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ther of the districts by the names of which they were distinguished, nor any great difference betwixt one and another; for all, if not absolutely bad, were at least very indifferent.' (P. 123-125.)

ART. III.Self-Cultivation, Recommended, or Hints to a

Youth leaving school. By Isaac Taylor, Minister of the Gospel at Ongar. Republished by Wells and Lilly, Boston, 1820.

This is a discreet and sensible essay on practical education; and although not remarkable for depth or novelty of thought, is calculated to do good, by inculcating in a pleasing style many truths that cannot be too often told, nor too deeply impressed on the mind of pupils and preceptors.

The preface explains the aim and scope of the work as follows:

' It may prevent misapprehension in the reader, and consequent disappointment, to state distinctly the object of the present volume. It is not an attempt to depreciate the instruction which schools are intended to give; nor by any means to institute a mode of self tuition, which shall render them needless. The self-cultivation recommended, is rather in. tended to render them complete.

• It is a very common mistake, which the author has found extremely detrimental to youthful improvement;-that mas. ters are to teach their pupils; and that the whole burden of education lies on the tutor. That the thoughtless, volatile young, should take up such a notion, is no wonder: but the manner in which many teachers operate, seems to intimate that they also make the same mistake; for all their teaching is telling; substituting the means for the end. That teaching is alone efficient which is connected with doing. The pupil must not be a mere recipient, a listener; but an actor, if he would even comprehend the lesson; if especially he would make that morsel of knowledge his own.

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VOL. II.

... This mistake is not, however, the exact object of this address; but rather, one consequent upon it: which is, that when a child leaves school, his education is finished. A notion destructive of all real improvement; which steals from the mind almost all it had gained; and as it prevails totally or partially, prevents so far, all future improvement, all actual excellence.

“That such an idea does obtain, is perhaps within the recol. lection of most of us; lies under our observation, as far as the young surround us; and becomes the main obstacle to our wishes for their improvement, wherever their improve. ment is connected with our own labour, anxiety, and comfort.

'To prove, therefore, to the young, that their education is not finished, but only begun when they quit school; that all their hopes for honourable excellence must rest on their own exertions; that now especially their exertions promise suc. cessful issue; to rouse the noble determination of acting well: of putting forth mental energies on principle: this forms the single object of the following pages.

'If those who are still under tuition, should peruse the work and imbibe the spirit of it, it is hoped their present opportunities may be made more advantageous; but, put into the hands of such as have just left their tutors; should it engage them to become tutors to themselves, it is presumed then its application is more appropriate, and its beneficial effects may be hoped for to their greatest extent.

• With this hope it is, that SELF-CULTIVATION has been placed in a variety of lights, and its importance and efficiency delipeated. To generate the principle is the first object. Should this endeavour be favourably received, some of the means most likely to guide in the process, may be developed in a future volume.

‘May the present appeal forcibly impress the importance of the enterprize; the important enterprize will then be begun;

and much may be hoped from its progress during life:- its completion must be watched for in another world.'

We pass to his second chapter On the different sources of Instruction."

"WHERE did you learn this? is a question sometimes not easy to be answered. The true reply if given, would point out sources of instruction which we had never considered as such. Perhaps the most important principles of action, the most efficient rules, and motives and habits, if rightly traced, will show, that not in one school but in several, we have taken our degrees; not from ostensible masters, but by gratuitous instruction; not from a parent's care, but by some servant's villany, we became thus knowing. To be aware beforehand, how such knowledge may be obtained or avoided will have its use, Much of course may

be attributed to the direct instruction received from masters, and schools, and the various tasks set us in them. So much given to be learned by rote, and that every day, must leave some traces of knowledge on the dullest mind. As the memory of children seems peculiarly retentive, it is a benefit to have had it stored with ideas, if they are but tolerably good and appropriate. Yet want of interest in the instruction given, occasions great inattention to it, and absurd misapprehension concerning it. It will be well if any thing remains sufficiently correct and impressive to become of actual service in life. Unless self-cultivation be early begun, which may seize, correct, and fix such floating notions, the chance is much against their permanency and effective usefulness.

Learning by rote is likely to be more useful, when the tutor has skill, patience, and fatherly feeling enough to engage him to add personal explanation and examination. Difficulties are sometimes cleared by a word. The truth is pointed out, and its importance impressed, by a single question, an

inquisitive look, or a marked emphasis; while the kindness with which such a mode implies will engage attention, and thereby rouse the youth's own powers: the principle most important to success. Very favourable have been their opportunities, who, beyond the daily routine of tasks and duties, have enjoyed the viva voce lessons of an elegant mind, devoted to the labour of education, and stimulated by every symptom of success. If, indeed, vacant inattention, or the spirit of hardened obstinacy, ruled over those precious moments, the lessons, however excellent, could make but little impression; and should the same disposition remain, that self-cultivation should be roused to operate on such instruction can scarcely be expected.

' In many cases the instruction given at schools has been premature. Not all children of the same age, or the same standing, are equally forward: and if all are expected to receive the same specific lesson, the effect cannot be beneficial. All instruction requires some previous knowledge to receive it. If the lesson be given, therefore, before the mind is sufficiently opened to comprehend its meaning, it will not be received. The whole will be lost; or the part retained, for want of its corresponding parts, will become an absurd and useless notion.

"Will it be any wonder, then, if all the time and expense bestowed on schools and masters, produce but a small stock of knowledge:-if the parent be eventually disappointed, by the little attainment made; and the scholar disappointed too, in feeling himself not competent for the situations he is called to occupy. Perhaps he leaves his tutors with a rooted aversion against them, and agairist all knowledge: an aversion which cleaves to him through life, and grows with every experience of inability. Not able to rise to the various oecasions before him, he fixes himself, with a sort of valiant obstinacy in some redoubt of ignorance; and affects to laugh at all who strive after an excellence which he is now determin.

edInever to aim atar. A lost character this., Intelectuality is o frozeni upwis The mind dozes and snores; or, if at all roused, Atris to set itself a-kimbo against instruction, and finally to reisistiand resent every attempt to communicate useful or ho-nourable emulation, busin spite of every reluctance during the years of school, and valthough much time was lost in things which are not effectively learned, or which, if learned, would never have been actually of use; yet will small remnants and shreds of knowledge be brought away. Something is forced into the most resisting mind by incessant endeavour: something seen or heard, or parrot-like learned by rote, retains its impression, and becomes perhaps the seed of increasing discernment. Should self-cultivation begin, however late, her necessary occupations, these trifles, mis-shapen, partial, and scanty as they are, will be of excellent use; the mind, when it begins ito operate, will work upon them, and, almost unconscious of · where and how it came by such ideas, will find them, use them, and be set forwards by the means to much advantage.

'Imperious circumstances, however, teach much more than masters do; and forcing the attention, fix the knowledge so gained in a much more indelible manner, I will," and "I won't,” are favourite expressions with inconsiderate boys. While mere boys, disgraceful as are such expressions, they may pass: but the first step taken after school is over, meets with as positive and more powerful “you shall", and "you sha'nt.” Nothing remains, after a little ineffectual struggling, but a compromise. The doughty resolve is deferred in its execution; becomes less and less frequently resorted to: a asort of compliance becomes habitual, and an artificial pliabi

lity is superinduced, upon some of the most obstinate. The - lesson might have been more easily learned; but as it must be learned, the sooner the better, whatever be the means. i. " "The world is not so compliant as our fond parents; i.it cares little for our feelings, less for our whims, and it will

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