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enough to make themselves felt; and con- terious union which already exists be sequently when we have nothing to do tween them. but look around us, and be happy.” For “ The whole face of nature has underit is in this month that the year “ like a gone, since last month, an obvious change; man at forty, has turned the corner of its obvious to those who delight to observe existence; but, like him, it may still fancy all her changes and operations, but not itself young, because it does not begin to sufficiently striking to insist on being feel itself getting old. And perhaps there seen generally by those who can read no is do period like this, for encouraging characters but such as are written in a and bringing to perfection that habit of text hand. If the general colours of all tranquil enjoyment, in which all true hap- the various departments of natural scenery piness must mainly consist: with pleasure are not changed, their hues are; and if it has, indeed, little to do; but with hap- there is not yet observable the infinite piness it is every thing."

variety of autumn, there is as little the The author of the volume pursues his extreme monotony of summer. In one estimate by observing, that “ August is department, however, there is a general that debateable ground of the year, which change, that cannot well reinain unobis situated exactly upon the confines of served. The rich and unvarying green of summer and autumn; and it is difficult the corn-fields bas entirely and almost to say which has the better claim to it. suddenly changed to a still richer and It is dressed in half the flowers of the one, inore conspicuous gold colour; more conand half the fruits of the other; and it has spicuous on account of the contrast it a sky and a temperature all its own, and now offers to the lines, patches, and which vie in beauty with those of the masses of green with which it every where spring. May itself can offer nothing so lies in contact, in the form of intersecting sweet to the senses, so enchanting to the hedge-rows, intervening meadows, and imagination, and so soothing to the heart, bounding masses of forest. These latter as that genial influence which arises from are changed too; but in hue alone, not in the sights, the sounds, and the associa- colour. They are all of them still green; tions, connected with an August evening but it is not the fresh and tender green of in the country, when the occupations and the spring, nor the full and satisfying, pleasures of the day are done, and when though somewhat dull, green of the sumall, even the busiest, are fain to give way mer; but many greens, that blend all to that 'wise passiveness, one hour of those belonging to the seasons just named, which is rife with more real enjoyment with others at once more grave and more than a whole season of revelry. Those bright; and the charming variety and who will be wise (or foolish) enough to interchange of which are peculiar to this make comparisons between the various delightful month, and are more beautiful kinds of pleasure of which the mind of in their general effect than those of eithe: man is capable, will find that there is of the preceding periods: just as a truly none (or hut one) equal to that felt by a beautiful woman is perhaps more beautiful true lover of nature, when he looks forth, at the period immediately before that at upon her open face silently, at a season

which her charms begin to wane, than like the present, and drinks in that still she ever was before. Here, however, the beauty which seems to emanate from comparison must end; for with the year every thing he sees, till his whole senses its incipient decay is the signal for it to are steeped in a sweet forgetfulness, and put on more and more beauties daily, till, he becomes unconscious of all but that when it reaches the period at which it is instinct of good which is ever present on the point of sinking into the temporary with us, but which can so seldom make death of winter, it is more beautiful in itself felt amid that throng of thoughts general appearance than ever.” which are ever busying and besieging us, in our intercourse with the living world. The only other feeling which equals this,

August 1. in its intense quietude, and its satisfying

LAMMAS DAY. fulness, is one which is almost identical Though the origin of this denomination with it, where the accepted lover is is related in vol. i. col. 1063, yet it seems gazing unobserved, and almust unconsci- proper to add that Lammas or Lambmas ously, on the face of his mistress, and day obtained its name from a mass or. tracing their sweet evidences of that mys- dained to St. Peter, supplicating his bene

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diction on lambs, in shearing season, to lished, each party endeavoured 10 cir. preserve them from catching cold. St. cumvent the other as much as possible, Peter became patron of lambs, from and laid plans to steal upon the tower Christ's metaphorical expression, “ Feed unperceived, in the night time, and level my lambs,” having been construed into it with the ground. Great was the a literal injunction.* Raphael makes this honour that such a successful exploit coninisconstruction the subject of one of his veyed to the undertakers; and, though great cartoons, by representing Christ as the tower was easily rebuilt, and was speaking to Peter, and pointing to a flock soon put into its former state, yet the of lambs.

news was quickly spread by the success

ful adventurers, through the whole disLammas Towers in Mid-Lothian. trict, which filled it with shouts of joy

and exultation, while their unfortunate There was a Lammas festival, which neighbours were covered with shame. To prevailed in the Lothians from very early ward off this disgrace, a constant nightly times among the young persons employed guard was kept at each tower, which was during summer in tending the herds at made stronger and stronger, as the tower pasture. The usage is remarkable.

