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thinks ungentlemanly behaviour. He is hatchet, or a present of feathers from an also liable to be rendered irritable by Otaheitean beauty. If not elevated by sickness; partly because he has been his acquirements above some of his humused to command others, and to be served bler tastes, he delights in a corner-cupwith all possible deference and alacrity; board holding his cocoa-nuts and punchand partly, because the idea of suffering bowl; has his summer-house castellated pain, without any honour or profit to get and planted with wooden cannon; and by it, is unprofessional, and he is not sets up the figure of his old ship, the Briaccustomed to it. He treats talents un- tannia or the Lovely Nancy, for a statue like his own with great respect. He often in the garden; where it stares eternally perceives his own so little felt that it with red cheeks and round black eyes, as teaches him this feeling for that of others. if in astonishment at its situation. Besides, he admires the quantity of information which people can get, without NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. travelling like himself; especially when Mean Temperature ... 36 • 203 he sees how interesting his own becomes, to them as well as to every body else. When he tells a story, particularly if full January 15. of wonders, he takes care to maintain his eharacter for truth and simplicity, by qua

Changes of Climate. lifying it with ail possible reservations, An opinion has been long entertained, concessions, and anticipations of objec- that there are vicissitudes in the climate and tion; such as “ in case, at such times as, temperature of the air unknown to former so to speak, as it were, at least, at any times, and that such variations exist in rate." "He seldom uses sea-terms but America as well as in Europe. It is said when jocosely provoked by something that the transatlantic changes have been contrary to his habits of life; as for in- more frequent, and the heat of the sun stance, if he is always meeting you on not so early or so strongly experienced horseback, he asks if you never mean to as formerly. In America, these alterawalk the deck again; or if he finds you tions are attributed to a more obvious studying day after day, he says you are cause than uncertain hypothesis, and at always overhauling your log-book. He not many degrees distance. For instance, makes more new acquaintances, and for the ice in the great river St. Lawrence, at gets his old ones less, than any other man Quebec, did not break up till the first in the busy world; for he is so compelled week in May, 1817, when it floated down to make his home every where, remem- the stream in huge masses, and in vast bers his native one as such a place of quantities; these, with other masses from enjoyment, has all his friendly recollec- the coast of Labrador, &c. spread a tions so fixed upon his mind at sea, and general coldness many degrees to the has so much to tell and to hear when he southward. But a few weeks before the returns, that change and separation lose snow fell in some parts of New England, with him the most heartless part of their and New York, to a considerable depth, nature. He also sees such a variety of and there were severe frosts. The vessels customs and manners, that he becomes from England and Ireland, which arrived charitable in his opinions altogether; and at Quebec, all concurred in their accounts charity, while it diffuses the affections, of the dangers which they encountered, cannot let the old ones go. Half the sea and the cold which they suffered. In cret of human intercourse is to make als fine, it would appear that the ice in those lowance for each other.

regions had accumulated to so alarming a When the officer is superannuated or degree, as to threaten a material change retires, he becomes, if intelligent and in- in all the adjacent countries, and to verify quiring, one of the most agreeable old the theory of some who imagined that the men in the world, equally welcome to the extreme cold of the north was gradually silent for his card playing, and to the making encroachments upon the extreme conversational for his recollections. He heat of the south. They have remarked, is fond of astronomy and books of voy- in confirmation of their opinions, that the ages; and is immortal with all who know accounts of travellers and navigators, him, for having been round the world, or furnish strong reasons for supposing that seen the Transit of Venus, or had one of the islands of ice in the bigher northern his fingers carried off by a New Zealand latitudes, as well as the glaciers on the

