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Marquess of Winchester "a Willow and not an Oak,55 Page 25. His Family, 25.

His Disposition, 25. Made a Peer and Knight of the Garter, 26. Executor of

Henry VIII., 26. Protector's Difficulty in disposing of Great Seal, 26. Marquess

of Winchester made Lord Keeper, 27. His incompetency as a Judge, 27. Resigns

the Great Seal, 27. Made Lord Treasurer, 28. Presides at Trial of Duke of

Somerset, 28. Rulings at this Trial, 28. Conduct of the Marquess of Winchester

on Accession of Queen Mary, 29. On Accession of Queen Elizabeth, 29. His

Death and Character, 29. His Descendants, 29.



His mercantile Descent, 30. Birth, 31. Early Profligacy, 31. Professional Progress,

31. His infamous Conduct on Trials of Bishop Fisher and Sir Thomas More, 31.

Office of Chirographer conferred upon him, 32. Elected Speaker of the House of

Commons, 32. Made Chancellor of Court of Augmentations, 32. His religious

indifference, 32. Paymaster of the Army, 32. Assists in Persecution of Lutherans

and Roman Catholics, 33. Foments Dispute between Wriothesley, and Somerset,

33. Made a Peer, 33 His Title, 33. His Disappoiniment, 33. Appointed Lord

Chancellor, 33. His Conduct as a Judge, 34. He passes Patent, giving Precedence

to Somerset with a non obstante, 34. A Parliament, 35. Wholesome Laws passed

35. Reformation of Religion, 35. Quarrel between the protector and his Brother

Lord Seymour, 36 Lord Seymour committed to the Tower, 37. Bill of Attainder

against him, 37. His Execution, 38. Misconduct of the Protector, 38. Perplex-

ities of Lord Chancellor Rich, 38. His Conduct on the Fall of Somerset, 38.

Takes Part with Warwick, 39. Proceedings against Somerset, 39. Lord Chan-

cellor burns Anabaptists and Arians, 40. His Visit to the Princess Mary, 41.

Trepidation of the Lord Chancellor, 41. Somerset's plot against Northumberland,

42. Trial of Somerset, 42. Lord Chancellor feigns sickness, 43. Lord Chancel-

lor Rich flees from public Life, 43. His Retreat, 43. His rapid Recovery, 44.

Dies forgotten, 44. His Descendants, 44. His Character, 44.



Views of Northumberland, 45. Goodrich, Bishop of Ely, Lord Keeper, 45. His

Origin and Rise, 45. Made Lord Chancellor, 46. Commission to hear Causes in

Chancery, 46. Warrant for the Execution of Somerset, 46. A Parliament,

46. Unconstitutional Writs for the New Parliament, 46. Meeting of the

Parliament at Whitehall, 46. Parliament dissolved by Chancellor, 47. Illness

of Edward VI., 47. Plan to change the Succession, 47, Edward's Will in favour

or Lady Jane Grey, 48. Conduct of the Chancellor, 48. Opinion of Judges, 48.

Plan declared illegal, 48. Meeting of Judges before the King, 49. The Judges

yield, 49. Instrument under Great Seal appointing Lady Jane Grey to succeed,

49. Death of Edward VI., 50. Accession of Queen Jane, 50. Goodrich her

Chancellor, 50 Reign of Queen Jane, 51. Proceedings of the Princess Mary, 51.

Mary supported by the People, 51 Goodrich delivers up Great Seal, 51. Queen
Mary proclaimed, 52. Great Seal carried to Queen MJiry, 52. End of Reign of
Queen Jane, 52. Retirement of Ex-chancellor Goodrich, 52. His Death, 52. Re-
formation established, 52. Changes in Criminal Law, 52. Propensities of the
Lords Spiritual and Temporal in the Reign of Edward VI., 53. Proclamations

53. Administration of Justice, 53.




Stephen Gardiner, Chancellor, 53. His Extraction, 54. His Education. 54. In

Service of Cardinal Wolsey, 54. Intimacy with the King, 54 King's Divorce

Cause, 54. Retained as Counsel for the King in the Divorce Cause, 55. Is made

Secretary of State, 56. Acknowledges the King's Supremacy, 56. Opposes the

Reformation, 56. '/Six Articles," 58. Gardyner's anxiety about Henry's Mar-

riage. 57. Queen Catherine Howard, 57. King announces his Marriage with

Catherine Par, 57. Gardyner marries them, 58. Intrigues against Cranmer, 58.

