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marking down the monient of setting off from places, and noting every object on the road, which had the smallest geographical, antiquarian, or classical interest. Every stoppage was also carefully noted, and the whole outline of the journey was written on horseback, without trusting even the most inconsiderable minutive to the memory.

It appears that Herodotus, Thucydides, and Pausanias, generally measured by the Delphic measure of about ten stadia to the Roman mile. The Olympic and Italian measure, by which Strabo' appears to have reckoned his distances, gives eight stadia to a mile. Pausanias” says, that Rhion is fifty stadia from Patra; and Plinys makes it five miles. It is evident therefore that Pausanias counted ten stadia to the mile; and the Author observed, that he usually performed thirty stadia of that traveller in an hour. Strabo's measurements are in general extremely erroneous, and were evidently computed. Indeed, the Greeks had no marks on their roads to indicate the distance like the Roman Milliaria,

The object with which the Author was most studiously occupied during his various excursions in Greece, was an accurate exhibition of this interesting country, both with respect to its ancient remains and its present circumstances. This purpose has been attempted, by descriptions, in which truth of representation will be found never to have been sacrificed to the embellishments of fiction; and by drawings, in which the features of the country have been delineated with scrupulous fidelity, without the introduction of factitious ornaments. Every locality is shewn as it really is. In the execution of the drawings, the Author was happy to avail himself of the genius and the industry of Signor Pomardi, a Roman artist, who accompanied him throughout his Tour, and who completed no less than six hundred views of the country, its scenery, and antiquities. Besides these, four hundred other drawings were made by the Author himself. From this assemblage of one thousand drawings several have been engraved for the present work; and sixty more have been selected from the remainder, in order to form a separate publication of coloured engravings upon a larger scale.

1 B. 7. He says many count eight stadia to the mile, but that Polybius reckons eight and a third. See Mons. Barbiè du Bocage Analise du Voy. d'Anacharsis. ? B. 7. c. 22,

3 Nat. Hist. b. 4. c. 5,

These travels would have made their appearance some years before, if the intentions of the Author bad not been frustrated by a lang detention upon the continent, to which he was subjected by the government of Bonaparte.

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The accomplishment of the following publication had long been an object of desire with the Author ; and the feeling of gratitude strongly impels him to make this public mention of his obligations to those, by whom the execution of that object was facilitated. In this list, the Author begs leave to assign the first place to his Father. The thanks of the Author are also eminently due to Mons. Lechevalier,' to Count Annoni, of Milan, Mess. Granet,” Dupaty, and Paulin

1 Author of the learned works entitled “ Voyage dans la Troade,” 3 vols. in 8vo. with an atlas, and “ Voyage de la Propontide, et du Pont Euxine," 2 vols. in 8vo. with maps. It is to this celebrated traveller that the world is indebted for settling, in a clear and unequivocal manner, the long controversy about the position of Troy and its memorable plain. The author of the present Tour visited the Troade with the Iliad of Homer, and the Travels of Lechevalier as his only guides, and he can, with other travellers who have been upon the spot, bear testimony to the scrupulous accuracy of the work; and it is certain, that those who have since written upon the same subject, have either copied the ideas of Lechevalier, or, if they have differed from him, they have committed errors, or fabricated systems which cannot be upheld. It is to the friendly exertions of the discoverer of Troy, and to Count Annoni of Milan, that the Author is indebted for the permission which was granted him to travel in Greece upon his parole.

? A celebrated French paivter residing at Rome. * A French sculptor of great talent.

du Quelar, and to Mr. William Hamilton, one of His Majesty's Under-secretaries of State. During the Author's residence at Paris, he was also much indebted to Messrs. Louis Petit Radel, Barbie du Bocage, Langles, and Gail, for the liberal and friendly manner in which they aided his researches, by the communication of books and manuscripts. And during the long interval, in which he was one of the victims to the violence of the late French government, the Author embraces with satisfaction, the opportunity which is now afforded him, of expressing the grateful sense, which he will ever entertain, of the generous treatment which he experienced from Mons. de Tournon and Mons. Norvins de Monbreton, who, from the situations which they held at Rome, might greatly have aggravated the inconvenient and distressing circumstances of his captivity ; particularly at such a place as Rome, where courteous hospi. tality and disinterested kindness to strangers, are so little practised.

