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Counsel for the Crown, 164. Speaker the Second Time, 164. Urges the Execu-

tion of Mary Queen of Scots, 164. Answer of Elizabeth, 164. Puckering prose-

cutes Secretary Davison, 165. Queen's Serjeant, 165. His Conduct on Trial of

Earl of Arundel, 165. Conducts Prosecution of Sir John Perrot, 165. Puckering

is knighted, and receives the Great Seal, 166. His Installation as Lord Keeper,

167. His Merits and Defects as a Judge, 167. A Parliament, 168. Lord Keep-

er's Address, 168. Sir Edward Coke elected Speaker, 168. Allowed by the

Lord Keeper, 168. Lord Keeper's Definition of " Liberty of Speech," 169.

Members of House of Commons committed to Prison, 169. Ideas of Lord Keeper
and Speaker respecting Privilege of Parliament, 169. Death of Lord Keeper

Puckering, 170. His Character, 170. Steady Government of Queen Elizabeth, 170

CHAPTER XLVII.

LIFE OF LORD ELLESMERE FROM HIS BIRTH TILL THE EXECUTION OF THE EARL

OF ESSEX.

Queen keeps Great Seal in her own Custody, 171 Great Seal delivered to Sir

Thomas Egerton, 171. Natural Son of Sir Richard Egerton, 171. His Edu-

cation, 172. His Study of Law, 172. Anecdote of his interfering, while a Student,

as Amicus Curice, 172. He becomes a great Jurist, 173. Called to Bar, 173.

Made Queen's Counsel, 173. His Mode of Conducting Suits, 173. Made Solic-

itor General, 175 His Mode of conducting State Trials, 175 He frames the In-

dictment against Mary Queen of Scots, 175. Counsel against Earl of Arundel,

176. Egerton, Attorney General, 176. Prays Judgment on Sir John Perrot, 176.

Knighted, 177. Chamberlain of Chester, 177. Master of the Rolls, 177. Mode

of appointing him Lord Keeper, 177. While Lord Keeper, he continues Master

of the Rolls, 178. General Joy on his Appointment as Lord Keeper, 178. He

proves a consummate Judge, 179. His Decisions, 179. Offends Common-law

Judges by granting Injunctions, 179. Is defeated in Attempts to enforce Decrees

in Equity by imposing Eines, 180. Appropriate Punishment of Equity Draughts-

man for Prolixity, 180. A Parliament, 181. Lord Keeper's Speech, 181. Lord

Keeper's Admonition to the Speaker, 181. Question of Precedence, 182. Bill

against Monopolies, 182. Lord Keeper negotiates Treaty with Dutch, 182,

Treaty with Denmark, 182. Egerton's Conduct to Earl of Essex, 183. Queen

Elizabeth's Box on Ear to Earl of Essex, 183. Egerton's Letter to him, 183.

Essex induced to apologise, 184. Essex in Ireland, 184. Returns without leave,

184. Committed to the Custody of the Lord Keeper, 185. Lord Keeper's Kind-

ness to his Prisoner, 185. Letter from the Lord Keeper to Essex, 185. Proceed-

ing against Essex in Star Chamber, 185. Lord Keeper's Speech, 186. Essex re-

leased from the Custody of Lord Keeper, 187. Trial of Essex before Lord Keeper

and other Commissioners, 187. His Defence, 187, Lord Keeper's Admonition

to him, 187. The Sentence, 188. Essex's Rebellion, 188. Lord Keeper sent to

Essex House to quell it, 189. The Lord Keeper made Prisoner, 189. The Lord

Keeper liberated, 190. Surrender of Essex, 190. His Trial for High Treason, 191.

Lord Keeper's Interview with him in the Tower, 191. Death of Lord Elles-

mere's second Wife, and of his eldest Son, 192. His Third Marriage, 192.

CHAPTER XLVIII.

CONTINUATION OF LTFE OF LORD ELLESMERE TILL THE END OF THE REIGN OF

ELIZABETH.

Lord Keeper's Controversy with Serjeant Heele, 193. His Memorial against Ser-

jeant Heele, 193. Serjeant Heele's Letter to the Lord Keeper, 194. Serjeant

Heele's Speech in the House of Commons, 195. He is coughed down, 195.

Opening of Elizabeth's last Parliament, 195. Queen faints away, and Commons

excluded, 195. Lord Keeper's Speech to the Two Houses, 195f Queen piously

interrupts the Lord Keeper, 196. Admonition to Commons against Abuse of
Freedom of Speech, 196. Commons Complain of Breach of Privilege, 196.