Alps, continue perpetually to increase in Reasonings of this kind are supported
bulk. At certain times, in the ice moun- by the greatest names, and countenanced
tains of Switzerland, there occur fissures, by the authentic reports of the best in,
which show the immense thickness of the formed travellers. Mr. Bradley attributes
frozen matter; some of these cracks have the cold winds and wet weather, which
measured three or four hundred ells deep. sometimes happen in May and June, to
The great islands of ice, in the northern the solution of ice islands accidentally
seas bordering upon Hudson's Bay, have detached and floating from the north.
been observed to be immersed one Mr. Barham, about the year 1718, in his
hundred fathoms beneath the surface of voyage from Jamaica to England, in the
the sea, and to have risen a fifth or sixth beginning of June, met with some of
part above the surface, measuring, at the those islands, which were involved in such
same time, about a mile and a half in a fog that the ship was in danger of strik-
diameter. It has been shown by Dr. ing against them. One of them measur.
Lyster, that the marine ice contains some ed sixty miles in length,
salt, and less air, than common ice, and On the 22d of December, 1789, there
that it therefore is more difficult of solu was an instance of ice islands having been
tion. From these premises, he endea- wafted from the southern polar regions.
vours to account for the perpetual aug- It was on these islands that the Guardian
mentation of those floating islands. By a struck, at the commencement of her
celebrated experiment of Mr. 'Boyle, it passage from the Cape of Good Hope
has been demonstrated that ice evaporates towards Botany Bay. These islands
very fast, in severe frosty weather, when were wrapt in darkness, about one hun-
the wind blows upon it; and as ice, in a dred and fifty fathoms long, and above
thawing state, is known to contain six fifty fathoms above the surface of the
times more cold than water, at the same waves. In the process of solution, a
degree of sensible coldness, it is easy to fragment from the summit of one of them
conceive that winds sweeping over islands broke off, and plunging into the sea,
and continents of_ice, perhaps much caused a tremendous commotion in the
below northing on Farenheit's scale, and water, and dense smoke all around it.
rushing thence into our latitudes, must These facts were strongly urged upon
bring most intense degrees of cold along public attention in the autumn of 1817,*
with them. If to this be added the as grounds of not only curious and inter-
quantity of cold produced by the evapo- esting, but likewise of highly important
ration of the water, as well as by the speculation. A supposed change in the
solution of ice, it can scarcely be doubted temper, and the very character of our
but that the arctic seas are the principal seasons, was deemed to have fallen within
source of the cold of our winters, and the observation of even young men, or at
that it is brought hither by the regions least middle-aged men; and upon this
of the air blowing from the north, and supposition, it was not deemed extrava-
which take an apparently easterly direc- gant to anticipate the combined force of
tion, by their coming to a part of the the naval world employed in navigating
surface of the earth, which moves faster the immense masses of ice into the more
than the latitude from which they origi- southern oceans ; while to render the
nate. Hence, the increase of the ice in notion more agreeable, and to enliven the
the polar regions, by increasing the cold minds of such as might think such matters
of our climate, adds, at the same time, to of speculation dull or uninteresting, the
the bulk of the glaciers of Italy and project was laid before them in a versified
Switzerland.

garb, characterising the arctic regions.
There in her azure coif, and starry stole,
Grey Twilight sits, and rules the slumbering pole; }
Bends the pale moon-beams round the sparkling coast,
And strews, with livid hands, eternal frost !
There, Nymphs ! alight, arra our dazzling powers,
With sudden march alarm the torpid hours ;
On ice-built isles expand a thousand sails,
Hinge the strong helm, and catch the frozen gales ;
The winged rocks to feverish climates guide,
Where fainting zephyrs pant upon the tide;

* See M, Chronicle, 4 Oct, 1817.

Pass where to Ceuta Calpe's thunder roars,
And answering echoes shake the kindred shores ;
Pass where with palmy plumes Canary smiles,
And in her silver girdle binds her isles;
Onward, where Niger's dusky Naiad laves
A thousand kingdoms with prolific waves,
Or leads o'er golden sands her threefold train
In steamy channels to the fervid main,
While swarthy nations crowd the sultry coast,
Drink the fresh breeze, and hail the floating frost ;
Nymphs! veil'd in mist, the melting treasures steer,
And cool with artic snows the tropic year.
So from the burning line, by monsoons driv'n,
Clouds sail in squadrons o'er the darken'd heav'n;
Wide wastes of sand the gelid gales pervade,
And ocean cools beneath the moving shade.

Darwin.

HOG MANY

NATURALISTS' CALENDAR. this kind which have hitherto appeared in Mean Temperature ... 35. 05. the work, however signed by initials or

otherwise, have been so authenticated to

the editor's private satisfaction, and he January 16,

is thus enabled to vouch for the genuineness of such contributions.

