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Opinion of the Court.
observed by all steam vessels in passing each other, as they shall from time to time deem necessary for safety.”
This code remained in force substantially unaffected by legislation until March 3, 1885, when the “revised international regulations for preventing collisions at sea” were adopted by act of Congress, act of March 3, 1885, c. 354, 23 Stat. 438, and made applicable to “the navigation of all public and private vessels of the United States upon the high seas and in all coast waters of the United States, except such as are otherwise provided for.” By section two all laws inconsistent with these rules were repealed, “except as to the navigation of such vessels within the harbors, lakes and inland waters of the United States." As to such waters, the original code of 1864 remained in force, explained and supplemented by the rules of the supervising inspectors. The Delaware, 161 U. S. 459, 463; The New York, 175 U. S. 187, 193.
On August 18, 1899, Congress adopted a new code “to be followed by all public and private vessels of the United States upon the high seas and in all waters connected therewith, navigable by seagoing vessels," act of August 19, 1890, 26 Stat. 320, article thirtieth of which declared that “nothing in these rules shall interfere with the operation of a special rule, duly made by local authority, relative to the navigation of any harbor, river or inland waters.” The second section repealed all inconsistent laws, and the third section provided that the act should take effect at a time to be fixed by the President by proclamation issued for that purpose. This act was amended by act of May 28, 1894, c. 83, 28 Stat. 82, providing certain lights for small vessels. By another act of June 10, 1896, c. 401, 29 Stat. 381, amending the law with regard to signals, it was declared in the second section that the original act as amended should " take effect at a subsequent time to be fixed by the President by proclamation," although another act approved February 23, 1895, c. 127, 28 Stat. 680, had already provided that it should take effect at a time to be fixed by the President. The President at first declared that the act should take effect March 1, 1895, 28 Stat. 1250, which date was subsequently postponed by another proclamation, 28 Stat. 1259.
Opinion of the Court.
By still another proclamation of December 31, 1896, 29 Stat. 885, it was declared that the act of August 19, 1890, as subsequently amended, should take effect July 1, 1897.
Meantime, however, and on February 8, 1895, 28 Stat. 645, Congress passed another code, c. 64, to be “ followed in the navigation of all public and private vessels of the United States upon the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal,” to take effect March 1, 1895. This act repealed the act of 1864 so far as it applied to the Great Lakes and their connecting waters. All this legislation, however, left the harbors, rivers and other inland waters of the United States unaffected either by the acts of 1885, 1890 or 1895; and to make the intention of Congress more certain in this particular, on February 19, 1895, c. 102, 28 Stat. 672, Congress enacted that the original provisions of sections 4233, 4412 and 4113 of the Revised Statutes, and regulations of the supervising inspectors pursuant thereto, shall be followed on the harbors, rivers and inland waters of the United States, and the provisions of said sections were declared special rules duly made by local authority relative to the navigation of such waters, as provided for in article thirty of the act of August 19, 1890, above quoted. Section four provided that the words “inland waters” should not be held to include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters as far east as Montreal, and that the act should not, in any respect, affect the act of February 8, 1895.
Finally on June 7, 1897, c. 4, 30 Stat. 96, Congress adopted a set of regulations to be “ followed by all vessels navigating all harbors, rivers and inland waters of the United States, except the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters, as far east as Montreal, and the Red River of the North and rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico, and their tributaries.” This act, as well as that of August 19, 1890, adopting regulations for preventing collisions at sea, was amended February 19, 1900, so far as it related to lights on steam pilot vessels; but as this act of 1897 was approved June 7, to take effect four months thereafter, it is unnecessary to consider to what waters it is applicable. It certainly has no bearing upon this collision, which took place
Opinion of the Court.
January 28, 1897, and is cited merely as a part of the history of Congressional action upon the general subject.
The effect of all this legislation was at the time of the collision, and perhaps is still, to leave the rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico, subject to the provisions of the original act: Rev. Stat. section 4233.
