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statue was broken into pieces, and a quantity of diamonds and rubies, far greater than the ransom proposed by the crafty priests, fell at his feet. The Gaznavide Sultan treated the Hindus with all the rigour of a conqueror, and with all the fury of a converter, not only plundering treasures, but demolishing temples, and murdering idolators throughout his route.* His enthusiasm for Muhammedanism was as strong as that which inflamed the breasts of the primitive supporters of that religion; and the title of Protector of the Faithful, which the Bagdad Caliph Caderbillah gave him, by way of investing him with the kingdom of Samania, was well merited by his bigotry and intolerance. The stern martial virtues of the conqueror, and his excellent qualities as prince, were degraded by the low passion of avarice. In the hour of dissolution, he commanded his spoils of India to be brought before him. Lamentations fell from his tongue, and tears started into his eyes, on beholding the baubles: he offered not to bestow, what it was beyond his ability to keep, and his attendants were compelled to remove them from his sight, as their view serv. ed but to increase the anguish of his death.t
. During the reign of his son and successor Masoud, the Gaznavide empire became more potent, by the addition of the remainder of Persia, (except the province of Fars,) and of the territory of the Bowides, on the banks of the Persian Gulf. But the Seljukian Tartars, whose history will hereafter be detailed, availing themselves of a predatory expedition of Masoud into India, conquered from him Korasan, The loss of this province was soon succeeded by the total dismemberment of the Gaznavide empire, A. D. 1160. Kosrow Shaw, the last prince of this dynasty, was deposed by Houssian Gauri, a native of Gaur, who became possessed of a large portion of the western part of the Gaznavide empire, while the descendants of Mahmud retained for a few years the provinces contiguous to both shores of the Indus. (A. D. 1184.) But the Gaurides wrested the sceptre of these territories from their weak possessors, and established the seat of Muhammedan power in India at Lahor. The Gaur Sultans adopted the religious zeal, as well as the military spirit of the Gaznavides. Muhammed Gauri plundered Benares, (1194,) the chief city of the Indian religion, and destroyed the idols with circumstances of cruelty worthy of a successor of Mahmud.* (1205.) The death of this emperor occasioned a new division of the Gaznavide empire, Eldoze retained the Persian part, and the Indian territories were enjoyed by Cuttub, the friend and servant of the late emperor. By Cuttub, the Patan or Afghan dynasty in Hindustan was founded. The Afghans originally inhabited the mountainous tract lying between India and Persia, or the ancient Paropamisus. Cuttub, prior to his elevation to the throne, had carried his arms, under Muhammed Gauri, into Agimul and Guzerat. Until the completion of his conquests, Lahor was his capital, but the necessity of fixing the imperial residence near the centre of his dominions, occasioned his removal to Delhi. His successor, the emperor Altumsh, conquered the vast province of Bengal, and established in it the Muhammedan religion. The Persian or Tartarian parts of the Gaznavide or Gaur territories were, at this period, added to the empire of Zingis Khan.”+
* Orme's Preliminary Dissertation to his Coromandel War, p. 9. vol. ii. 4to. London. 1763.'
† D'Herbelot, vol. ii. p. 517—525. De Guignes, vol. iii. p. 160-173, Dow's Hist. Hindustan, vol. i. p. 34-99. 4to. edit. 1768.'
* · Benares was regarded as the principal seat of Braminical learning; and we may conclude that about this period the Sanscrit language, which was before the common language of Hindustan, began to decline in purity, by the admixture of words from that of the invaders. In the course of time new dialects, mixtures of the vernacular idioms and the language of the conquerors, were formed, and the Sancrit, in its original purity, existed only in ancient writings. Rennell's Memoir to his Map of Hindustan, Introd. p. 47.
+ Rennell's Memoir, Introd. p. 48. et seq.
