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shall pay but Fifty shillings: and when Escuage is assessed throgheowtt the land; or to Ayde for to make th' eldest sonne of the Lord, Knyght ; or for to rnarry the eldest daughter of the Lord, the said Sir Philip shall pay bott the In oitye of it that other shall paye. Nevertheless, the said Sir Philip shall fynde, meyntienge, and susteingne one Hacon flyke, hanging in his Hall at JP'hichenovre, redy arrayede all times of the yere, bott (except) in Lent; to be given to everyche mane, or woman married, after the day and the yere of their ruarriage be passed: and to be gyven to everyche mane of Religion, Archbishop, Bishop, Prior, or other Religious; and to everyche Preest, after the year and day of their profession finished, or of their dignity reseyved, in forme follow.yng. Whensoever that ony suche by forenamed, wylle come for to enquire for the Baconne, in there own persone; or by any other for them, they shall come to the Baillyfe, or to the Porter of the Lordship of h/hichenovre, and shall say to them, in the manere as ensewethe ;

“Bayliffe, or Porter, I doo you to knowe; that I am come for my self (or, if he be come for any other, shewing for whome) to demaunde, one Bacon flyke, hanging in the Halle, of the Lord of Whichenovre, after the forme thereunto belongyng. After which relacioun, the Baillyffe or Porter shall assign a day to him, upon promyse, by his feythe to retourne; and with him to bryng tweyne of his neighbours. “And, in the meyn tyme, the said Bailliffe shall take with him tweyne of the Freeholders of the Lordship of JWhichenovre; and they three, shall go to the Manoir of Rullowe, belongynge to Robert Knyghtleye, and there shall somon the forseid Knyghteley or his Baillyffe ; commanding him, to be redy at Whichenovre, the day appoynted, at pryine of the day, withe his Caryage ; that is to say, a Horse and a Sadylle, a Sakke, and a Pryke, for to convey and carye the said Baconne, and Corne, a journey owtt of the Countee of Stafford, at hys costages. And then the sayd Baillyffe, shall, with the sayd Freeholders, somone all the Tenaunts of the said Manoir, to be ready at the day appoynted, at Whichenovre, for to doo and

perform the services which they owe to the Baconne. And, at the day assign'd, all such as owe services to the Baconne, shall be ready at the Gatte of the Manoir off Whichenovre, frome the Sonnerysing to None, attendying and’awatyn for the comyng for hym, that fetcheth the Baconne. And, when he is comyn, there shall be delivered to hym and hys felowys, Chapeletts; and to all those whiche shall be there ; to do their services deue to the Baconne: And they. shall lede the seid Demandant wythe Trompes and Sabours, and other maner of Mynstralseye, to the Halle-dore, where he shall fynde the Lord of Whichenovre, or his Steward, redy to deliver the Baconne, in this manere:– “He shall enquere of hym, whiche demandeth the Baconne, yf he have brought tweyn of hys Neghbors with hym. Whiche must answere ; They be here ready. And then the Steward shall cause thies two Neighbours to swere, yf the o Demandaunt be a weddyt man ; or have be a man weddyt: and. yf sythe his Marriage, one yere and a day be passed: and, yf he be a freeman, or a villeyn. And yf hys seid neghbours make Othe, that he hath for hym all thies three poynts rehersed; then shall the Baconne be take downe, and broghte to the Hall-dore ; and shall there be layd upon one halfe a Quarter of Wheatte; & upon one other of Rye. And he that demandeth the Baconne shall kneel upon his knee; and shall hold his right hand upon a booke; which booke shall be layde above the Baconne, and the Corne; and shall make Othe, in this manere. “Here ye, Sir Philippe de Somervile, Lord of Whichenovre, mayntener and yver of this Baconne : That I A. sithe 1 JWedded B. my wife, and sythe I hadd hyr in my kepung, and at my wylle, by a yere and a day, off. ou?” Mariage; I wold not have chaunged for none other; farer, ne fowler; rycher ne pourer; ne for none other descended of greater lynage; slepyng, ne waking, at noo tyme. And yf the seyd B. were sole, and I sole, I would take her to be my JWyfe, hefore alle the wymen of the worlde; of what condiciones soever they be ; good or evylle, as helpe me God onsl hys Seyntys; and this fleshe, and all fleshes. “And hys neighbors shall make Othe,