Conduct of Gardyner to Archbishop Cranmer, 59. Gardyner's Attempt against
Queen Catherine Par, 59. Gardyner in disgrace, 59. His Opposition to the
Translation and Circulation of the Scriptures, 60. Interview with Henry VIII. at
.Windsor, 60. King's Refusal to name him as Executor in his Will, 61. On the
Accession of Edward VI. Gardyner opposes the Reformation, 61. Committed to
the Fleet, 62. His Fortitude, 62. Progress of Reformation, 62. Proceedings
against Gardyner, 63. Gardyner is brought to Trial, 63. Kept close Prisoner in

■Tower, 63. Mary's triumphal Procession to the Tower, 61. State Prisoners in the

Tower, 64. Gardyner released, is made Lord Chancellor and Prime Minister, 64.



Good Measures of new Reign, 65. Quean crowned by Lord Chancellor, 65. His

Policy, 65. Roman Catholic Bishops restored, 66. Chancellor's Speech at Open-

ing of Parliament, 66. Proceedings in Parliament, 66 Persecution of Judge

Hales, 67. His Dialogue with the Lord Chancellor, 67. Judge Hales committed

to Prison by Chancellor, 68. Suicide of Judge Hales, 69. Execution of Lady

Jane Grey and her Husband, 69. Gardyner's cruel Administration, 69. Mary's

Marriage, 69. Chancellor's Speech to Parliament, 70. Arrival of Philip of Spain,

70. Reconciliation with Rome, 71. Chancellor's Speech, introducing Cardinal

Pole, 71. England reconciled to Rome, 72. Lord Chancellor Gardyner preaches

at Paul's Cross, 72. Estimate of his past Conduct, 72, His Plan of extinguishing

Lutheranism in England by Persecution, 72. New Court for Trial of Heretics, 73*
Bishop Hooper and others tried before the Chancellor, and sentenced to the

Flames, 73. Inquisition established, 74. Conduct of the Chancellor on Mary's

supposed Pregnancy, 74. A new Session of Parliament, 75. Eloquence of the

Lord Chancellor, 75. His sudden Death, 75. His last Moments, 75. His Conduct

as a Judge, 76. As a Statesman, 76. His Mode of Living, 77. Funeral, 77. His

Writings, 77.



Mary's Difficulty in appointing a Chancellor on the Death of Gardyner, 77. Ap-

pointment of Nicholas Heath, Archbishop of York, as Chancellor, 78. His

Birth and Education, 78. His Rise, 79. Opposes Reformation, 79. His Conduct

during Protectorate of Somerset, 79. Committed to Prison, 80. Deprived of his

Bishopric, 80. On Accession of Mary, liberated and made Archbishop of York, 80. Succeeds Gardyner as Chancellor, 80. His Incompetency as a Judge, 80, A

Parliament, 81. Question of Parliamentary Privilege decided by the Chancellor, 81. Last Illness of Mary, 81,' Parliament opened by the Chancellor, 81. Procla-

mation against seditious Books, 82. The Lord Chancellor's Visit to the House of

Commons to press for a Subsidy, 82. The Lord Chancellor announces to the two

Houses the Death of Queen Mary, 83. Elizabeth proclaimed, 83. Chancellor's

Address to her at Hatfield, 83. Her Answer, 83. Surrender of Great Seal to her,

83. Ex-Chancellor Heath retained as Councillor, 84. Queen Elizabeth's choice of

Religion, 84, Honourable Conduct of Heath, 84. He concurs with Bishops in re-

fusing to assist at Queen's Coronation, 85. Heath's Speech in House of Lords

against the Reformed Religion, 85. Conference between Roman Catholic and

Protestant Divines, 86. Heath refuses to acknowledge Queen's Supremacy, 87.

He is deprived of his Archbishopric, 87 His retirement, 87. Is visited by Queen

Elizabeth, 87. His Death. 87. State of tho Law and Conduct of Chancellors du-

ring the Reign of Queen Mary, 87.



State of Business in the Court of Chancery, 88. Great Soil delivered to Sir Nich-

Olas Bacon as Lord Keeper, 86. His previous Career, 89. His Birth, 89. Edu-

cation, 89, Subordinate Offices held by him. 90. His Plan for founding a Univer-

sity in London, 90. Brother-in-law of Cecil, 90 His Conformity to the Catholic

Religion in the Reign of Queen Mary, 90. Made Lord Keeper on recommenda-

tion of Cecil, 91. New Great Seal, 91. Lord Keeper's Speech on opening Parlia-

ment, 92. His Advice on Queen's Title, 92. Lord Keeper Moderator in Disputa-

tion between Roman Catholic and Protestant Divines, 92, His Partiality, 93.

Catholic Disputants committed to Prison, 93. Lord Keeper excellent Equity

Judge, 93. Doubts respecting his Authority as Lord Keeper, 93. Act of Parlia-

ment to declare his Authority, 94. A new Parliament, 94. Procession to West-

minster, 94. Lord Keeper's Speech to the Two Houses, 95, Lord Keeper's

Speech at the Prorogation, 95. Elizabeth's Declaration about her Marriage, 96.

