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against his accusers. Martyr did not Emperor's orders, to the Pope to deremain at Naples long after this event, spatch some of its deputies to that the climate, it is alleged, not agreeing city. In this unpopular measure he with his constitution. Having obtained was strenuously opposed by the peothe appointment of prior of a monas- ple at large. They broke out into tery at Lucca, in Tuscany, he removed open revolt, and the most serious conhis residence to that city* Although sequences might have ensued had not Martyr had been active in dissemina. hostilities been terminated by a conting the doctrines of the Reformation ciliatory arrangement, and the abanát Naples, it appears, from his accep- donment of the design.* tance of this promotion, that he had The measures resorted to by the not wholly withdrawn himself from Viceroy Toledo appear to have anthe communion of the Church of swered their purpose, in dispersing Rome; and we shall see hereafter, Valdesso's society, and suppressing that he held an appointment under it the Reformation in the Neapolitan for some time longer.
territory. Most of those who had Previously to Martyr's departure joined themselves to the Reformers, from Naples, Bernardinus Ochinus, a when the season of danger came, made capuchin friar, who was deemed the their peace and obtained their pardon, most eloquent preacher of his age, by a public recantation. † Some, howarrived in that city on a preaching ever, adhered to their principles, and mission. Having become acquainted when they could no longer act upon with Martyr and Valdesso, and perused their convictions in their native land, some of the writings of the Reformers went into voluntary exile to Germany which they had placed in his hands, he or to Switzerland. This was the noble was led to give up some of his old conduct of two confessors among this opinions, and to adopt some of the little society, who are entitled to honew tenets, especially in respect to nourable mention. The first was Isajustification. It does not appear, howbella Manricha, 1 a lady of a distin, ever, that he made, at this period, any open avowal of the change of his sentiments, beyond the circle of his new lator's note.
Mosheim, IV. 387, with the transfriends, or took any decisive part in t Among the principal of those who promoting the infant cause.
apostatized to the Church of Rome, after The proceedings of Valdesso and his taking an active part with the Reformers, associates, owing, probably, to the was Laurentius Romanus, a Sicilian, who notoriety they had acquired through first taught the doctrines of Zwinglius at the prosecution which was instituted Caserta, in the Neapolitan territories, against Martyr, attracted the parti. and, afterwards employed himself in discular attention, and excited the deter- seminating the teneis of the Reformed at mined hostility, of the civil magistrate. he went to Rome, where he made his
Naples. Being prosecuted for his heresy, The Viceroy, Don Pedro di Toledo, recantation, and was sentenced to make issued a severe edict against heretical books; and some of the writings of other penances.
a public abjuration, and submit to various
« A Rome--il fit,” says Erasmus and Melancthon were ordered Giannone, “ la confession de ses erreurs, to be publicly burnt. He suppressed, et lui (au Cardinal Théatin) découvrit, also, several academies which had been qu'il avoit dans Naples et dans le Royformed for the advancement of learn- aume, plusieurs disciples, entre lesquels ing, under a suspicion that they were étoient des personnes du premier rang, et subserving the cause of the Reformers. plusieurs dames titrées, qui apprenoient Not satisfied with these violent mea
les Belles Lettres. Il fut condamné à sures, he next attempted to introduce faire une abjuration publique dans les the Inquisition into Naples, and for Eglises Cathédrales de Naples et de Cathis purpose applied, it is said by the serte, et de la reconduit à Rome, pour y
subir d'autres pénitences." Gerdes, ut supra, p. 79.
I Bernard Ochin dedicated to this • Bock Hist. Antitrinit. Vol. I. pp. illustrious lady his “ Disputa intorno 315, et seq. ; Gerdes Specimen Italia alla presenza del Corporo di Giesu Christo Reformatæ, pp. 75, et seq. ; Melchior nel Sacramento della Cena.” The folAdam in Vita Petri Martyris, 8vo. pp. lowing passage, with which he begins his 30 et 31.
dedication, will shew the high esteem in
guished family at Naples ; and the deed much less than all that has been other was Galeazzo Caraccioli
, Mar. stated on evidence apparently unexquis of Vico, a young and accomplished ceptionable, while they afford a suffinobleman, who relinquished his title cient refutation of the orthodox faith, and his estates, and retired to Geneva, they also point out an effectual and where he became the chief pillar of certain way of producing moral excelthe Italian Church established in that lence, and diffusing religious knowcity.*
Jedge with a rapidity, and to an extent, (To be continued.)