To the Editor of the Every-Day Book. MR. REDDOCK'S paper on this subjects

Sir, at page 13, has elicited the following

In your last number appeared a very letter from a literary gentleman, concern

amusing article touching some usages and ing a dramatic representation in England customs in Scotland, and communicated similar to that which Mr. Reddock in- from Falkirk. In the description of the stances at Falkirk, and other parts of boys' play, ingeniously, suggested as North Britain. Such communications are

typical of the Roman invasion under particularly acceptable; because they show Agricola, we, however, read but a varied to what extent usages prevail, and wherein edition of what is enacted in other parts they differ in different parts of the coun besides. Scotland, and more particularly try. It will be gratifying to every one in the western counties, by those troops who peruses this work, and highly so to of old Father Christmas' boys, which the editor, if he is obliged by letters from

are indeed brief chronicles of the times. readers acquainted with customs in their I mean, those paper decorated, brick own vicinity, similar to those that dust-daubed urchins, 'yclept Mummers. they are informed of in other counties,

To be sure they do not begin, and particularly if they will take the trouble to describe them in every particu

“ Here comes in the king of Macedon;", lar. By this means, the Every Day Book but we have instead, will become what it is designed to be

“ Here comes old Father Christmas, made,-a storehouse of past and present Christmas or Christmas not, manners and customs. Any customs of I hope old Father Christmas never will be any place or season that have not already

forgot." appeared in the work, are earnestly solicited from those who have the means of fur. And then for the Scottish leader Galgacus, nishing the information. The only con

we find, dition stipulated for, as absolutely indis- "Here comes in St. George, St. George pensable to the insertion of a letterfre. That man of mighty name, specting facts of this nature, is, that the With sword and buckler by my side name and address of the writer be com

I hope to win the game." municated to the editor, who will subjoin These “ western kernes” have it, you see, such signature as the writer may choose Mr. Editor, “ down along,” to use their his letter should bear to the eye of the own dialect, with those of the thistle, public. The various valuable articles of Then, too, we have a fight. Oh! how

beautiful to my boyish eyes were their with a description of a “metrical play," wooden swords and their bullying gait! which seems to be the same with which —then we have a fight, for lo

is the subject of the preceding letter. “ Here's come I, the Turkish knight, Come from the Soldan's land to fight,

Being on the popular drama, and as And be the foe's blood hot and bold

the topic arose in Mr. Reddock's commuWith my sword I'll make it cold.

nication from Scotland, a whimsical dra

matic anecdote, with another of like kin A vile Saracenic pun in the very minute from that part of the kingdom, is here subof deadly strife. But they fight-the joined from a Scottish journal of this cross is victorious, the crescent o’erthrown, month in the year 1823. and, as a matter of course, even in our pieces of mock valour, duels we have New Readings of Burns. therein---the doctor is sent for; and he is

We were lately favoured with the peruaddressed, paralleling again our players of sal of a Perth play-bill, in which 'Tam “Scotia's wild domain," with

O‘Shanter, dramatized, is announced for “ Doctor, doctor, can you tell

performance as the afterpiece. A ludiWhat will make a sick man well ?"

crous mistake has occurred, however, in

the classification of the Dramatis Perand thereupon he enumerates cures which would have puzzled Galen, and put Hip- appear, in reading the lines

sonæ, The sapient playwright, it would pocrates to a “ non-plus ;” and he finally

“ Tam had got planted unco richt, agrees, as in the more classical drama of

Fast by an ingle bleezin' finely, your correspondent, to cure our unbeliever

Wi' reaman' swats that drank divinely,” for a certain sum.

The “ last scene of all that ends this very naturally conceiving ream an' swats, strange eventful history” consists in the from the delectable style of their carousentrance of the most diminutive of these ing, to be a brace of Tam's pot compaThespians, bearing, as did Æneas of old, nions, actually introduced them as such, his parent upon his shoulders, and reciting as we find in the bill that the characters this bit of good truth and joculation (per- of “ Ream" and "Swats” are to be permitting the word) by way of epilogue : sonated by two of the performers ! “ Here comes 1, little Johnny Jack,

This reminds us of an anecdote, conWith my wife and family at my back, nected with the same subject, which had Yet, though my body is but small,

its origin nearer home. Some time ago I'm the greatest rogue amongst ye all; we chanced to be in the shop of an elderly This is my scrip—so for Christmas cheer bookseller, when the conversation turned If you’ve any thing to give throw it in here." upon the identity of the characters introThis may be but an uninteresting tail- duced by Burns in his Tam O'Shanter. piece to your correspondent's clever com

The bibliopole, who had spent the early munication, but still it is one, and makes part of his life in this neighbourhood, as the picture he so well began of certain sured us that, “exceptin Kerr, he kent usages more full of point.

every body to leuk at that was mentionI doat upon old customs, and I love ed, frae Tam himsel' doun to his mare hearty commemorations, and hence those Maggie.This being the first time we mimics of whom I have written-I mean

had ever heard Mr. Kerr's cognomen als the mummers---are my delight, and in the luded to, in connection with Tam O'Shanlaughter and merriment they create I for- ter, we expressed considerable surprise. get to be a critic, and cannot choose but and stated that he undoubtedly must have {augh in the fashion of a Democritus, made a mistake in the name. rather than

weep
worlds

be sae, but its a point easily sattled,” said in the style

away of a Diogenes.

he, raxing down a copy of Burns from I am, &c. &c.

the shelf. With “spectacles on nose," J. S. Jun.

he turned up the poem in question. “Ay, Little Chelsea,

ay,” said he, in an exulting tone, “ I

thocht I was na that far wrangJan. 4, 1826.