Parliament dissolved, 196. Queen Elizabeth's Visit to the Lord Keeper at Hare-

field, 196. Othello acted before her, 197. A Lottery, 197. Valedictory Address

to her Majesty by Harefield, personified, 198. Practical Mitigation of Penal Code,

199. Clemency to the Roman Catholics, 199. Queen's last Illness, 199. Lord

Keeper asks her to name her Successor, 200. Her Death, 200. Equitable Juris-

diction during Reign of Elizabeth, 200. Process of Sequestration, 200. Costs,

201. Office of Lord Keeper, 201. Assistance of Common-law Judges, 201. Re-

ferences to Master, 201. Fees, 202. The Bar, 202. Decision against the Court of

Requests, 202. Charities, 203. Equity Reports, 203.

CHAPTER XLIX.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD ELLESMERE FROM THE ACCESSION OP

JAMES I.

Accession of James I., 203. Egerton continued Lord Keeper, 203. His Letters to

propitiate the King, 203. Letter from Sir Thomas Chaloner io the Lord Keeper,

204. Meeting between Lord Keeper and Jamns 1, 204. Egerton made Lord

Chancellor, and a Peer, 205. Resigns office of Master of Rolls, 205. Lord Kin-

losse, Master of Rolls, 205 Trial of Lord Cobham and Lord Grey de Wilton,

206. Parliament summoned, 207. Opening of the Session, 207. King's Speech,

207, Abortive Attempt of Lord Chancellor to decide on Validity of Returns of

Members of the House of Commons. 208. Union with Scotland, 208. Commis-

sioners appointed to treat of Union, 208. Gunpowder Plot, 203. Measure of

Union resumed, 209. Resisted by the English, 209. Question of Naturalization

of « Postnati," 209. Calvin's Case, 209. Judgment of Lord Chancellor 210.

Two dissenting Judges, 211. Aid for Knighting the King's eldest Son, 212.

Death of Prince Henry, 212. A Parliament, 212. Commons complain of Speech

in House of Lords, 213. Parliament dissolved, 214.

CHAPTER L.

CONCLUSION OF THE LIFE OF LORD ELLESMERE.

Assistance to Chancellor in Court of Chancery, 214. His Letter to Earl of Somerset,

214. Countess of Shrewsbury's Case, 215. "Case of Duels," 215. Oliver St.

John's Case on " Benevolences," 216 Lord Ellesmere invariable Supporter of
Abuses of Prerogative, 216. Court of High Commission, 216. Illegal Proclama-
tions, 217. Controversy between Lord Coke and Lord Ellesmere respecting " In-

junctions," 217. Injunction against Execution on a fraudulent Judgment, 218.

Proceedings in King's Bench, 218. Lord Ellesmere's Statement. 218, Lord Elles-
mere's Illness, 220 Appeal to the King, 220. King's Decision, 220. Lord Coke's
Obstinacy, 220. Letter from Sir Francis Bacon to the King, 221. Murder of Sir
Thomas Overbury, 221. Divorce of Countess of Essex, 221. Prosecution of
Earl and Countess of Somerset. 222. Lord Ellesmere Lord High Steward at
their Trial, 222, His Address to Countess of Somerset, 223. Measures for silen-
cing Earl of Somerset, 223. Pardon improperly granted to Somerset, 223. Blame
imputable to Lord Ellesmere, 223. Dismissal of Lord Coke from Office of Chief
Justice, 224. Question of Commendams and King's Power to stay Actions at
Law, 224. Pusillanimity of the Judges, 224. Unconstitutional Opinion of Francis
Bacon, 224. Unconstitutional Opinion of Lord Ellesmere, 224. Cowardice of the
Puisne Judges, 225. Noble Answer of Lord Coke, 225. Order for Lord Coke
to abstain from public Exercise of his Office, 226. He is dismissed, 226. Lord
Ellesmere's Speech in swearing in new Chief Justice, 226. Lord Ellesmere's

Letter to King wishing to resign, 227. King's Answer refusing Leave, 228.

Lord Ellesmere's second Letter to King, 228. Lord Ellesmere made Viscount

Brackley, 228. His Resignation, 230 Offer of an Earldom, 230. His Death,

231. Funeral, 231. Epitaph, 231. Character of Lord Ellesmere, 232. Solicitous

for Honour of Bar, 233. King's Interference with Suits, 233. Courtesy
to Peers, 233. His Patronage of Merit, 234. Anxious to make good Judges,

234. His Acquaintance with Poets, 235. His Writings, 235. His Jests, 235.

His Person, 236. His Fortune, 236. His Marriage, 236. Splendour of his
Descendants, 287.