Queen's Suitors, 96. Address delivered by Lord Keeper inviting Queen to marry,

96. Queen's Answer, 97. Ceremony at the Close of the Session, 97. Speech

of Speaker of House of Commons, 98. Lord Keeper's Answer, 98. Queen stops
him, and herself addresses th; Commons, 98. Parliament dissolved, 98. Con-
troversy respecting Right of Succession to the Throne, 98. Pamphlet in fa-
vour of House of Suffolk, 98. Discovery that this was written by the Lord
Keeper, 98. Lord Keeper dismissed from Privy Council, and ordered to confine

himself to Business of Court of Chancery, 99. Lord Keeper restored to

Privy Council and Queen's Confidence, 99. Mary Queen of Scots, 99. Lord

Keeper a Commissioner to examine into the Charge of her having mur-

dered her Husband, 99. Queen Elizabeth goes to Parliament in a Coach, 100.
Lord Keeper's Speech to the two Houses, 100. Choice of Speaker, 100. Lord

Keeper proceeds in Council against Members of the House of Commons, 101.

Lord Keeper reprimands the Commons, 101, Solicitation of the Speaker of the

Hous of Commons to Elizabeth in her advanced years to marry and have Chil-

dren, 101. The Lord Keeper's Answer, 101. Influence of the Lord Keeper, 102.

Trial of Duke of Norfolk, 102. Elizabeth's Kindness to the Lord Keeper, 103.

His Corpulency, 103. His Death, 103. Kuneral, 103. Epitaph, 104. Character by

Camden, 104, By his Son, 104. By Hayward, 104. His Scholarship, 104. His

Oratory, 105. His high Qualifications as a Judge, 105. His Writings. 106. His

Jests, 106. Lord Keeper questioned at the Gate of Heaven respecting a Decree,

107, His Fortune, 107. His Children, 108. His Son Francis, 108.



Great Seal Two Months in personal Custody of the Queen, 109. Her mode of using

it, 109. Clamour for the Appointment of a Chincellor, 110 Queen's Perplexity,

110. Sir Thomas Bromley, the Solicitor General, appointed Lord Chancellor,

110 His Birth, 110. Bred to the Law, 110. Made Solicitor General, 110. His

Conduct on Trial of Duke of Norfolk, 111. Evidence to support the Charge, 111.

Found Guilty, and executed, 113. Grief of Mary, 113. Bromley, the Solicitor

General, sent to her, 113. His interview with her, 113. Determination to bring

Mary to the Scaffold, 114. Bromley while Solicitor General more trusted by the

Government than the Attorney General, 114. Appointed Lord Chancellor, 114.

His Speech to the Queen on his Appointment, 114. Good Equity Judge, 116. A

Parliament, 116. Death of Speaker in Vacation, 116. Chancellor's Admonitions

to new Speaker, 117. Lord Chancellor rebukes Members of the House of Com-

mons, 117. Apprehensions of Elizabeth's Ministers from the Queen of Scots being

next Heir to the Crown, 117. Suggestion of taking her off by Poison, 117. Act

of Parliament preferred, 117. Lord Chancellor's Speech on opening of Parlia-

ment, 117. Bill for Trial of Mary, 118 Joy of Elizabeth, 118. She thanks the

two Houses, 118. Just Conviction of Babington, 118. Commission for the Trial

of Mary, 118. Bromley President, 118. Commissioners meet at Fotheringay, 118.

Mary denies the Jurisdiction of the Court, 1 IS. Mary's preliminary Interview

with Bromley and other Commissioners, 118. Bromley baffled, 119. Attempt of

Sir Christopher Hatton, 119. Mary submits to the Jurisdiction of the Court, 120.

Her Trial, 120. Lord President Bromley's Address to her, 120. Her Answer,

120. Her Protest entered, 120 Evidence against her, 120. Her Defence, 120.

Burghley conducts the Prosecution, 121. His dread of an Acquittal, 121, Court

adjourned to Westminster, 121. Verdict of guilty against her in her Absence, 121.

Measures for carrying Sentence into Execution, 121. Parliament assembled, 121.

Lord Chancellor's Speech to hasten Execution, 122 Lord Chancellor's second

Speech against Mary, 122 Unanimous Address of both Houses, praying for her

Execution, 122. Elizabeth's Sarcasms on the Lawyers, 123. Elizabeth signs War-

rant for Mary's Execution, 123. Great Seal affixed to it, 123 It is sent off by

the Council, 123 Mary's Execution, 123. Her Conduct in her last Moments,

123. Sudden Illness of the Lord Chancellor, 124. His Death, 124. Lamentations

over him, 124. His Character, 125. Friend to Toleration, 125. His Descend-

ants, 125.



