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mental faculties and susceptibilities equally distinct from one another. These faculties and susceptibilities we designate by the terms Intellect or Intelligence, Sensibility or Sensitivity, and Will. To the Intellect we refer all the phenomena of thought, of every kind, degree, and modification. To the Sensibility we refer all feelings, such as sensations, emotions, desires, and affections. To the Will we refer all mental determinations, such as volitions, choices, purposes, &c.
Object of Mental Philosophy. The object of Mental Philosophy is a full development of the phenomena, characteristics, laws, and mutual relationships and dependencies of these different faculties.
Meaning of the words Mental Faculties. When I speak of a diversity of Mental Faculties, I wonld by no means be understood as teaching the strange dogma, that the mind is made up of parts which may be separated from one another. Mind is not composed of a diversity of substances. It is one substance, incapable of division. Yet this simple substance, remaining, as it does, always one and dentical, is capable of a diversity of functions, or operations, entirely distinct from one another. This diversity of capabilities of this one substance, we designate by the words Mental Faculties. As the functions of thought, feeling, and willing, are entirely distinct from each other, so we speak of the powers of thought, feeling, and willing, to wit, the Intelligence, Sensibility, and Will, as distinct faculties of the Mind.
The remarks made above respecting the Mind itself, will, at once, appear equally applicable to each of the Mental Faculties which have been enumerated. As we speak of the Intelligence, for example, as a Faculty of the Mind entirely distinct from those of the Sensibility and Will, without supposing that the Mind is not strictly one substance, so we may speak of the different Powers, or Faculties of the Intelligence itself, without implying that that Faculty is composed of a diversity of parts. The term Faculty, whether applied to the whole Mind, or to any of the departments of the Mind, implies a diversity of functions of the same power, or substance, and not a diversity of substances, or parts. '
PHENOMENA OF THE INTELLIGENCE.
We are now prepared to enter directly upon the great inquiry to be pursued in this Treatise,—the Phenomena, Faculties, and Laws of the human Intelligence. As all that we know, or can know, of this, as well as of every other department of the Mind, is revealed to us through the phenomena which lie under the eye of Consciousness, the first inquiries which now present themselves are, What are the phenomena of thought thus revealed ? What are their fundamental characteristics : In conformity to what principles shall they be classified and arranged?
Principle of Classification. There is one principle, in conformity to which all intellectual phenomena may be properly classified, and in the light of which, the fundamental characteristics of such phenomena may be very distinctly presented. I refer to the modes in which all objects of thought are conceived of by the Intelligence. Of these modes, there are two entirely distinct and separate, the one from the other. Every object of thought is conceived of as existing either contingently or of necessity, that is, that object is conceived of as existing, with the possibility of conceiving of its non-existence, or it is conceived of as existing, with the impossibility of conceiving of its non-existence. If we have any conceptions of an object at all, we must conceive of it as falling under one or the other of these relations. The principle of classification, therefore, is fundamental, and of universal application.
Contingent and necessary Phenomena of Thought defined. Every thought, conception, cognition, or idea, then, by
whatever term we may choose to designate it, all the phenomena of the Intelligence, may be classed, as contingent, or necessary. A conception is contingent, when its object may be conceived of as existing with the possibility of conceiving of its non-existence.
An idea is necessary when its object is conceived of as existing with the impossibility of conceiving of its non-existence.
All the phenomena of the Intelligence must, as shown above, fall under one or the other of these relations. It remains now, to illustrate the principle of classification here adopted, by a reference to an adequate number of particular phenomena, as the basis of important distinctions pertaining to the different functions or powers of the Intelligence. In the notice which we shall take of particular phenomena, other important characteristics, aside from those under consideration, will be developed, while these will be kept prominently in mind, as the grounds of classification.
IDEAS OF BODY AND SPACE.
We will commence our analysis with the consideration of two prominent ideas, those of body and space. We are to contemplate them as they now lie in the Intelligence, in its present state of development. That these ideas are in all minds, which have attained to any considerable degree of development, there can be no doubt. The question is, what are their fundamental characteristics ?
Idea of Body contingent. We will begin with the idea of body. Take any one body we please, the book, for an example, which lies before us. While we conceive of this body, as existing, we can also, with perfect readiness, conceive its non-existence. We believe, that the time was, when it had no existence, and that the time may come, when it will cease to exist. The power which brought it into being, may also annihilate it. The same holds true of all bodies, of every kind. All objects around us, the world itself, and the entire universe we contemplate as existing with the possibility of, at the same time, conceiving of their non-existence. They do exist. They may cease to be. They may be annihilated. There is no
difficulty of conceiving of these propositions as true. Nor is there any perceived contradiction between them. The ii'ea of body then is contingent. We always conceive of the object of that idea as existing, with the possibility of, at the same. time, conceiving of its non-existence.
Idea of Space necessary. We now turn to a consideration of the idea of space. We can, as shown above, readily conceive of the annihilation of all bodies, of the universe itself. But when we have conceived of this, can we conceive that space, in which the universe exists, may be annihilated? We cannot. We conceive of space as a reality, as really existing. Can we conceive of it as not being? We cannot. No intelligent being can form such a conception. Of this every one is perfectly conscious. When we have conceived of the annihilation of this, and of all other bodies, of the entire universe itself, let any one attempt to conceive of the annihilation of space, in which we necessarily conceive of all these objects as existing, and he will find the formation of such a conception, an absolute impossibility. The idea of space then is necessary. We conceive of the object of that idea as existing, with the impossibility of conceiving of its non-existence.
Olher characteristics of these two Ideas. It now remains to mark other characteristics of these important ideas. The following may be presented as the most fundamental.
Idea of Body relative. When we conceive of a body as existing, we necessarily conceive, as the condition of its existence, of the existence of something else, to wit, space in which body does and must exist. If body is, space must be, as the condition of its existence. The idea of body, therefore, is relative, that is, the existence of the object of that idea necessarily supposes, as the condition of its existence, the existence of something else.
Idea of Space absolule. When, on the other hand, we conceive of space, we conceive, as the condition of its existence, of no other reality. Space must be, whether anything else exists or not. The idea of space then is unconditioned, or absolute. The reality of the object of that idea, supposes, as the condition of its existence, the existence of nothing else.
Idea of Body implies that of Limitation. We always, also, conceive of body as limiled. Under this condition, we not only conceive of all particular bodies, but of the universe itself. The idea of body then always implies that of limitation. In other words body is finite.
Idea of Space implies the absence of Limitation. Space, on the other hand, we always necessarily conceive of as without limits. Its idea implies the absence of all limitation. In other words, space is infinite.
Idea of Body, a sensible representation. Once more, when we form a conception of some body, we can readily conceive of something else, by which the former can be represented. The human countenance, for example, can be represented on canvass. The idea of body then, is a sensible representation.
Idea of Space a pure rational conception. When, on the other hand, we have formed the idea of space, we find, and can conceive of, no existence with which the former can be compared. It bears no resemblance whatever to any other object which we know, or of which we can form any conception. The idea of space has no more resemblance to any other thought, or mental phenomena whatever. The idea of space is a pure rational conception.
The following then may be stated, as the most important characteristics of these two ideas.
1. The idea of body is contingent. That of space is necessary.
2. The idea of body is relative. That of space is unconditioned and absolute.
3. The idea of body implies that of limitation. Or, body is finite. The idea of space implies the absence of all limitation. In other words, space is infinite.
4. The idea of body is a sensible representation. That of space is a pure rational conception.