which has hitherto been thought impracticable. I would not be under
stood to wish that establishments like Brighton, these should be formed with a parti
December 20, 1821. cular view to the objects of any reliF credit is due to the published and gious sect, or be applied as powerful
unpublished reports of the moral instruments of giving greater impresresults of M. Fellenberg's Agricul- sion and currency to any set of relitural School, and of that which makes gious opinions. On the contrary, a a part of Mr. Owen's establishment at grand advantage which they appear to New Lanark, the doctrine of heredi- offer is, that of taking religious intary depravity must be dismissed Lystruction, and Christian profession out all who think facts a better authority of the exclusive and prevailing iniluthan speculations; and every interpre- ence of any one Christian sect, estation of revelation erroneous, which blished or not established by law. makes it speak a language contra. Every friend of truth and of mankind dicted by human experience. This is must wish, that if large collections of one, but not the only reason which young persons and children can be makes those philanthropic establish- placed in circumstances more conduments objects of most interesting in. cive to moral improvement and Chrisquiry. If they accomplish all, or in- tian knowledge than have hitherto
existed, no tine should be lost and no which he held her character: “ Havendo exertion spared in effecting so great a gia a dare in luce molti sermoni, non gli purpose. As children of every class dedicai ad alcuno particolare : imperoche are now taught and trained, the chances l'intento mio era che fusseno letti da tutti, are great against the introduction of e specialmente da quelli
, i quali erano per just views of God and of man, of duty cavarne maggior frutto, sicone sono gli and of happiness, into the young mind.. eletti di Dio: ma hora perche voglio Prejudices and errors of various kinds dedicarui questi sermoni della Cena del arc a part, and that part the most Signore, e debito mio il mostrare, perche. inalienable, of their present inheriNessuno potra giustamente dire che io tance; and it is in vain to hope for sia mendace, o adulatore se defalcando any sufficient remedy from the present molto di quello che io sento di vostra provisions of either public or private dero non voi, ma i doni e le gratie, le education. In public schools the forquali inserita vi ha concesse Dio, per
mation of moral character appears to pura sua bonta e gratia. Quelli che in be no part of the design ; and in priItalia vi hanno conosciuta, sanno qual sia vate establishments and domestic edu. stata la vostra sapienza, prudenza, e ho- cation it is highly improbable that the nesta, quanto siate stata d'animo generoso mind should not be exposed to influe heroico, e quanto habbiate illustrati i ences, which pervert in different ways vostri con lo splendore delle vostre virtu,” the moral and intellectual powers that &c. &c. pp. 3, 4.
ought only to be developed. Only ex* The prescribed limits of this essay periment can shew that in co-operawill not admit of detailed biographical tive societies, formed on Mr. Owen's notices of the Italian confessors, whom principles and plans, with such deviait may be proper to mention in the course tions or additions as experience may of it. Should the Editor of the Repository deem such notices acceptable to his suggest, the means would be provided readers, the writer will hereafter furnish of excluding particular prejudices and him with a supplementary paper or two, hurtful influences, and leading on the comprising brief memoirs of some of the rising generation, step by step, in the principal persons who distinguished them- paths of knowledge and of goodness. selres among the Italian Reforipers. Let it, however, be supposcd, that at
a very tender age the great elementary by the results of present experiments, truths of religion, and none but these, of one thing we may, I trust, be confishall be explained to them ; that with dent-that there will not be wanting the progress of years when they have numbers, who, conceding to them the heen prepared to consider evidence, praise of discovery and projection, will the facts of the Christian history shall rejoice to co-operate according to their be laid before them, and every assist- means by pecuniary aids or personal ance given to them in estimating the exertions in carrying on so great a authority and interpreting the con- work. It is not possible to imagine tents of the books of the Old and New an object more worthy or more likely Testament.