CHAPTER LI.

LIFE OF LORD BACON FrtOM HIS BIRTH TILL HE BECAME A MEMBER OF THE HOUSE

OF COMMONS

Difficulty of writing Life of Lord B'icon, 233. His Birth, 240. Early Education, 240. Instructed by his Mother, 240. His Progress, 241. Eirly Turn for Inquiry, 241. His Answer to Queen Elizabeth, 241. At Cambridge, 241. His Studies

there, 241. His Opinion of Aristotle, 242. His Residence in France, 242. Sud-

den Death of his Father, 243. He returns to England, 243. Tries in vain to ob-

tain political Appointment, 243. Embraces the Profession of the Law, 244. A

very diligent Student, 244. Became a sound Lawyer, 244. His Popularity, 244.

Outer Barrister, 245. A Bencher and Reader, 545. Counsel extraordinary to the

Queen, 245. Familiarity with the Queen, 246, Solicits Situation under Govern-

ment, 246. Not in great Practice, 247.

CHAPTER LII.

CONTINUATION OF LIFE OF LORD BACON TILL THE FALL OF THE EARL OF ESSEX.

Enters on new Career, 248. Returned a Member of the House of Commons, 248.

His maiden Speech on Law Reform, 248. Ben Jonson's Opinion of his Oratory,

248. His famous Speech against the Subsidy, 249. Indignation of Queen, 249.

He is a Candidate for the Office of Solicitor General, 250. His Letter to Burgh-

ley soliciting the Appointment, 251. Burghley's Answer, 251. Bacon's Letters to

Lord Keeper Puckering, 251. Bacon warmly snpported by Essex, 252. Essex's

Letters to Bacon, 252. Bacon writes to the Queen, 253. Sends her a Jewel, 254.

His Hopes of being made Solicitor General, 254, He is Disappointed, 255. His

Despair, 255. His Resolution to Retire from public Life, 255. He recovers his

Composure, 256. Queen reconciled to Bacon, and tries to make a Vacancy for

him in Office of Solicitor General, 256. Generosity of Essex, 256. Bacon writes a

Law Book, 257. Publishes his Essays, 257. Again returned to Parliament, 258.

Bills introduced by him, 258. His Speech for the Subsidy, 258. His Matrimonial

Scheme, 259. Courts the Lady Hatton, 259. Is supported by Essex, 260. The

Lady Hatton marries Sir Edward Coke, &>0. Bacon is arrested for Debt. 260.

Carried to a Spunging-house, 260. He is liberated, 261. Altercation with Sir Ed-

ward Coke in Court of Exchequer, 261 Enmity of Sir Edward Coke, 262.

Bacon's " History of the Alienation Office," 262. His celebrated Argument in

Chudleish's Case, 262. "Reading Statute of Uses," 262. Bacon's prosperous

Condition, 263,

CHAPTER LIII.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD BACON TO THE END OF THE REIGN OF

ELIZABETH

Bacon s Ingratitude to Essex, 264. Essex's Return from Ireland, 264. Bacon's

Representations to the Queen, 265. Different Account by Queen Elizabeth, 265.

Prosecution against Essex at York House, 266. Bacon ceases to visit Essex, 266.

Bacon's Letter to the Queen respecting Essex, 266. Bacon's Conduct on Prosecu-

tion ofEssex at York House 266. He writes Report of the Trial for the Queen, 267.

Composes Letters in favour of Essex to be shown to the Queen, 267. Imprudent

Conduct of Essex when liberated, 267. Resentment of the Queen, 267. Bacon's

Dialogue with the Queen respecting Essex, 268. Ruin of Essex when deserted

by Bacon, 268. Base Conduct of Bacon when Essex committed for Treason, 268.

Bacon Counsel against Essex, 269. Essex's Trial for Treason, 269. Bacon's

Speech against Essex, 269. Essex quotes Bacon's Letters, 270. Essex's Appeal

for Mercy, 270. Bacon's Answer to it, 270. Bacon's Conduct between Conviction

and Execution of Essex, 271. Bacon's Baseness in blackening the Memory of

Essex, 271. Indignation of the Public, 271. Defence of Bacon by Mr Montague,

273. A new Parliament, 274. Bill introduced by Bacon, 274. His Speech for a

Subsidy, 274. Sarcasm of Sir Walter Raleigh, 274. Bacon supports Monopolies,

275. His Speech in the House of Commons, 275. Queen obliged to yield upon

the Question of Monopolies, 275. Close of the Reign of Elizabeth, 276.

