by misrepresenting everything here, generous, free, or American. We certainly feel induced to publish also our tour, or peregrinations, to show how much the Americans and their free institutions have been belied. The author has experienced the kindness of the Americans, from the President in his palace to the squatter in his log cabin on the banks of the Mississippi, and strongly and utterly condemns the impressions of most preceding tourists, as being infinitely different and totally at variance from the truths he has arrived at, after a residence of above seven years in this country.

CONCLUDING REMARKS.

The author would have thought it unbecoming to introduce matter so irrelevant to this subject as any allusion to his own family, were it not rendered necessary in self-justification, as one of the most distinguished, benevolent, and truly philanthropic clergyman of Boston intimated or suggested to a friend of the writer, that as 'F. Coombs' was so sinilar to "G. Combe,' it might be an assumed name, for interested parposes. Having thus, in self-defence, introduced his family, he will be excused for mentioning, that, as a further illustration of Phrenology and Physiology, or the hereditary transmission of family peculiarities, talents, &c., he has before alluded to the artistical mechanical talents of his relatives. He would also state that he has in his possession, and will be happy to show the ladies and others, a very extraordinary specimen of the fine arts, executed by a self-taught boy, his cousin, J. E. Coombs, of Mornington Crescent, London. It is a most beautiful engraving of the entire creed, the Lord's prayer, the ten commandments, Gloria Patria, 117th Psalm, forty verses of scripture, and forty-one parts of verses, with name, date, &c., all correctly punctuated, with appropriate capitals, &c., the whole being comprised within a circle of less than half an inch in diameter, or the size of an ancient Peter's penny. He is also the self-taught mezzotinto engraver of Reading the Scriptures, and other religious subjects.

Another cousin, also a boy, by some specimens of his ingenuity so pleased Mr. Brunel, the celebrated projector of the Thames tunnel, that at his earnest request, he was placed under his tuition in the prosecution of that great national work.

The writer himself, also, a few years since, constructed, (principally with his own hands,) an electro-magnetic locomotive engine, of a greater power possibly than any other ever made, being sufficient to carry passengers on railroad, for which a diploma was awarded by the American Institute, New York, which he has in his possession. This machine was also exhibited at Niblo's, the New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington museums, and subsequently purchased by Dr. Chilton, of New York. He had also received the sum of 701. sterling, voted to him by the council of the Royal Gallery of Practical Science, London, for the use of his model machines in that institution. A Russian prince, also, in London, made him a very liberal proposition to proceed to Russia to superintend the construction of some large machines, on his plan, for the emperor; but a residence of five years in this country had made him too much of a Yankee, and he wished above all things to return to his beloved America, and, if possible, to induce the Americans to assist the oppressed English and Irish people to regain their liberty. He has many very dear relations in England, but with whom he is diametrically opposed in politics. They denounce him as a perfect Yankee; and, of course, he retorts, by calling them the unfortunate subjects of her little majesty, who are regularly swindled above fisty millions of pounds sterling annually, to be squandered by those precious scamps, the nobility, royal family, and genteel cutthroats in the army, navy, &c., with a host of other noble pauper pensioners, comprising in the whole the most formidable and expensive

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