to kindle the most active zeal of every In the mean time, habits will have enlightened philanthropist, let it only been formed under the inspection and be made to appear a practicable one. training of proper persons, who never If the condition of society is ever to lose sight of them, (for on this cir- be greatly improved, great improvecumstance the success of the whole ments and great changes in the general plan chiefly depends,) and who, while education of mankind must precede they inculcate Christian maximns and and prepare it. Mr. Owen has well, rules of conduct, accustom them to remarked, in an Address delivered to the habitual application of the great the inhabitants of New Lanark on the precepts of Christian morality in all opening of the institution, that "the Their amusements and inutual inter- minds of children are now impressed course, as well as in the hours of bu- with false notions of themselves and siness, and in the presence of their of mankind; and instead of being conteachers. In the inental training, ducted into the plain path leading to the principle which should direct the health and to happiness, the utmost whole process will be, that the know, pains are taken to compel them to ledge of facts lead on opinions, and pursue an opposite direction, in which that the opinions which they are they can attain only inconsistency and taught to receive a3 first principles of error :" “ That it must be evident to knowledge, be such only as are easily common observers, that though chilresolved into the constituent facts. dren may be expeditiously taught by The different branches of instrumental either Dr. Bell's or Mr. Lancaster's learning, comprehending ancient and system, to read, write, account and modern languages, the elements of sew, yet they may, at the same time, pure science, and, as shall be judged acquire the worst habits, and have expedient or proved useful, agricul- their minds rendered irrational for tural, mechanical and ornamental arts, life :” “ That reading and writing are will variously accompany the mental merely instruments by which knowand moral discipline; and thus a broad ledge, either true or false," (truth or and sure basis will be laid for every error,) may be imparted; and when degree of intellectual attainment and given to children are of little compamoral excellency. All this appears in rative value, unless they are also taught speculation to be very practicable in how to make a proper use of them :" a well-instituted plan of public edu- “ That the manner of giving instruccation, of which a part only, and that tion is one thing, the matter or inperhaps not the most valuable part, is struction itself another; and no two to be accomplished either in the pre- objects can be more distinct. The sent domestic education, or in the worst manner may be applied to give public or private schools which now the best instruction; or the best manexist. It is here then that reform, ner to give the worst instruction.” religious, moral, political, ought to May I be allowed to request, Sir, begin; and they will prove themselves that any of your correspondents in the the greatest benefactors of mankind, North, would communicate, through who shail be able to shew by facts, the medium of your valuable Reposithat they have laid the foundatiơn of tory, whatever useful and interesting it in a reforined education. Tiine information they may possess respectmay shew whether the names of Fel- ing that branch of Mr. Owen's estaleuberg and Owen are to stand first blishment which is employed in the on this honourable list. If, however, education of children. I would solicit the title shall be happily established this favour from your correspondents
Mr. Manning on Rom. iii. 10-12, compared with Psalm xiv. 1-3. at Leeds in particular, because several noblemen of various ranks ; all of inhabitants of that town have enabled whom, as well as their teachers, were themselves to give certain information actuated by one common desire of on the subject. It is stated in the improvement and anxiety to realize ninth Number of the Economist, the expectations of their director, “ that a deputation was appointed by whom they loved and reverenced. He the township of Leeds, 1819, to visit proceeded always upon the important Mr. Owen's establishment at New principle, that the pleasure of doing Lanark, and there to exainine into the well, if it has been enjoyed by the practical results; that this deputation young mind, will be found a stimulus consisted of Mr. Cawood, a gentleman sufficiently strong to excite to great who then filled the office of Church- and continued exertion; and that a warden ; Mr. Oastler, an aged and child so brought up will always prefer benevolent character, and a principal doing well to doing ill.” leader among the resident Methodists If these several reports are, in the at Leeds; and Mr. Baines, the pro- main, statements of facts, they are prietor of the Leeds Mercury, who is facts which point to sacred duties and à member of a congregation of Dis- blessed effects; and it can no longer senters called Independents ; that one be a question, in what way man can of these gentlemen was known, if any do the greatest good to man. thing, to be rather unfavourable to ticipating the use that may and that the system he was appointed to exa- must sooner or later be made of them, mine, and neither of the two others and its bright results, we seem to have had any bias in its favour; and that, escaped froin a dark and chilling clime, of different political principles and va- till reminded, that even now a dense rious religious persuasions, they were cloud of prejudice and illiberality hangs well qualified from their previous over us, beneath which bigotry or habits and pursuits to take a cool and selfism would still be seen, binding up impartial view of the establishment, every mind of man in the trammels of and to form an accurate judgment established creeds, and, to make the upon its merits : that they returned work sure, placing every infant mind from the examination to Leeds, full under the absolute controul of the of admiration of scenes of which they clergy. had been unable to form any previous
JOHN MORELL. conception, and especially of the system of training and educating the