that they trust veraly he hath said truly. And, yff it be founde by his neighbours, before-named, that he be a Free-man; there shall be delyvered to him half a Quarter of Wheate, and a Cheese. And yf he be a villeyn, he shall have half a Quarter of Rye, wythoutte Cheese. And then shall Knyghtleye, the Lord of Rudlowe, be called for, to carrye all thies thynges, tofore rehersed: And the said Corne shall be layd upon one horse, and the Baconne above ytt: and he too whom the Baconne apperteigneth, shall ascend upon his Horse; and shall take the Cheese before hym, yf he have a Horse: And, yf he have none, the Lord of Whichenovre shall cause him have one Horse and Sadyll, to such time as he be passed hys Lordshippe: and so shalle they departe the Manoir of Whichenovre, with the Corne and the Baconne, tofore hym that hath wonne itt, with Trompets, Tabouretts, and other maner of Mynstralce. And, all the Free-Tenants of Whiclenovre shall conduct hym, to be passed the Lordship of Whichenovre. And then shall all they retorne; except hym, to whom apperteigneth to make the carryage and journey, wythowtt the Countye of Stafford, at the Costys of hys Lord of Whichenovre. And, yff the sayd Robert Knightley, do not cause the Baconn and Corne, to be conveyed, as is rehersed; the Lord of Whichenovre shall do it be carryed, and shall dystreigne the seyd Robert Knyghtley for his defaulte, for one hundred shylliugs, in his Manoir of Rudlowe; and shalle kepe the distres, so takyn, irreplevisable. “. Moreover, the said Sir Philippe holdeth of his Lorde, th' Erle, the Ma

noir of Briddleshalle, by thies services; ,

that, att such tyme, that hys sayd Lorde holdeth hys Chrystemes at Tutbury, the seyd Sir Phelippe shall come to Tutbury, upon Chrystemasse Evyn; and shall be lodged yn the Town of Tutbury, by the Marshall of the Erlys house; and upon Chrystymesse-day, he himself, or some othyr Knyght (his Deputye) shall go to the Dressour; and shall serve to his Lordys meese: and then shall he kerve the same meet to hys sayd Lord: And thys service shall he i. aswell at Souper, as at Dynner: and when hys Lord hath etyn ; the said Sir Philippe shall sit downe, in the same place, wheir hys Lord satt; and shalle be served att hys Table, by the Steward of th' Erlys

house. And, upon Seynt Stevyn-day, when he haith dyned, he shall take leve of hys Lorde, and shall kysse hym; and, for hys service he shall nothing take, ne nothing shall gyve. And all thyes services, tofore-rehersed, the seyd Sir Philippe hath doo, by the space of xlviu. yeres; and hys ancestors by fore hym, to hys Lordys, Erlys of Lancastre.

“Item, the said Sir Philippe holdeth of his seid Lord, th’ Erle, his Manoirs of Tatenhull and Drycotte, en percenerye, by thies services; that the seid Sir Phelippe, or his Atturney for hym, shall come to the Castell of Tutburye, upon Seynt Petyr day, in August, which is called Lammesse; and shall shew the Steward, or Receiver, that he is come thither to hunt, and catch his Lord's Greese, at the costages of hys Lorde. Whereupon the Steward or the Receiver shall cause a Horse and Sadylle to be deliveryd to the sayd Sir Phelippe, the price Fifty shillings; or Fifty shillings in money, and one Hound; and shall pay to the said Sir Phelippe, everyche day, fro the said day of Seynt Peter, to Holy Roode-day, for hymself Two shillings six pence a day; and everyche day for his servant, and his Bercelett, during the sayd time twelve pence. And all the Wood-masters of the Forest of Nedewode and Duffelde, withe alle the Parkers and Foresters, shall be commandyd to awatte, and attend upon the sayd Sir Phelippe, while theyre Lord's Greese be takyn, in all places of the seyde Forestys, as upon their Master, during the said tyme. And the said Sir Phelippe, or his Attorny, shall deliver to the said Parkers, or Foresters, that shall belonge to their Lordys Lardere; commandyng them to convey itt to the Erlys Lardyner, abyding at Tutbury: j with the remenant, the seyd Sir Phelippe shall do hys plesoure. And, upon Holy-Roodday the sayd Sir Phelippe shall returne to the Castell of Tutbury, upon the said Horse, with his Bercelet; and shall dyne with the Steward or Receyver; and after Dynner he shall delyver the Horse, Sadylle, and Bercelett to the Steward or Receyvour; and shall kysse the Porter and depart."

Having here set forth these singular usages in the “Pea season," it may not be amiss to add the following—

Receipt to make Somersetshire Bacon.

The best time is between September and Christmas. Procure a large wooden trough; lay the sides of the hog in the trough, and sprinkle them heavily with bay-salt; leave them twenty-four hours to drain away the blood, and other over-abounding juices. Then take them out, wipe them dry, and throw away the drainings. Take some fresh bay-salt, and heating it well in an iron frying-pan, (beware not to use copper or brass though ever so well tinned,) rub the meat till you are tired; do this four days successively, turning the meat every other day. If the hog is large, keep the sides in the brine (turning them ten times) for three weeks; then take them out, and dry them thoroughly in the usual manner.”