Great Seal in Custody of Queen, 126 Speculations as to the Appointment of the

new Chancellor, 126. Astonishment on Appointment of Sir Christopher Hatton, 126. Elizabeth's Selection of her Lovers for high Offices, 127. Family of Hatton,

127, His Idleness at College, 127. His Profligacy at the Inns of Court, 127, His

Skill in Dancing, 12S. His Fondness for the Stage, 128. Joined in writing a

Tragedy acted before Queen, 128 Tragedy of " Tancred and Gismund," 128.

Scene written by Sir Christopher Hatton, 128. He captivates Queen Ehzabeth,

128. Taken into her Service, 129. Queen takes Security for Money advanced to

him, 129. His rapid Promotion at Court, 129 Envy and jealousy which he ex-

cited, 130. Hatton is returned to Parliament, and becomes Leader of the House

of Commons, 130. His continued exertion to please the Queen, 131. *' Scandal of

Queen Elizabeth," 131. Hatton jealous of the Earl of Oxford, 131. Letter of

Advice to him from Edward Dyer, 132. Hatton's Letter to the Queen, justifying

himself, 133. Queen's Passion for Hatton revived by a fit of Illness, 133. Letter

of Gilbert Talbot relating the Court Scandal. IMS. Hatton's Visit to Spa, 134.

His Love-letters to Elizabeth during his Absence, 134. His Eeturn to England,

186, Queen Elizabeth's Letter to the Bishop of Ely, 136. Hatton, a Statesman

and a Privy Councillor, 136. Hatton employed to advise the Queen to have a

Tooth drawn, 137. Hatton and the Earl of Leicester correspond about the

Queen's Health, 137. Cruel Prosecution of Stubbes, 138. Hatton assists in

breaking off Elizabeth's Marriage with the Duke of Anjou, 138. Another Love-

letter from Hatton to Elizabeth, 138. Hatton in Time of Sickness sends a charm

to be worn by Elizabeth, 139, Another Love-letter from Hatton to Elizabeth, 140

Hatton quarrels with the Queen, 141. rl hey aie reconciled, 141. Appearance of

Sir Walter Raleigh at Court, 142. Queen pretends to slight Sir Walter Raleigh,

142. Hatton pleases Elizabeth by his zed against the Queen of Scots, 142. His

Prayer in the House of Commons, 143 Sits on Trial of Babington, &c 143.

. His Examination of Nau and Curie, Mary's Secretaries, 144. His Conduct at the

Trial of Queen Mary, 145. Letter from Hatton to Elizabeth, written during the

Trial, 145. Bis Speech against her in the House of Commons, 146. Carries Re-

solution in the House of Commons for Execution of Mary, 146. Active in sending

off Death-warrant, 146. Pretended Anger of Elizabeth, .146. He is made Lord

Chancellor, 147. Description of the Ceremony, 147. Consternation at Westmin-

ster Hall, 147. Hatton's Incompetency, 148. Bar resolve not to practise before

him, 148. Procession on his installation, 148. Lis Reception in Court <f Chan-

cery, 149. His Conduct as a Judge, 150. Approach of the Armada, 150. Chan-

cellor attends Queen to Tilbury, 151. A Parliament, 151. Lord Chancellor's

Speech to the Two Houses, 151 He is made Knight of the Garter, 152. He de-

clines in favour, 152. He resists illegal Patent to the Earl of Leicester, 152. feud-

den Death of Earl of Leicester, 153. Rise of young Earl of Essex, 153. Chancel-

lor slighted, 153. Sir Walter Raleigh Captain of Gentlemen Pensioners, 153.

Charles Blount, a new favourite, 153. Quern demands. Debt due to her fiom

Hatton, 154. His last Sickness, 154. Elizabeth visits him while ill in Bed, 154.

His Death, 154. His Funeral, 155. His Character, 155. His Decisions, 155. A

Jest by him in the Court of Chancery, 155. His Severity in the Star Chamber,

156. Suspicion of being concerned in Murder of Earl of Northumberland, 157.

His continued Love of Dancing when Chancellor. 157. Sonnet addressed to him

by Spenser, 157. Tolerant in Religion, 158. His Liaison with Elizabeth, 158.

Never Married, 158. Letter of Queen Mary to Queen Elizabeth, 158. Collared
by the Queen, 158. His Letter to the Earl of Essex, 160. His magnificent Style

of Living, 160. Entertainment by him to the Queen at Stoke Pogis, 161. His collateral Relations, 161.



On Death of Sir Christopher Hatton, Great Seal delivered to the Queen, 162. Her

Reluctance to Appointment of Puckering on account of his uncouth Manners,

162. Two Commissions for Business of Great Seal, 162. Difficulties from this

Arrangement, 162. Puckering Lord Keeper, 163. His Origin, 163. Education,

163. A great Black-letter Lawyer, 163. Called Serjeant, 163. Member of the

House of Commons, 163. Elected Speaker, 163. His Address to the Queen, 163.

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