advanced; so that frequent nighty It appears that the herdsmen within a skirmishes ensued at these attacks, but çertain district, towards the beginning of were seldom of much consequence, as summer,

associated themselves into the assailants seldom came in force to bands, sometimes to the number of a make an attack in this way, but merely hundred or more. Each of these com, to succeed by surprise; as soon, there

. munities agreed to build a tower in some fore, as they saw they were discovered, conspicuous place, near the centre of they made off in the best manner they their district, which was to serve as the could. place of their rendezvous on Lammas

To give the alarm on these, and other day. This tower was usually built of occasions, every person was armed with sods; for the most part square, about tooting horn;" that is, a horn perfour feet in diameter at the bottom, and forated in the small end, through which tapering to a point at the top, which was

wind can be forcibly blown from the seldom above seven or eight feet from the mouth, so as to occasion a loud sound; ground. In building it, a hole was left and, as every one wished to acquire as in the centre for admitting a flag-staff, on which to display their colours. The the “tooting horn," they practised upon it

great dexterity as possible in the use of tower was usually begun to be built during the summer, while keeping their about a month before Lammas, and was beasts; and towards Lammas they were carried up slowly by successive additions

so incessantly employed at this business

, froin time to time, being seldom entirely answering to, and vying with each other, completed till a few days before Lam- that the whole country orang continually mas; though it was always thought that with the sounds; and it must no doubt those who completed their's soonest, and have appeared to be a very harsh and kept it standing the longest time before unaccountable noise to a stranger who Lammas, behaved in the most gallant was then passing through it. manner, and acquired most honour by

As the great day of Lammas aptheir conduct,

proached, each community chose one From the moment the foundation of from among themselves for their captain, the tower was laid, it became an object and they prepared a stand of colours to of care and attention to the whole com be ready to be then displayed. For this munity; for it was reckoned a disgrace purpose, they usually borrowed a fine to suffer it to be defaced; so that they table napkin of the largest size, from resisted, with all their power, any at some of the farmer's wives within the tempts that should be made to demolish district; and, to ornament it

, they bor. it, either by force or fraud ; and, as the rowed ribbons, which they tacked upon the honour that was acquired by the demoli- napkin in such fashion as best suited tion of a tower, if affected by those be- their fancy. Things being thus prepared, longing to another, was in proportion to they marched forth early in the morning the disgrace of suffering it to be demo

on Lammas day, dressed in their best
apparel, each armed with a stout cudgel

• Mr. Brady's Clavis Calendara.

and, repairing to their tower, there dis

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hostile party

played their colours in triumphı; blowing some time, with such rural sports as horns, and making merry in the best suited their taste, and dispersed quietly manner they could. About nine o'clock to their respective homes before sunset. they sat down upon the green; and each When two parties met, and one of them taking from his pocket, bread and cheese, yielded to the other, they marched togeor other provisions, made a hearty break- ther for some time in two separate bodies, fast, drinking pure water from a well, the subjected body behind the other; and which they always took care should be then they parted good friends, each pernear the scene of banquet.

forming their races at their own appointed In the mean time, scouts were sent out place Next day, after the ceremony was towards every, quarter, to bring them over, the ribbons and napkin that formed notice if any hostile party approached; the colours, were carefully returned to for it frequently happened, that on that their respective owners, the tower was day the herdsmen of one district went no longer a matter of consequence, and to attack those of another district, and to the country returned to its usual state of bring them under subjection to them by tranquility. main force. If news were brought that a

The above is a faithful account of this approached, the horns singular ceremony which was annually resounded to arms, and they immediately peated in all the country, within the disarranged themselves in the best order they tance of six miles west from Edinburgh, could devise; the stoutest and boldest in about thirty years before Dr. Anderson front, and those of inferior prowess wrole, which was in the year 1792. How behind. Seldom did they wait the ap- long the custom prevailed, or what had proach of the enemy, but usually went given rise to it, or how far it bad extended forth to meet them with a bold counte on each side, he was uninformed. He nance, the captain of each company carry- says, “ the name of Lammas-towers will ing the colours, and leading the van. remain, (some of them having been built When they met, they mutually desired of stone,) after the celebration of the feseach other to lower their colours in sign tival has ceased. This paper will at least of subjection. If there appeared to be preserve the memory of what was meant a great disproportion in the strength by them. I never could discover the of the parties, the weakest usually sub- smallest traces of this custom in Abermitted to this ceremony without much deenshire, though I have there found difficulty, thinking their honour was several towers of stone, very like the saved by the evident disproportion of the Lammas-towers of this country; but match; but, if they were nearly equal these seem to have been erected without in strength, none of them would yield, any appropriated use, but merely to look and it ended in blows, and sometimes at. I have known some of those erected bloodshed. It is related, that, in a battle in my time, where I knew for certain of this kind, four were actually killed, that no other object was intended, than and many disabled from work for weeks. merely to amuse the persons who erected