Finally, remembering that the customs before stated relate to marriage, it occurs that there is the following Receipt for a Good Match. To make a good match you have brimstone and wood, Take a scold and a blockhead—the match must be good.

NATURALists' cALEN DAR. Mean Temperature. . . . 60 ° 47.

June 21.

The LoNges.T DAY.

This day the sun enters the sign Cancer, and is then at his extreme distance north of the Equator, passing in the zenith over the heads of all the inhabitants situated on the tropical line; while to us, who reside in London, he appears at his greatest altitude, and hence arises the increased heat we experience from his rays.

To individuals within the Arctic circle the sun at this time does not set.

Cancer is the first of the summer signs, and when the sun enters it we have our longest day. According to Sir William Jones, “the Hindu Asbrono mer Varaha lived when the solstices were in the first degrees of Cancer and Capricorn.” It is now above 2000 years since the solstices thus coincided, and, at present, the sign Cancer begins near

the two stars which form the upper foot in the constellation Gemini, and terminates about the fourth degree within the eastern boundary of the constellation Cancer. In the Zodiac of Dendera this sign is represented by a scarabaeus, or beetle.

* Fruits.

To the eye and palate of the imagination, this month and the next are richer than those which follow them; for now you can “have your fruit and eat it too;" which you cannot do then. In short, now the fruit blossoms are all gone, and the fruit is so fully set that nothing can hurt it; and what is better still, it is not yet stealable, either by boys, birds, or bees; so that you are as sure of it as one can be of any thing, the enjoyment of which is not actually past. Enjoy it now, then, while you may; in order that, when in the autumn it disappears, on the eve of the very day you had destined for the gathering of it (as every body's fruit does), you alone may feel that you can afford to lose it. Every heir who is worthy to enjoy the estate that is left to him in reversion, does enjoy it whether it ever comes to him or not.

On looking more closely at the Fruit, we shall find that the Strawberries, which lately (like bold and beautiful children) held out their blossoms into the open sunshine, that all the world might see them, now, that their fruit is about to reach maturity, hide it carefully beneath their low-lying leaves, as conscious virgins do their maturin beauties;–that the Gooseberries .# Currants have attained their full growth, and the latter are turning ripe;—that the Wall-fruit is just getting large enough to be seen among the leaves without looking for;-that the Cherries are peeping out in white or “cherry. cheeked” clusters all along their straight branches;–and that the other standards, the Apples, Pears, and Plums, are more or less forward, according to their kinds.”

NATURALIST's CALEN DAR. Mean Temperature . . . 59 - 49.

* Trans. Soc. Arts.

* Mirror of the Morths,

THE LONG est DAY. For the Every-Day Book.

Cradled in glory's ether-space, By Venus nursed till morn,-

The light unrolls thy golden life And thou art sweetly born.

O lovely Day of bloom and shine, Of heat, and air, and strain

Millions rejoice and millions die Within thy halcyon reign.

Hopes, fears, and doubts, the passions
'Twas yesterday the same:–
To-morrow ! thou wilt join the dead,
And only live by name-

Jupiter guides thee through the skies
To Hope's eternal shore :

The sun departs—Thou, Longest Day-
Thou wilt be seen no more 1

Methuselah of England's year!
Thou Parr of Time—Farewell !
St. Thomas, shortest of thy race,
Shall ring thine annual knell.
J. R. PRior.

YoUNG Birds.

The following letter is to be considered as addressed to the reader, rather than the editor, who, as yet, is not even a tyro in the art wherein his respected correspondent has evidently attained proficiency. Indeed the communication ought to have been inserted in May. If its agreeable writer, and his good-natured readers, can excuse the omission, the birds and the editor will be equally obliged.


To the Editor of the Every-Day Book.

Now, thro’ the furrows where the skylarks build Or by th. hedge-rows green, the fowler strays, Seeking the infant bird. Sir, As the time has arrived for taking the young from the feathered tribe, it may not be amiss to say a few words by way of advice to the uninitiated, concerning the rearing, and training of these amusing creatures, who repay our cares with their rich melody. We may now get Chaffinches, Goldfinches, Linnets, larks, &c. in the streets, or at the different shops at a very small expense, either singly, or by the nest, according to their ages, but I