Chapter v. contains an epitome of the Koran. The greatest demerits of that book consists in the permission of polygamy, and in the intolerance which it commands against other sects: but, on the other hand, humanity, pecuniary probity, and justice, are strongly, repeatedly, and efficaciously enforced. We will copy on this head a short remark of the present author:
In regulating the pecuniary transactions of his followers, Muhammed endeavoured to reconcile the virtues of humanity and justice. Creditors are exhorted to forbearance and even forgiveness of obligations, but debtors are threatened with future punishment who wantonly violate their faith; and Mu. hammed refused to pray over those who had died without leaving means of paying their debts. He also excepted debt and hypocrisy from the general sanctification obtained by the killing of infidels.* Contracts should be made in writing in the presence of witnesses. All deceit in selling is forbidden, and the vender must announce any defect in his goods. Each party should submit to a trifling loss rather than occasion it to the other. Ali said “the Prophet has forbidden bargaining with a person whose poverty compels him to sell his goods at a low rate: humanity dictates the relief of him.” An option for the performance of a contract exists with both parties till either of them has left the place of commerce. The purchaser having ultimately concluded his contract should repeat his profession of faith, and glorify God, The traditions insist on the propriety of liberality, and mutual mild dealing. Merchants of honesty and veracity will be raised at the last day with the prophets.'
* Tha general rule in Moslem countries respecting imprisonment for debt seems to be, that when a claiinant establishes his right against a solvent debtor, the magistrate is to order the debtor to render it, and in case of non-compliance imprisonment must be awarded. The debtor's property may be sold by the magistrate's order for payment of the debt. The Cadi appears to have a discretionary power with respect to the period of imprisonment. Hedaya, XX. I. XXXV. 3. A debtor who has established his indigence cannot be imprisoned for debt. Some lawyers contend that imprisonment is legal, if the debtor has, for vicious purposes, wasted his means. The plea of indigence will not be allowed if the debtor professes any art or calling. He may be compelled to work in discharge of his debt. A number of the lawyers (ductores dubitantium) say, that an indigent person, on being sued and threatened with imprisonment, may lawfully dedy the debt, and even swear to the non-existence of it, with a mental tion and intention of discharging it wben in bis power. Baillie, p. 194.'
The sixth chapter treats rather negligently of the literature and sciences of the Saracens and Turks. The digits, called Arabic, are, according to Villoison, mere simplifications of the form of the first nine letters of the Greek alphabet, and were already in use at Alexandria in the time of Marcus Anto. ninus.
In the seventh and concluding section, Mr. Mills sketches the present state and extent of the Muhammedan religion. It seems to be silently undergoing an internal change: the doctrines of anti-supernaturalists are extensively embraced by the educated classes, and a sort of deism, or religion of nature, is superceding the former faith.
Art. V.- Account of the Guaycuru Indians: from the third
volume of Southey's History of Brazil, recently published at London.
“THERE were, at the close of the eighteenth century, three divisions of the Guaycuru nation;-one on the western side of the Paraguay; one on the eastern, below the Fecho dos Morros, being those who made peace with the Spaniards of Asumpcion, through the ex-priest; and the third, above the Fecho, who are, according to their own intention in the treaty, allies of the Portuguese; but according to its letter, acknowledged vassals of the Portuguese crown. These branches are declared enemies each of the other, although they are of the same origin, speak the same language, and observe the same
customs. The Brazilian branch is divided into seven*
great hordes; who are generally upon friendly terms, and perfectly resemble each other in all their habits and institutions, Each of these hordes is so numerous, that the assemblage of its tents is said to deserve the name of a large town. The tents are arranged in straight wide streets, and are of the simplest structure: mats, made of flags or rushes, laid upon poles, almost horizontally in dry weather, but with more inclination when it rains; and when the rain is heavy, and the matting begins to bag with the weight of water, they brush it off from within; but many have two or three mat coverings, one above the other, with intervals between, as a better protection both against rain and sun. They always encamp upon the banks of a river or great lake, and remain there as long as they find sufficient food for themselves and their cattle, which are very numerous; for they despise agriculture, and live chiefly upon meat. They have profitted thus much by their intercourse with the Portuguese, that they rear every kind of domestic bird and beast, which has been introduced from Europe into America; and they treat them all with such kindness, as well as care, as to render them remarkably tame. Neither stirrups nor saddle of any
kind are in use among them; their bridle is made of the acroata, one of the aloes of the country; and they are so incessantly on horseback, that their legs are deformed by it. Yet they are said not to be good horsemen, only that they know how to manage the horse at full speed; .. which, indeed, is all the horsemanship they need. Their mode of breaking-in the animal is peculiar to themselves: it is done in the water, almost up to the creature's belly, that he may have less power to struggle, and that the rider may have less to fear from a fall. The warhorse is never used for any other occasion, and never sold; but, upon the death of the master, it is killed at his grave.
* These seven hordes are called, Chagoteo, Pacachodeo, Adioeo, Atis adeo, Oleo, Laudeo, and Cadioo.' (Cazal. 1. 276.)