If no opponent appeared, or if they them. ** themselves had no intention of making an attack, at about mid-day they took down their colours, and marched with

Tue COBBLERS' FESTIVAL AT PARIS horns sounding, towards the most con

On The First of August, 1641. șiderable village in their district; where the lasses, and all the people, came printed at the time, with a large and

A rare old “broadside" in French, out to meet them, and partake of their curious wood-cut at the head, now before diversions. Boundaries were immedi- the editor, describes a feast of the cobblers ately appointed, and a proclamation made, of Paris in a burlesque manner, from that all who intended to compete in the whence he proposes to extract some acface should appear. A bonnet ornamented count of their proceedings as closely as with ribbons was displayed upon a pole, may be to the original. as a prize to the victor'; and sometimes five or six started for it, and ran with as that the wood engraving, on the next page,

First, however, it is proper to observe great eagerness as if they had been to gain a kingdom; the prize of the second most interesting portion of the original.

is a fac-simile of one third, and by far the race was a pair of garters, and the third a knife. They then amused themselves for • Dr. James Anderson, in Trans. Soc. Antiq. Scol.

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Festival of the Cobblers of Paris, August 1, 1641.

The entire occupation of the preceding and seems a “joculator" of the first page by a cut, which is the first of order ;—and laying aside his dress, and the kind in the Every-Day Book, may the jaunty set of his hat, which we may startle a few readers, but it must gratify almost imagine had been a pattern for a every person who regards it either as a recent fashion, his face of « infinite hufaithful transcript of the most interesting mour” would distinguish him any where. part of a very rare engraving, or as a However rudely the characters are cut, representation of the mode of feasting in they are well discriminated. The serving the old pot-houses of Paris.

man, with a spur on one foot and without Nothing of consequence is lost by the a shoe on the other, who pours wine omission of the other part of the engrav- into a glass, is evidently a personing; for it is merely a crowd of smaller

" contented in his station figures, seated at the table, eating and

who minds his occupation." drinking, or reeling, or lying on the foor inebriated. The only figure worth Vandyke himself could scarcely have notice, is a man employed in turning afforded more grace to a countess, than a spit, and he has really so lack-a-daisical the artist of the feast has bestowed on a an appearance, that it seems worth while cobbler's wife. to give the top corner of the print in facsimile.

From the French of the author who drew up the account referring to the engraving, we learn that on the first day of August, 1641, the “Society of the Trade of Cobblers," met in solemn festival (as, he observes, was their custom) in the church of St. Peters of Arsis, where, after having bestowed all sorts of praises on their patron, they divided their con. secrated bread between them, with which not one third of them was satisfied; for while going out of the church they murmured, while the others chuckled.

After interchanging the reciprocal honours, they were accustomed to pay to each other, (which we may fairly presume to have been hard blows,) many of the most famous of their calling departed to a pot-house, and had a merry-making. They had all such sorts of dishes at their diuner as their purses would afford; par

ticularly a large quantity of turnip-soup, We perceive from the page-cut that at on account of the nuinber of persons the period when the original was executed, present; and as many ox-feet and fricasees the French landlords“ chalked up the of tripe, as all the tripe-shops of the city score” as ours do, and that cobblers had and its suburbs could furnish, with vamusic at their dinners as well as their rious other dishes which the reporter says betters. The band might not be so he does not choose to name, lest he complete, but it was as good as they should give offence to the fraternity. He. could get, and the king and his nobles mentions cow-beef, however, as one of could not have more than money could the delicacies, and hints at their excesses procure. The two musicians are of some having disordered their stomachs and consideration, as well suited to the scene; manners. He speaks of some of them nor is the mendicant near them to be dis- having been the masters, and of others as regarded; he is only a little more needy, more than the masters, for they denomiand, perhaps, a little less importunate than nated ihemselves Messieurs le Jurez, of certain suitors for court favours. The thei: honourable calling. He further singer who accompanies himself on the says, that to know the whole history of guitar at the table, is tricked out with a their assembly, you must go to Gentily, standing ruff and ruffles, and ear-rings, at the sign of St. Peter, where, when al

Vol. II.-86.

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