CHAPTER LIV.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD BACON FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES I.

TILL HIS APPOINTMENT AS LORD KEEPER.

Accession of James I., 276. Bacon's Letters to be shown to the King, 276. Bacon's

Letter to the King, 276. Renewal of his Patent as King's Counsel, 277. Pro-

posed Proclamation, 277. He is presented to the King, 277. Bacon's Description

of James, 277. Bacon's Anxiety to be knighted, 278. He is knighted with 300

others, 277. He is married, 277. Bacon's Unpopularity from his Ingratitude to

Essex, 278. His Letter to Lord Southampton, 279. His Indiscreet " Apology,"

279. Trial of Sir Walter Raleigh, 279. A Parliament, 279. Bacon recovers his

Credit, 279. King's Counsel, with Salary and Pension, 280. Succeeds to Gorham-

bury, 280. His Poverty, 280. Bacon's Visit to Provost of Eton, 280. Projected

History of England, 280. Publication of " Advancement of Learning," 280.

Part taken by him in the House of Commons, 280. His Discontent, 280 Sir E.

Coke tries to depress him, 281. His Letter of Remonstrance to Sir E. Coke, 2tL.

Coke promoted to be Chief Justice of Common Pleas, 281. Bacon's Letter to

Lord Salisbury, asking Office of Solicitor General, 282. His second Letter to

Lord Salisbury, 282. Again disappointed, 282. Bacon's Letter to Lord Chancel-

lor Ellesmere, 283. His Letter to the King, 284. Bacon, Solicitor General, 285.

His Speech in favour of the Union with Scotland, 285. Trial of Lord Sanquhar

for Murder, 285. "Cogitata et Visa/' 286. Bacon's Letter to the King, asking

Promotion, 286. Another Letter to the King respecting Office of Attorney Gen-

eral, 287. Intrigue for removing Sir E. Coke irom being Chief Justice of the

Common Pleas to be Chief Justice of the King's Bench, 288. Bacon Attorney

General, 289. Dialogue between Mr. Attorney and Chief Justice Coke, 289. In-

fluence of Bacon in the Administration of the Government, 289. Question

whether he could be re-elected to the House of Commons, being Attorney Gen-

eral ? 290. Speech as Attorney General for a Supply, 290. Raising of "Benevo-

lences," 291. Bacon defends "Benevolences," 291 Bacon's atrocious Conduct

in the Prosecution of Peacham for Treason, 292. Tampers with the Judges, 292.

Puts Peacham to the Torture, 292. Letter to the King about the torturing of

Peacham, 292. Bacon announces his Resolution to the King to go to the 'lower

to see the Torture inflicted on Peacham, 293. His Report of the torturing, 293.

Peacham brought to Trial and convicted, 293. Public Indignation, 293. Death

of Peacham, 293. Improper Attempts to palliate Bacon's Misconduct, 294.

Bacon cultivates George "Villiers, James's new Favourite, 294. His excellent

advice to Villiers, 294. Illness of Lord Ellesmere, 295. Bacon's Letter to King

soliciting Chancellor's Place, 295. Second Letter to King, pressing for the Ap-

pointment, 295. Profits of Offices he would give up, 296. Retainer of Serjeant

Yaxley in the Reign of Henry VII., 296. Arguments against making Sir E.

Coke Chancellor, 297. Bacon's own Pitness, 297. Preparations for Transfer of

Great Seal, 298. Lord Chancellor recovers, 298. Bacon's pretended Joy, 298.

Bacon solicits to be made Privy Councillor, 298. He is offered a Promise of

Great Seal, or to be made Privy Councillor, 299. He prefers being a Privy Coun-

cillor, 299. Sworn a Privy Councillor, 299. Gives up private Practice at the

Bar, 299. His Proposal for " the Amendment of the Law," 300. His wise Views

of Law Reform, 300. Murder of Sir Thomas Overbury, 300. Bacon's Part in

VOL. II. 2

Prosecution of the Somersets, 300. Proceedings against Sir E. Coke, 301. Sir

E. Coke obnoxious for resisting a job, 301. Merits of Coke as a Lawyer, 302.

Foolish Charge against him, 302. He is ordered to revise his Reports, 302,

Bacon's insulting Letter to Coke, 302. Coke is summoned before the Privy

Council, 304. Bacon presses for his Dismissal, 305. Coke is dismissed, 305.