Exeter, children, and the happy effects which
November 9, 1821. arose from it.” The Economist adds, T has happened to the Sacred Scrip“ I have had the pleasure of reading Mr. Cawood's private journal, and I interpreted in a different manner from do not remember having been ever any other writings, by straining the more deeply affected than by the de- sense of strong expressions to a greater light with which that gentleman suffers height and a more universal extent the feelings of a benevolent heart to than they were intended to imply. run over, as it were, in expressions of This observation is suggested by conaffectionate love and admiration of the sidering the passage, quoted by the children, and of blessings on their in- Apostle Paul, Rom. ii. 10, 11, 12, nocent and endearing deportment.” with great propriety to his subject,
It is also stated, in the same Num- from Psa. xiv. 1, 2, 3. In this passage ber, “ that the Translator of the two the Psalmist speaks of the Jews, among published reports of Mr. Fellenberg's whom, he says, “ There is none that institution at Hofwyl, visited it in the doeth good. God looked down from summer of 1819, and observed, that heaven upon the children of men, to the conduct, morals and behaviour of see if there were any that did undereach new pupil were almost immedi- stand, that did seek God: Every one ately brought to the standard of those of thein is gone back, they are altogepreviously trained to the rules, habits ther become filthy, there is none that and intentions of Mr. Fellenberg. doeth good, no not one.”. In the seminary for the rich there However true and just the descripwere about 100 pupils of several na- tion is, as to the times and persons of tions, among whom were princes and whom it is given, yet, I presume, it
could not be intended as a description works of God, certainly engaged some of the character of all mankind at any of them to seek after God and under." time or under any dispensation. The stand his will. Many also among the manner in which some of these cha- Gentiles were not without their inquiracters is expressed, “there is none ries after the Supreme Cause and Su-' righteous, no not one, there is none perintending Power of the universe. that understandeth and seeketh after And although they were not so sucGod,” is at first view so general, that cessful in their researches into the persons who have adopted the worst nature and perfections of the Divine opinion of human nature, and would Being, as to attain a true understandrepresent it in its most depraved state, ing and just conceptions of God and may from hence take occasion to say, the glory due unto his name, but that this is absolutely asserted to the idolatry and superstition in all their full extent of the words, which are forms grew to their greatest excess, universal and without restriction. and universally prevailed, yet it ap
But before such an opinion of the pears from the writings of their greatest whole human race, by nature, can be and best men, that God was the subjustly deduced from such a passage of ject of their serious and diligent inquiScripture, it should be considered, ries; and some of them had so far whether such general expressions are understood the subject as to speak of not frequently found among all writers the Divine existence and character in in a relaxed sense. Such there cer- the most just and sublime manner. tainly are, which we understand ac- And, which is to their great honour, cordingly, without any difficulty. ls men of the most illustrious genius and it not then possible this may be the in the highest civil stations in Greece case, nay, will it not be found the and Rome, when they retired from the probable sense of this very passage ? forum to their beautiful villas, emThe Psalmist does not speak of human ployed their time in rational and ingenature itself, or of all mankind as nious conversations upon this topic; naturally corrupt and utterly indis- upon the nature, works and providence posed to all good, and continually in- of God; the laws of nature; the duty, clined to evil; but of the habits of destination and hope of man; and the wickedness which men had contracted like important inquiries. by their own evil-doings. This is not The next part of the sentence, to be understood of every man then “ They are all gone out of the way, living, as if there were none righteous, they are together become unprofitano not a single individual. For in the ble,” being not such absolute characvery Psalm from which these passages ters of evil as the other, need not be are taken, in which David, in such taken notice of; but what follows is strong colours, describes the wicked- of the same exclusive nature of all ness of some, he, at the same time, degrees of good as the two first. Now speaks of the good and virtuous who this expression, “ There is none that were then in the nation, in opposition doeth good, no not one,” is not, I apto these vicious persons. *** There prehend, intended to set forth the nawere they" (the workers of iniquity) ture of man as utterly averse to all "in great fear; for God is in the gene- good, and destitute of all principle ration of the righteous." Here the and disposition to do good in any inrighteous are opposed to the wicked, stance, nor to assert that not one which shews that there were men at single person among the race of men that time, and in that nation, to whom doeth good. The Scriptures allow the latter character did not belong: and suppose that there are men who
The next part of the description, do good, who perform acts of kindness “ There is none that understandeth, and beneficence, of virtue and goodthat seeketh after God,” in the same ness, and that from good principles manner does not imply any more than and dispositions. And experience will that there were but, comparatively, testify that it cannot be said univerfew that did so. It cannot be supposed sally, “ there is none that doeth good, a universal character of all men, with no not one." out exception, in all ages. The Divine The truth, therefore, appears to be, Being having revealed himself to the that this character, as well as the Jews, that revelation, as well as the former, is not levelled at human na