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Intuitions-Notions—The Judgment – Associating Principle
General Notions—Abstract Notions— Universal and Necessary
Induction pertaining to particular Substances-Induction for
The Syllogism the universal form of Reasoning—The above Prin-
ciple verified-Forms in which the Major Premise appears-
Process of Reasoning-Remarks upon these Principles-Re-
All Things occur according to Rules-Logic defined-Rela-
Characteristic stated-Ground of these Peculiarities..........249
Mental, and of the Teachings of Inspiration, Theology, Natu-
Classification of the Sciences. All substances may be ranged together under two gen. eral divisions, Matter and Mind. This arrangement presents a twofold division of the sciences, to wit, Physical and Mental; a division not strictly universal, but sufficiently comprehensive for our present purpose.
Object of Mental Philosophy. Mental Philosophy is the science of Mind, and of the human Mind in particular. Its object is a correct classification of the phenomena, for the purpose of a full and distinct development of the Powers, Susceptibilities, and Laws of the human Mind. This department of inquiry being completed, Mental Philosophy, as a science, then ascends to an investigation of the wide field of Moral Obligation, for the purpose of developing the extent, limits, and grounds of human responsibility.
What is to be expected from such Investigations. The field before us is of almost boundless extent. We are not, therefore, to expect that any one treatise will present all that may be known of the human Mind. All that I hope to accomplish, is to introduce the inquirer to the science, and give to his inquiries in respect to it, a right direction. His own investigations will then lead him to exhaustless treasures of wisdom and knowledge.
Mental Philosophy, as a Science, possible. Every substance in existence is known, and can be known by us, through and only through its respective phenomena. This, with us, is the changeless condition of knowledge in respect to all realities which lie around us in the universe. Every power or substance in existence is knowable to us, so far only as we can know its phenomena. The question, then, whether Mental Philosophy is possible to us, depends wholly upon this, whether the Mind, in the action of its varied powers and susceptibilities, is so revealed to itself, that it can know its own operations or phenomena? To this question, but one answer can be given. We are so constituted, that we have a knowledge of whatever passes in the interior of our ininds. This power, or law of our Mental Faculties, explain the fact in whatever manner we please, is denominated Consciousness, which is a faithful witness of whatever passes within us. On the authority of Consciousness, all men do and must rely. Here Scepticism itself assumes the garb of positive faith : for in the language of Descartes, “let a man doubt everything else, he cannot doubt that he doubts ;"? and " he cannot doubt that he doubts” for this reason, that he cannot but rely, in some form or other, upon the testimopy of his own Consciousness.
Not only are all things which pass within us given as phenomena of Consciousness, but we have also the power of retaining these phenomena under the eye of the mind, until we have fully resolved them into their original elements, and marked their characteristics. This power or exercise of the mind is denominated reflection, and is conditioned on the Will.
Mental Philosophy then becomes possible for the same reasons, and on the same conditions that physical science, or Natural Philosophy is possible. Facts equally undeniable, and equally distinct and palpable, are given as the foundation of both sciences. All that is required in either instance, is, that our researches be conducted upon right principles-that we introduce into our investigations nothing but actual facts, --that these facts be correctly arranged and classified, -and that none but legitimate conclusions be drawn from them.