Inevitable Aging?: Contributions to Evolutionary-Demographic Theory

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Springer Science & Business Media, 2008 M01 8 - 170 páginas

Aging is inevitable: this is gerontological dogma. And humans do inevitably grow old, which is probably why it seems so unlikely to us that other forms of life could escape aging. Escaping aging is not escaping death. Death is an inherent part of life, and it can strike any time. But the question is whether death necessarily becomes more likely as life proceeds. And it does not. The theoretical results in this monograph indicate that life provides alternative strategies. While some organisms will deteriorate over adult ages, for others mortality appears to fall or remain constant, at least over an extended period of life after reproductive maturity. This is empirically observed especially for species that keep on growing during adult ages. Perhaps the diversity of aging matches the diversity of life. My thesis, the central insight of this monograph, is: to deeply understand why some species age it is necessary to understand why other species do not.

 

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Contenido

Introduction
1
12 Background
3
122 Evolutionary Theories of Senescence
4
123 Measuring Senescence
5
124 Measuring Fitness
9
125 Optimal Life History
10
126 Interesting Recent Developments
13
13 Orientation
15
44 An Optimization Model that Leads to Senescence
68
45 Discussion
71
46 Next Steps
73
An Optimization Model Based on Vitality
74
51 The Vitality Model
76
511 The Parameters
81
52 The Vitality Model as a Control Problem
83
522 Solution
85

Hamiltons Indicators of the Force of Selection
18
22 Hamiltons Derivations
20
222 Hamiltons Indicator of Survival
21
23 Alternative Indicators
22
233 Fertility Indicators
23
234 Are Some Indicators Better?
24
235 Optimization vs Mutational Burden
26
241 Additive vs Proportional Parametrization
27
242 A Simple Box Model
28
25 The Importance of Mutation Accumulation
32
26 Conclusion
33
Further Challenges
35
32 Theoretical Arguments
38
323 Variable Environments
40
324 Other Mechanisms
41
332 Checking Predictions from Mutation Accumulation
42
333 Empirical Evidence for Nonsenescence
44
34 Conclusion
45
Optimization Models Based on Size
49
42 A SizeBased LifeHistory Model
51
421 The General Optimization Problem
53
422 The Specific Optimization Problem
54
43 An Optimization Model that Leads to Nonsenescence
57
431 The State Ratchet
58
432 The Maximum Principle
59
433 An Alternative Derivation
63
434 The Simplest Model Leads to Sustenance
65
435 Introducing Nonlinearity Can Lead to Enhancement
67
523 The Role of the Second State Variable
87
524 Hamilton and Reproductive Value Revisited
88
53 The Constrained Vitality Model
90
531 Expected Solutions
94
54 Numerical Results
98
542 When Senescence Is Optimal and when It Is Not
108
55 Discussion
116
552 The η Parameters in Nature
117
553 The Mortality Paradox
119
554 Plateaus
121
Directions for Research
123
622 Measurable Quantities and Testable Hypotheses
124
623 The Diversity of Aging
125
625 Alternative Applications
127
632 Intergenerational Transfers
128
633 Environmental Fluctuations
129
634 Population Dynamics
130
64 Prospects for Evolutionary Demography
131
642 The Need for Data Methods and Measures
133
643 A New Burning Question
135
65 Conclusion
138
Vitality Model Appendix
141
A2 Proof of NonExistence of an Optimal Solution for a Special Case
143
A3 The Algorithm
144
References
148
Index
167
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