1 An historical painter of great merit.

CLASSICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL

TOUR THROUGH GREECE.

CHAPTER I.

Preparations for our voyage to Greece. Departure from Venice-driven back by unfavourable winds.

Second departure. View of the Istrian coast, Pola, Fiume, islands of Cherso, Veglia, Arbo, Ossero, Unia, the Canigule. Number and state of the Dalmatian islands, Salve, Premuda, Morlachian mountains, islands of St. Pietro, Ista, Grebani, Pago, Pontedura, Melada, Tre Sorelle, Isola Grossa, Scorda, Veglia, Pasmani. Town of Zara, islands Morter, Coronata, Zuri, Rachen, Solta, Trau, Bua, Bratsa, Nirenta, Lissa, Melisello, Sant' Andrea. Lessina—description of the town and island. Festival of St. Prospero. Islands Torcola, Curzola, peninsula of Sabioncello, and promontory of Lavischchi ; island of Meleda, Ragusa ; islands Mezzo, Sant Andrea, Bocca di Cattaro, Queen Teuta. Town of Cattaro, Monte Negro, and its inhabitants. Towns of Croja, Durazzo, Polina, Acroceraunian mountains; ignited hydrogen; the Linguetta. Town of Valona; other cities on the coast. Arrival at Corfu; revolution and murder of some Greeks and Turks ; visit to the Capigi Baschy, to the Seraskier, and to the President of the Republic.

INSTEAD of commencing my Tour with an account of my departure from England, or of my journey to the gulph of Venice, by a route which has been repeatedly described, I shall simply state that I arrived at Trieste in the month of April, in the year 1801. My intention was to visit Greece, to explore its antiquities, to compare its past with its present state, and to leave nothing unnoticed, which, to the classical reader, can be an object of interest, or a source of delight. No country in Europe abounds with so many

VOL. I.

spots, which teem with the most captivating associations. A deep interest seems, as it were, to breathe from the very ground, and there is hardly a locality which is not consecrated by some attractive circumstance; or which some trait of heroism, of greatness, and of genius, has not signalized and adorned.

In the prosecution of this journey I had the good fortune to be accompanied by two English gentlemen, Mr. now Sir William, Gell, and Mr. Atkins. During our voyage from Trieste to Venice, where we intended to embark for the Grecian islands, we formed an acquaintance with a young Greek, named Georgio Gavra, of the island of Santirene, who was a passenger in our boat. We continued our acquaintance with him at Venice; and, finding him clever and enterprising, and, to all appearance, a man of honour, and on the point of returning to his native island, we proposed to him to prolong his journey, to accompany us through Greece, to undertake the management of our expenses, and to act as our interpreter.

Every thing being arranged to our mutual satisfaction, we provided ourselves each with a small bed, some trinkets, to serve as presents in Turkey, and a fortnight's provisions for our voyage to Corfu ; which we expected to perform in ten days, although, on account of calms and contrary winds, it took us near a month. The distance is only five hundred geographical miles.. :

On Wednesday, the 29th of April, 1801, we set sail in a merchant ship, trading from Venice to the Ionian islands; our captain, Giovanni Marassi, from the Bocca di Cattăro, in Dalmatia, was a catholic, and his vessel named Lo Spirito Santo, e la Nativita della Madonna. We had thirteen Dalmatian sailors, dressed in short jackets, large breeches, and small red caps. They understood Italian, but spoke Illyrian among themselves. We occupied the cabin, but in stormy weather we often experienced the intrusion of the captain and a few of the privileged sailors, who were solicitous" to offer up their devotions before the picture of the Virgin, in front of which a lamp was suspended, that was kept constantly burning. After a few hours’ sail, the wind becoming contrary, we put back

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