Bacon, Chancellor of Duchy of Cornwall, 305.

CHAPTER LV.

CONTINUATION OF THE LIFE OF LORD BACON FROM HIS APPOINTMENT AS

CHANCELLOR TILL HIS FALL.

Great Seal delivered to Bacon as Lord Keeper, 305. His Delight, 306. His Letter

of Thanks to Buckingham, 306. King's Visit to Scotland, 307. Bacon's Instal-

lation as Lord Keeper, 308. His inaugnral Address, 308. His Account of the

Ceremony, 309. King's Approbation of his Address, 310. The Lord Keeper's

great Despatch in the Court of Chancery, 310. His Letter announcing that there

were no Arrears in the Court, 311. He gives Dinners to the Judges ana the Bar,

311. Tampers with the Judges about High Commission Court, 312. Bacon in-

discreetly opposes Marriage between Buckingham's Brother and Sir E. Coke's

Daughter, 312. His Letter to Buckingham dissuading the Match, 313. His Let-

ter to King on same Subject, 313. He directs Prosecution against SirE. Coke

for rescuing his Daughter, 313 Rageof the King and Buckingham, 313. Bacon's

Alarm and Contrition, 314. King's vituperative Letter to Bacon, 314. Bacon's

abject Apology to the King, 315. His Servility to Buckingham, 315 He is

pardoned, 315. He defends Monopolies, 315. Buckingham's Interference in

Suits in Chancery, 316. Bacon made Lord Chancellor, and a Peer, 315. Bacon's

Danger from a Maniac Peer, 317. Execution of Sir Walter Raleigh, 318. Cen-

sure on Bacon for his Concurrence in the Death of Raleigh, 318. Prosecution

for Exportation of Bullion, 319. Prosecution of Earl of Suffolk for trafficking

with public Money. 319. Prosecution for Libel on the Chancellor, 319. Prosecu-

tion of Yelverton, the Attorney General, for improperly granting a Charter, 320.

Publication of Novum OrGanum, 320. Bacon's Letter presenting this Work

to the King, 321. The King's Answer, 321. Presentation Copy to Sir E. Coke,

322. Bacon at the Height of his Prosperity. 322. His Mode of Living, 322.

Made Viscount St. Alban's, 323. His sudden Fall, 223. He advises the Calling

of a Parliament, 323. Parliament meets, 323. His Address to the King, 323.

Proceedings in Parliament, 324. Sir E. Coke, Leader of Opposition, 324. Com-
mittee to inquire into Monopolies, 324 Scene in the House of Lords when Sir
E.Coke demanded a Conference, 324. Committee to inquire into Abuses in

Courts of Justice, 325. Williams, Dean of Westminster, afterwards Lord Keeper,

becomes Adviser of the Court, 325. Measures recommended by him, 325. Con-

ference between the two Houses, 326. Bacon irregularly defends himself, 326,

Pie is censured, 326. Charge of Corruption against the Chancellor, 326. He at

first treats the Charge with scorn, 327. His last Appearance in the House of

Lords, 327. His dread of a Message from the Commons to impeach him, 327.

He suddenly adjourns the House, and takes to his Bed, 327. The Chief Justice

of the King's Bench appointed Speaker of the House of Lords, 327. Commons

demand a Conference on Charges against the Chancellor, 328. Bacon's Letter to

the Peers, 328. Answer of the Peers, 329. King's Message to the Commons,

829. Eresh Charges of Bribery against the Chancellor, 329. Bacon's Behavi-

our under the Accusation, 330. His Letter to the King, 330. His private Inter-

view with the King, 331. King wishes to dissolve Parliament, 331. Is dissuaded

by Williams. 331. Impeachment proceeds, 332. Bacon's Confession, 332. Con-

fession voted insufficient, 333. Articles of Impeachment, 334. Full Confession,

334. Deputation of Peers to Bacon to verify the Confession, 334. The Great

Seal is taken from him, 335. He is summoned to hear Judgment, 335. Last at-
tempt to move the King in his favour, 335. Sentence is pronounced, 335. Justice

of the Sentence, 336. Bacon's modern Defenders, 336. Reason for his plead-

ing Guilty, 336. Whether Bacon subject to Imputation of Moral Guilt? 336,

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