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DRAINING FOR HEALTH.

BY
G. E. O. E. WARING, Jr.,

ENGINEER of THE DRAINAGE of CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK.

NEW AND REWISED EDITION,

* EVERY REPORTED CASE OF FAILURE IN DRAINAGE WHICH WE HAVE INVESTI-
“GATED, HAs REsolved ITSELF INTO IGNORANCE, BLUNDERING, BAD MANAGEMENT,
“OR BAD EXECUTION.”—Gisborné.

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Rintered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1887, by the
O. JUDD CO.,
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

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In presenting this book to the public the writer desires to Bay that, baving in view the great importance of thorough work in land draining, and believing it advisable to avoid everything which might be construed into an approval of half-way measures, he has purposely taken the most radical view of the whole subject, and has endeavored to emphasize the necessity for the utmost thoroughness in all draining operations, from the first staking of the lines to the final filling-in of the ditches.

That it is sometimes necessary, because of limited means, or limited time, or for other good reasons, to drain partially or imperfectly, or with a view only to temporary results, is freely acknowledged. In these cases the occasion for less completeness in the work must determine the extent to which the directions herein laid down are to be disregarded; but it is believed that, even in such cases, the principles on which those directions are founded should be always borne in imind.

NEwpoRT, R. I., 1867.

NOTE TO SECOND EDITION.

None of the principles set forth in the First Edition of this book have been modified by later experience. Some of the processes for the execution of the work have, however, been so much improved as to make a revision necessary.

NEWPORT, R. I., 1879.

NOTE TO THIRD EDITION.

It is now twenty years since this book was first written. During this time the extension of the tile drainage of agricultural lands throughout the North and West, and to no little extent throughout the South, has been very great. There are probably more factories for the manufacture of drain tiles in active operation now than there were tile-drained farms in 1866.

There has been no modification of methods in practical drainage at all comparable with its extent. The more important changes have been incorporated with the directions given in the various chapters of this work. Some improvements have been introduced since the publication of the Second Edition in 1879.

NEwpoRT, R. I., 1887.

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

1.--A dry soil, (from Dr. Madden's lecture)...... ............ ..... ... 18 2.—A wet soil ** ** -4 .................... ....... ... 18 3.—A drained soil" -- “ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . 14 4.—A map of land with swamps, rocks, springs and trees........... ... 50 5.—Map with 50-foot squares and contour lines...... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51 6.-Levelling instrument............................................ ... 52 7.— -- rod. . . . . . . . .................. ... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . 53 8.—Map with contour lines........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 54 9.—Wells' Clinometer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. ... .................. 56 10–Stone pit to connect spring with drain.............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 59 11.-Stone pit and tile-basin for same object..... ...................... 60 12–Line of saturation between drains....... ............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 65 13-Horse-shoe tile......................................... - - - - - - - - - - - - 78 14–Sole-tile............. ............... ........... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 80 15.--Double-sole-tile............ .... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 80 !-found tile (or pipe) and collar....................... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 81 #T Three profiles of drains with different inclinations............... 92 20.-Map with drains and contour lines................................ . 98 21.-Profile of Drain C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............... - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 106 22.—Set of tools, (from Drainage des Terres Arables).......... - - - - - - - - - - 114 23.−Qutlet secured with masonry and grating, (from the saunc)..........118 24.—Silt-basin, built to the surface.................................. .... 121 25.-Finishing spade... ........... ........ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 123 26.- $4. SCOOP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 27.-Bracing the sides of drains in soft land.................... . - - - - - - - 124 28.-Measuring staff........................ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 124 29.-Boning-Rod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....... 125 30.—Position of workman, and use of scoop, (from Drainage des Terres Arables).................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 126 31.-Use of Boning-Rods..... .......................................... 126 32-Tile-pick .......................... ............ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 131 33.-Lateral drain entering at top of main......................... - - - - - - 134 34.—Sectional view of joint.................. -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ...1% 35.-Square, brick silt-basin . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 135 §IS.i. of vitrified pipe................... ............... - - - - - - - 134 37.-Tile Silt-basin... .............. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 136 38.-Maul for ramming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - ...... 138 39.—Board scraper for filling ditches............................. ... .... 140 40.-Drain with a furrow at each side......................... - - - - - - - - - - - 141 41,-Foot-pick ............................. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 156 42-Pug-Mill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - ... 179 43.-Plate of dies.............................................. ..... 180 44.—Cheap wooden machine, (from Drainage des Terres Arables)...... 181 i.To... for carrying tiles from machine, (from the same)...........182 46.-Clay-kiln, (from Journal Royal Agricultural Society)................ 1:34 47.-Dyke and ditch.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 48.-Old system of house drainage, } from Report of Board of { 236 49.-New 44 -- 44 Liealth, (England). 23? 50–57. –Boynton's tiles and connections............ ....................?!? 58–59. —Outlet grating and outlet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245 60–64.—English dra ning tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245

65.-Opening the ditch and laying the tiles.............................249

TABLE OF CONTENTS,

CHAPTER I.—LAND TO BE DRAINED, AND THE REASON WHY.

Indications of the need of draining.—Sources of water.--Objections
to too much water.—Wet sub-soil.

Characteristics of a well laid tile-drain.—Surface-water and rain-water
beneficial, springs and soakage-water injurious. Cracking of stiff clays.
Evaporation and filtration.—Rain-fall.—Evaporation.—Temperature.—
Drought.—Porosity or mellowness.-Chemical action in the soil.

Amateur draining.—Maps.-Levelling instruments.-Outlets and loca-

tion of drains.—Main drains.--Spring water. –Fall.—Tiles.—Depth and
distance apart.—Direction of laterals.-Collars.-Discharge of water
from drains.

CHAPTER W.—How To TAKE CARE OF DRAINS AND DRAINED LAND.

Removing obstructions.—Mistake of substituting large tiles for small
ones which have become obstructed.—Heavy lands should not be tram-
pled while wet.

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