2. If the legislation of Congress in this connection be somewhat complicated, the result is at least clear that the navigation of the Mississippi was subject to the original rules and regulations of Revised Statutes, $ 4233; but the rules of the supervising inspectors, supplementary thereto, are ambiguous, and in one respect quite difficult of interpretation. There are three sets of these rules: 1. Pilot rules for Atlantic and Pacific inland waters; 2. Pilot rules for Western rivers ; 3. Pilot rules for the Great Lakes and their connecting tributary waters as far east as Montreal. The third may be left out of consideration in this
The pilot rules for Western rivers are entitled “Rules and regulations for the government of pilots of steamers navigating the Red River of the North and rivers whose waters flow into the Gulf of Mexico, and their tributaries." There can be no doubt whatever that these rules apply to the Mississippi and its tributaries, and there could be no doubt that they applied to the river below New Orleans, were it not for Rule XIV, which declares that“ the line dividing jurisdiction between the pilot rules on Western rivers and harbors, rivers and inland waters, at New Orleans, shall be the lower limits of the city.” This should evidently be construed as if it read : “The line dividing jurisdiction between the pilot rules on Western rivers and the pilot rules on harbors, rivers and inland waters at New Orleans shall be the lower limits of the city.” This excludes the Mississippi below New Orleans, and indicates that some other rules are applicable.
But on referring to the pilot rules for the Atlantic and Pacific coast inland waters, we find them entitled “Rules and regulations for the government of pilots of steamers navigating harbors, rivers and inland waters, (except the Great Lakes, the Red River of the North, and rivers emptying into the Gulf of
Opinion of the Court.
Mexico and their tributaries,) when meeting or approaching each other, whether by day or night, and as soon as fully within sound of the steam whistle.” Rule IX of these pilot rules contains the same provisions as Rule XIV of the pilot rules for Western rivers, namely, that the line dividing jurisdiction between pilot rules on Western rivers and harbors and inland waters at New Orleans shall be the lower limits of the city. There could be no doubt whatever that the intention was to divide the jurisdiction as to the Mississippi River between the rules applicable to Western rivers, and the rules for Atlantic and Pacific coast inland waters, were it not for the fact that in the entitling of these latter rules rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico are excepted. But we are of opinion that these words were intended as a general exception of the waters covered by the pilot rules for Western rivers, and that they were not intended to apply to the Mississippi below New Orleans, in view of the provision of both sets of rules that the pilot rules for Western rivers should cease to be applicable at the lower limits of that city. As New Orleans is practically the head of navigation for foreign trade, it was perfectly reasonable that the supervising inspectors should apply to the lower Mississippi the rules and regulations adopted for the harbors, rivers and inland waters navigated by vessels engaged in foreign trade, while they still left the regulations provided for Western rivers to remain applicable to the Mississippi above New Orleans, where the commerce is almost altogether domestic in its character. The only alternative of this proposition is to hold that the supervising inspectors intended to exempt from their jurisdiction altogether the waters of the Mississippi below New Orleans, some 150 miles in length-a supposition so improbable that it must be rejected at once. We hold, therefore, that the Atlantic and Pacific coast rules apply to these waters.
Such being the rules and regulations applicable to this case, we are remitted to the inquiry how far they were obeyed, and how far disregarded by the vessels concerned in this collision. The night was clear and starlight, the river substantially straight at this point and about half a mile wide, with no obstruction or other special circumstances, under Rule 24, rendering a departure
Opinion of the Court.
from the general rules necessary in order to avoid immediate danger. In short, the conditions were all favorable to safety, and the collision could not have occurred without egregious fault on the part of one or both vessels. In endeavoring to locate this fault we are at liberty to consider the movements of each vessel from its own standpoint, and without attempting to reconcile the conflicting statements of the two crews, or to settle disputed questions of fact, to inquire upon the showing made by each whether that vessel was guilty of fault contributing to the collision.
3. As to the Albert Dumois: She was a Norwegian vessel, 210 feet long, drawing 17 feet of water and was bound up the river to New Orleans. While proceeding up the east side of the river at a speed of about nine miles an hour, and from 250 to 500 feet from the east bank, she made directly ahead, and at a probable distance of about half a mile, saw the white and colored lights of the Argo coming down the river. Her theory of the case was, and the entire testimony of her watch showed, that the Argo was approaching her “end on, or nearly end on,” within the meaning of Rule 18, which declares that “if two vessels, under steam, are meeting end on or nearly end on, so as to involve risk of collision, the helms of both shall be put to port, so that each may pass on the port side of the other.” Notwithstanding this, however, the wheel of the Dumois was put to starboard, and a signal of two whistles blown to the Argo, manifesting an intention on the part of the Dumois to sheer out into the river and pass the Argo starboard to starboard. Her excuse for doing this was her own proximity to the east bank and a cluster of white lights belonging to a tug and two luggers inside of the Argo, and in fact moored to the east bank of the river.
We cannot, however, accept this as a “special circumstance" within the meaning of Rule 21 rendering a departure from Rule 18 necessary “ to avoid immediate danger,” since if there were any danger at all it was not an immediate one, or one which could not have been provided against by easing the engines of the Dumois and slackening her speed. Exceptions to the general rules of navigation are admitted with reluctance on