should recommend all who wish to purchase young birds to go to a regular dealer, who sell them quite as cheap, and warrant them cocks. Buy them when they begin to feed themselvesor, if younger, when you have them home, put them in a cage, rather roomy:-then for Linnets, Goldfinches, or Chaffinches, mix rape-seed, bruised, and bread, steeped in boiling water— with which, when cooled, you may feed them, putting it into their mouths from the end of a stick, about every two hours; water they will not require, the food being sufficiently moist sor them. When you find them peck at the stick, and take their food eagerly from it, which they will do at a bout a fortnight old, place some food about the cage . with clean dry gravel, scattering among it some dry seed bruised; they will pick it up, and so be weaned off the moist food, which is no longer proper for them—also place water in the pot. This, as regards their feeding, is all you have to do, while they remain healthy—if sick, you must treat them according to the nature of their complaint. I think their sickness at this early stage of their existence is either caused by cold, or by the oily nature of their food, it being too strong for their stomachs; to remedy this, mix a little of the fine gravel with it, this will help their digestion. Sometimes the seed will scour them, in that case, boiled milk, or rust of iron put into their water is a remedy. So much as concerns the hard-billed tribe. If your fancy runs on soft-billed birds, such as the skylark, woodlark, nightingale, or robin, you must feed them with egg, and bread moistened with water; or beef, raw or cooked; changing it as they grow and begin to feed themselves, to dry egg chopped small, and crumbled bread; throwing in with it German paste, until you find them contented with the latter. All these birds will live healthy, and sing stout, on this food, except the nightingale; he must have beef and egg. The remedy for sickness and scouring is as before; if the paste binds them, give them raw beef, or chopped fig; the latter is good for all birds, keeping them in beautiful feather, and cool in body. When a month old, cage them off in their proper cages. Give your captives good food, and clear water; keep their dwellings free from vermin, which you may always do

by having a spare cage to turn them
into once a week, while you search the
other, and destroy the devouring race
of red lice that breed in their crevices
and corners.
Squirt a mouthful of water over your
birds now and then, it will do them
good; this will much assist them in
their moulting, and make them throw
their feathers faster, particularly larks,
mightingales, and robins. The latter
may have their water-pans to fix inside
the cage, so that they can dabble in
them, when they like; this will save the
trouble of taking them out to clean

their feet. Larks must be taken out once a week, or their claws will become clogged with dirt, and rot off. The cleaning their feet is but very little trouble; dip them in warm water, and rub the dirt gently off with your thumb and finger. As these innocent creatures delight you with the beauty of their feathers, and sweetness of their song. too much cannot be done for their comfort.

Hoping this little dissertation (if I may so call it) will be useful,

I am, &c.
S. R.J.
I conclude with the following


On hearing a Thrush singing in the rain.
How sweet the song of the awakened thrush—
Mellow'd by distance, comes upon the ear,
Tho' gather'd clouds have made the heavens drear,
And the rain hisses in the hazel bush,
Wherein he warbles with a voice as clear
As if blue skies were over, and he near
The one that lov'd him—sweet, yet sad to hear !
For it remindeth me of one I've heard,
Singing to other ears, herself unseen,
In her own bower, like that delightful bird,
While yet her bosom's hopes were fresh and green,
One, whom I heard again in after years,
When sorrow smote her, singing 'midst her tears.

May, 1826.

The editor has osten wished, for the sake of feathered posterity, that he could ensure their liberty; but he can no more do that, than persuade those who think they have “vested rights" in the bodies of certain of the airy race, to open their cages and “set the prisoners free.” It is in his power, however, to assist a little in ameliorating their condition, by urging re-perusal and strict attention to the preceding letter. He is himself particularly struck with the direction, “squirt a mouthful of water over your birds now and then—it will do them good." He ventures with becoming diffidence to suggest, whether to syringe a little may not be as beneficial as to “squirt a mouthful." This is the only exception he dares to hint, and it is to be marked as a qualified one, and, under a sense of inexperience, made “ at a hazard." But he agrees that “a nightingale,"—a caged nightingale, alas!— “must have beef and egg;” and “that larks must be taken out once a week”; and—he may be wrong—if they fly away, so much the better. He is strongly

S. R. J. of opinion that birds are like himself— they cannot “bear confinement,” and be happy.

gjume 22.

1826. GENERAL Election.

Parliament having existed to its utmost legal duration, the electors exercised, or withheld the exercise of their franchise, according to their individual wishes or hopes, desires or fears, intelligence or ignorance; or as feelings of independence directed, or influence over weakness misdirected. Contests were as numerous and fierce as usual; and, as might have been expected, in some places, the numerical state of the poll-books intimated more of intellectual enlargement than the final results. No new arguments or means were resorted to. The following paragraph is only inserted as an instance, that to buy as cheap, and sell as dear as possible, as a principle of trade, was not thoroughly lost sight of by dealers.

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