Care mad to see a man sae happy, In the preface to Mr. Davies Gilbert's

E'n drowned himself amang the happy." work on “Ancient Christmas Carols," there is an account of Cornish sports, Now, I kent twa or three o' the Kerr's

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that leer't in the town-head, but I never faction, from an acre of snow: the effects could fin' out whilk o' them Burns had in of the load thus given to the air were soon his c'e when he wrote the poem.". perceptible. On the 17th, a small bril

liant meteor descended on the S. E.

horizon about 6 p. m. On the 18th, To Thespian ingenuity we are under an obligation for an invention of great the horns of the crescent were obtuse.

though the moon was still conspicuous, simplicity, which may be useful on many On the 19th appeared the Cirrus cloud, occasions, particularly to literary persons followed by the Cirrostratus. In the who are too far removed from the press afternoon a freezing shower from the eastto avail themselves of its advantages in ward glazed the windows, encrusted the printing short articles for limited distribu- walls

, and encased the trees, the garments tion.

of passengers, and the very plumage of

the birds with ice. Birds thus disabled A Dramatic Printing Apparatus.

were seen lying on the ground in great Itinerant companies of comedians fre- numbers in different parts of the country. quently print their play-bills by the fol- Nineteen rooks were taken up alive by lowing contrivance : The form of letter is

one person at Castle Eaton Meadow, placed on a flat support, having ledges at Wilts. The composition of this frozen each side, that rise within about a thir- shower, examined on a sheet of paper, teenth of an inch of the inked surface of

was no less curious than these effects. It the letter. The damped paper is laid consisted of hollow spherules of ice, filled upon the letter so disposed, and previously with water ; of transparent globules of inked, and a roller, covered with woollen hail; and of drops of water at the point cloth, is passed along the ledges over its of freezing, which became solid on touchsurface; the use of the ledges is to pre- ing the bodies they fell on. The thervent the roller from rising in too obtuse

mometer exposed from the window indian angle against the first letters, or going cated 30,5°. This was at Plaistow. The off too abruptly from the last, which would shower was followed by a moderate fall cause the paper to be cut, and the im- of snow. From this time to the 24th, pression to be injured at the beginning there were variable winds and frequent and end of the sheet. The roller must falls of snow, which came down on the be passed across the page, for if it moves 22d in fakes as large a5 dollars, with in the order of the lines, the paper will sleet at intervals. On the 24th a steady bag a little between each, and the impres- rain from W. decided for a thaw. This sion will be less neat.t

and the following night proved stormy:

the melted snow and rain, making about NATURALISTS' CALENDAR.

two inches depth of water on the level, Mean Temperature ...35.65.

descended suddenly by the rivers, and the

country was inundated to a greater extent January 17.

than in the year 1795. The River Lea

continued rising the whole of the 26th, Snow, &c.

remained stationary during the 27th, and

returned into its bed in the course of the On the 16th and 17th of January, 1809, two following days. The various chanMr. Howard observed, that the snow ex- nels by which it intersects this part of the hibited the beautiful blue and pink shades country were united in one current, above at sunset which are sometimes obsery

a mile in width, which flowed with great able, and that there was a strong evapora- impetuosity, and did much damage. From tion from its surface. A circular area, of breaches in the banks and mounds, the five inches diameter, lost 150 grains troy, different levels, as they are termed, of from sunset on the 15th to sunrise next embanked pasture land, were filled to the morning, and about 50 grains more by the depth of eight or nine feet. The cattle, following sunset; the gauge being exposed by great exertions, were preserved, being to a sinart breeze on the house top. The mostly in the stall; and the inhabitants, curious reader may hence compute for driven to their upper rooms, were relieved himself, the enormous quantity raised in by boats plying under the windows. The those 24 hours, without any visible lique- Thames was so full during this time, that

no tide was perceptible; happily, how* Ayr Courier. 7

ever, its bank suffered no injury; and the

† Dr, Aikin's Albienirum.

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